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Full text of "History for ready reference [microform] : from the best historians, biographers, and specialists : their own words in a complete system of history for all uses, extending to all countries and subjects, and representing for both readers and students the better and newer literature of history in the English language"

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ComuoHT. }^Kt. 
h\ .t S I.ARNEO. 

CoPYiiiairr. VM>\, 
fiV J. N. MKN£0, 

The Rivrr»i.U Prtaa, Cambri>lgf. Mass., V. S. A, 
Printed by H. O. Hoimhtoii Jt Company. 


"TpOH th»! pit- sent enlarged edition of thJN work the original five vol- 
-*- iimeH, publinhed in WM-r>, have undergone a thorough revision. 
S)nie Mubjects not treated iK-foie have been introduced, an«! the treat- 
ment of 8ome othern has In-en anipiiK-d; while matter which appeared 
aH a Supplement in the earlier editionw in now given its alphabetical 
and chronological place in the main Ixjdy of the work. The records 
and narratives in those volumes end at the time of their first publica- 
tion — 181>i-'i. In the new volmne m.w added they are cairied on through 
the six eventful years which have since gone by, and close soon after the 
closing of the century. So far as practicable, the material used in this 
later volume is drawn from oflicial sources, — from statements of fact 
that are made with official responsibility, in despatches, reports, diplo- 
matic correspondence, and other state papers, published with govern- 
mental sanction. Imporiant docunu-nts connected with the greater 
events of the time, such as treaties, international agreements, new con- 
stitutions of govermnent, and other legislative acts, are given generally 
in full, from officially printed texts. The aim, in fact, has been to pre- 
pare for students and inquirers a cocpilation of recent histoi-y as nearly 
authentic in its sources as can be gathered thus immediately after the 
events, and to organize it for "ready reierence" in the form that has 
had approval in the older work. 



pkeface to the original edition. 


^T^IIIS work ha« two aims : to ivpreiwnt and exhibit th« better Literatare 
of History in tli« Knglin; language, and to give it an organiZH<l body 
- a systein — adapt*^ to the greatent ronvenienou in tiny usk*. whether for 
reference, or for reading, for teacher, student, or cunikiI inquirer. 

Tile entire contentn of the worlc, with slight exceptions readily distin- 
guished, have l)een carefully culled from some thousands of Iwoks,-— embrac- 
ing the whole range (in the English language) of standard historical writing, 
both general and si>ecial : the biography, the institutional and constitutional 
studies, the social investigations, the archeological researches, the ecclesi- 
astical and religious discussions, and all other important tributaries to the 
great and swelling main stream of historical knowledge. It has be<-n 
culled as one might pick choicn fruits, careful t<i choose tiie perfect and the 
rifie, where such are found, and careful to keep their flavor unimpaired. 
The flavor of the Literature of History, in its l)eMt example.^, and the ripe 
qualitj of its latest and l>est thought, are faithfully preserved in what aims 
to be the garner of u fair selection from its fruit.i. 

History as written by those, on one hand, who have depicted its scenes 
most vividly, ond by those, on the other hand, who have searched its facts, 
weighed its evidences, and pondernd its meanings most critically and deeply, 
is given in their own words. If cHimmoner narratives are sometimes quoted, 
their use enters but slightly into tlie construction of the work. The whole 
matter is presented under an arrangement which imparts to its 
topics, wh 'le showing them in their sequence and in all their large relation.s, 
both national and international. 

For every subject, a history more complete, I think, in the i)road meaning 
of "History," is supplied by this motle than could po.s.sibly be i)roduced 
on the plan of dry synopsis which is common to encyclopedic works. It 
holds the charm and interest of many styles of excellence in writing, and it 
is read in a clear light whicli shines directly from the pens that have made 
History luminous by their interpretations. 

Behind tlie Literature of History, which can be railed so in the finer 
sense, lies a great body of the Do'^uments of History, which are unattractive 
to the casual reader, but which even he must sometimes have an urgent wish 
to consult. Full and carefully chosen texts of a large number of the mest 
famous and important of such documents — charters, edicts, proclamations, 
petitions, covenants, legislative acts and ordinances, and the constitutions of 

many countries — have been accordingly introduced and are easily to be 

The arrangement of matter in the work is primarily alphabetical, and 
secondarily chronological. The whole is thoroughly indexed, and the index 
is incorporated with the body of the text, in the same alphabetical and 
chronological oi'der. 

Events which touch several countries or places are treated fully but once, 
in the connection which shows their antecedents and consequences best, and 
the reader is guided to that ampler d'scussiou by references from each cap- 
tion iiniler which it may be sought. Economies of this diaracter bring into 
the compass of tivt! volumes a body of History that would need twice the 
number, at least, for equal fulness on the monograpliic plan of encyclopedic 

Of my own, the only original writing introduced is in a general sketch of 
thf history of Europe, and in what I have called tin- '^Logical Outlines'' of a 
number of national histories, whicli are printed in colors to distinguish the 
inlluences tiiat have been dominant i . them. But the extensive borrowing 
which tlie work represents has not been done iu an unlicensed way. I have 
felt warranted, by common custom, in using moderate extracts without per- 
mit. But for evf-rytliing beyond these, in my selections from books now 
in i)rint and on sale, whether under copyright or deprived of copyright, I 
have s, jgiit the consent of those, authors or publishers, or both, to whom 
the riglu of con.sent or denial appears to belong. In nearly all cases I 
have received the most generous and friendly responses to my request, and 
count among my valued possessions the great volume of kindly letters of 
l)ermission which have come to me from authors and publishers in Great 
Britain and America. A more specific acknowledgment of these favors will 
be appended to this preface. 

Th.; authors of books have other rights beyond their rights of property, 
to wiiich respect has been paid. No liberties have been taken with the text 
of tlieir writings, except to abridge by omissions, which are indicated by 
the customary signs. Occasional interpolations are marked by ench)sure 
in brackets. Al)ridgment by paraphrasing has only been resorted to when 
unavoidable, and is shown by the interrui)tion of quotation marks. In the 
matter of different spellings, it has been more difficult to preserve for each 
writer liis own. As a rule this is done, in names, and in the divergences 
betwHHU Etiglish and American orthography ; but, since mucli of the matter 
(juoted has been taken from American editions of English books, and sinee 
both copyists and printers have worked under the habit of American spell- 
ings, the rule may not have governed with strict consistency throughout. 

J N L 

TuE BiFFALO Library, 

n-ffah. y y. 


-L pul)lisher8, by wliosc p,Tmi,,s,m, I hiiv,. us^.l mu,h of the inaltiT ,,„ol,.,l i„ this work 

it DOW proper to niak.. th,. ;ickn.,wU.,li;„„.nt more .spi-cilic bv nariiin 

houses to who.,. I am in .kbt for s,,,!, kin.l pcrn.ission.s Th"..v an' as follows 

I thiuk 
those persons aud publishing 


Kn-lyn Alpluitt, M. 

I'ciffln: lloii. Tli..iii:is M.aioli-y; I'n.l. Ili'Njv f..|i|i^e. 
Mrs. CDxaiir-Tliref l)fi'a<les of Fecli-nil l.fL'i.slati..ii," 
lit. l!fv. Miiridvll (■riMBhtoii, Iilsho|> ..f ivtcrl«.rciiii;li- 
IIiihiTt K. lxiuxl:is; .t. A. J)".vli-, M. A.; Mr. S:iiini<-I 
Cllarh'S (;iiva'llliill> ; Mr. lliarl.s lli-iuy i:.l.-n; .Mr. Ili 

«„ ,.:„, . ,. '^- = ,'■•'■»"''"' ' !'■""" Kendall A.lams; Prof. Ilerhert H. A.lains; i-rot .I„s,.i,li II aIN-,i- 

Sir Wilhaa, Anson, Hart.; Kev. ll,.„ry M. l::m,\ ; Mr. IIuLert Il»«e li.o,.r..,l ; ll„„ > ,, w li.- ,ro, s,r \V ' 

er Hesant ; 'rot. AILert S. Hnll,., . .,„„„ ,;. „„„r ,, K. .S. .,, , Ileary l,rell,-v M. . : K v l/h ,' ' Kr ..'k I r!ui ' 

.l).;laMeU;.l.ri„I..„.M.I).. I'r".., Il.o.d lirnwne ■ I-rof. (ieorp. i^rv.v; 1 , II h . " ;^^ 
I'ruf..!. 1,. l,„ry; Mr. l.un,„ ..rr, ...„. Henry H. .arrn.Kton; Mr. .l,„n, 1, .h.n^.lh,. "r.Mri'. .-U^ o.rU;,; 

Key. Sir (ieorce \V. r„x, n^rt. : lien. .la i>nls,in lt>\; 

l>y llle lale Hen. Sanin.'l s. Co.x,; i'rel. Theiiias K Cranej 
Hen. .1. I.. .M. <-iirr> i Hen. (;e,,r:-e Ti.kner CurlH; I'ref. 
A.larns Drake; Mr .Meiinlstniirt K. Cranl-Hutl ; Hen. Sir 
, ,, ., - 'a.^' 'fatherland; llrr)n Leslie IlliotI I'li I) Mr 

l.eyalllarr;ij;i.t; ■riieVei..l-re,lerieWill,.unK;.rrar,Ar,hde;eenelWr ■ ■ I h. 1). , .Mr. 

.lehii Flske; .Mr. Wni. K. Fester; Willi;iiu Wiirde Fewler. M ( 

thenyFreu.le; Mr .lames. ;.,ir r ; Arthar .Jilnian. M. A. ; .Mr. P;.rk,. (e„hvin ; Mrs. .M. K. .ierd ler the- H,s- 

ery of tlie.;„„|,,,m.nsel the Arniyef Va. nn.ler Cen 1' ." I,y the late «„•!,. <;eerKe H .e.rden,. 

llarniKle.idd: Mr. fly.sses S. (;r;int. .Ir. (ler the - IVrsenal Memoirs " .,f the 

(ireen her „«n wriliriKS and h,r th.ise „f the hite .lehii Iti,'h;ird (ireenl: William .iresHell, M. li. ; MaJ. 

;iten; (el Them;is Went- 
l.lte .Mr. (e 

estminsler. I'ref. (ieer^e I'ark Flshe. , 
I'ref. K.lvviird A. Freeijiaii; I'jul. .laiiie 


V. Saliine 
ite (e-n. (;r,iiil); .Mrs. .lehn Ili.hanl 
, , .lehn Kieh;ir<l (;reeiti; Willliim i;n> 

Arllnir (Jrillllhs ; Frederle Hairisen, M. .\. ; I'r.if. Alhert llishnell ll.irt ; Mr. Willi.ini He itei, 
werth Ilirehisen; I'ref. R .Vllin^dale: Miss M;irKaivt I.. H.H.|.er (for the «ritinBser th.' ' ' 

I!ev. liohert F. Herteii ; I'ref. .I;imes K. ilesnier. , , 

Hniiler; I'ref. Kdmnnd .himes . Mr. liossiter .lehn 

Kiti-hhi, Ileal! et Winehe^ter, (el. Tlies. \V. Knex; Mr. 

1. 1.. I).. I). C. I..; Mrs. .Mar;;;lll't Levi Iter tl Hist. 

iharltea T. Lewis. Ih 

Hen. l:d«;ird .M. riHi>eii ; 
I'seii; Sir Ch-nienls I!. M;irkham, 
I'ref. .l,.|ni Henry .Middlei,,,,: Mr. 

--orj-'e Heeper); 

Henry M. llezier; Ihv. \Vllli;on Hunt; sir \\j||i;im 

Mr. .lehn Fester Kirk; Tlie \ery li.v. lieerte William 

.1. S, I.;indoii; Hen. Flnily Lawless; Willium E. H. I.eeky, 

,. , O'ef llrilishCeniiiier.e.-l.y the kite Dr. I., e I.evii I'ref' 

, , ,.,,.., . , ;'■'''' '''''■ "'''"■>■ '■'■'"■-'■ l-i'l'lell. Dean of Christ chnreh. Oxford; II .11. Ilenrv lal.ot 

;;: hti V ; Tr^ "; 'm "i^- ^ •'; '-"""■ ^ ""■ "^"^ "■ ■•""« "-^ ""■ ■■ ■■'"■ ■" '■' '■^" ""'- ^- ^-- ' ^ 

M. A.;.harlesl', Lneas, H.A.;,lustinM,(a,.h>,M. I'.; I'r,.f. , lia,.), .MeMaster- ^'."'■"" L.m,, 

I'r.a. .lehn 1'. Mah;ilJy; (apt. Alfred T. Maliaa, F. S. N.; („k (es.r^'e H Mall 

F.It.S.i I'ref. Davi.l M;,ss..n; The V.'iy l:.-v. cliarl.-s Merivale. I>e;ui el Fly 

J (i.C.tten Miiehln ; Willi;,,,, li. M..r,ill, M. A. ; ht. Hon. .lehn M..rle>-. M. I'. I Mr. .lohn T. Merse. ,Ir. ; Sir Willi ,u. 

Mulr Mr. Ilalel. Munleek; Key. Artliur Hevv:.i,l Nell; Miss K;,te Ner.Mte; C. W. C. (.in.„„ M. A.; M . 

( . I'alfrey (for •History ef New FnKlaiel,- l.y the late .lelni (lerhain I';,Ifrey.; Franels I';,rk,n;,„ II D 

K,hv;,rd .Limes l';iyne. M. A.; charl.s H.nry I'.;irs„ii. .M. A.. Mr. .lames Hre.k I'erkins Mr 

ifer the " History ef renness,-,.," l.y n,,. late .Linies I'lielan . C.l (,< 
Mr. Stanley Lane.I'.iele; Wilh;iin F. I'..el,-. LI.. Ii. . .\Lij .lehn w 

l!i.ll.;,tll; Hen. Kills H. UeI.erts; II,.n. 1 e Ileesevelt. .Mr. .lehn Codin;!!, I; s. .1 H l:..,e M \ ■ I'ref 

. usiah Hey.-e; Ii,.v. I'liIMp s.h;,tf. .Limes„nl..r. l.L. D. . Hen. Carl S.liniv; Mr. LI.en i.v 

.1. H. lieeley; I'reL Natliaiiiol Sonili);;iIe slulei . Mr. K.lward Morse shepar.l; Cel. M. V. slu'rhlali .f,.r the •• I', 
solial M.'inens" of the late (ien. slierhlaie . Mr. I' T. Sherman - l..r the - Memo 
Samuel smil.'s, i.i,. D. ; Pn.f. (i.ddwin siiiah: I'n.f, .lames i!ii,<ell • 
M. A.; I'n.L II. .Mer-e Stephens; .Mr, Siiii.m Sterne; ch:ol..s .1. still 

Stlllil.s. Ilish.ip ef (Ixler.l; I'roL William Crahain Sin r; I'ref. 

Thayer; I'ref. lieliert H. Tliurstoii; .Mr. Telema.lms r. Tiiiiav,.nis 

and; Mr. liayar.l Tii,.keriiian; Samuel Fpes Tmnei. I'h. lO I'ref. Herbert Tnllle; I'ref. .Vrminins \ Uml.ery 

(ien. Fram-ls A, Walk.'i ; sir D Maeken/i.. Wallai'e; S| r Walpi.te. l.L. 11 Uex^ 

.1.. I).. Mr. .1, Tall...\« Wheeler; Mr. Arthin Siha Whit,., sir M. r M..nie,-W.ili; 

Itev. Frederiek l". Woodhoiisc ; John Veats, l.L. 1). ; .Mis., charlotte .M. Velice. 
hmdnn: Mi's-rs. W. H. Allen iH- Co.; A-ler.V C. ; 
A ,VC. Hl;,ek; Ca»»ell .V Co.; ( hapmali A II. ill: 
Fi.nan A Co. ; W. Heinemaiin: H..dil. r A son 

.eiiri;e F. rend: lte|;ina 
e»ell; Mr. .h.lin W. I'rol.j 

.Mal.\ >:. I'lielan 
.1 L. I'e.ile. I'h. D.; 
1. I'n.f. .lehn, lark 

ett; Sir 


Mr. Henri Viin Lain, 
aiider Stewart W.dil.. 
Justin Winsiir. LL. Ii. 

the late (o'n. Sheriii;,le; 
Mr. K.lHar.l Sl;iii«; Leslie Stephen. 
'■, LL. I). ; Sir .lehn . lit. Itev. William 
Frank William Taii^sit.; Mr, William 
, Henry Ii, Traill, I), c. 1... Ceii, I;, de Tiohri- 


.l..|,n c. 

.M:e'„dlh,n >V Co.; .Methnen A Co.; .)..|n. Mnrr 
I'hilipA .<..n; Thi- l!.li);i..,i» Tr;,r> nty ; It.inll.slKe « 
I'remetien i.f Chrl-ti:i,i Kn..»I|.||-e; r:.U:,,.| »t:inle,il; 
Sh;,„ Se„n.-„*,-iiein A ('.... Thi- Timi's; r. I 
Williams & NorKJtte 

Xrw y.rk: .Ves-r-. I>. Applet..,, A- C„. ; Arm»tr..„L' A Co. 
C..; [H-rl.\ A Miller; lliek A FiIZ;:|.,;,lil ; De.ld. M.-:iil A- ( 
.MaeCen,,; (;. I'. I'„t„;t,n', 
L. Wl■ll^ll•r x c.. 

(;e..r,;.. 11,11 A; lli.luir.l r.,-,iil..» a <,.m 
ch.itteA Win.lii-; Tli,,s. Ih. L:, 1!,,,. ,v, ,,,. il,,i|,.v 
iii;ht..n;;;ni.i„«. Ijris'n A C...: S:i,ii|.s..n |.,,w 
Niniin.,; KeK;,n l':iiil. T,,,,i,,h 
lis; Seili-y A (.... smith. LIdir A « 
v.-iis A ll.i.M,.,. II, I, n .^O'v,.,,, A- 
Inr I iiwin; Ward. I.... k. ll..w.U„ A 

llnk.'i>A s..n«; 

A c., , linllilh, 

.M;irsten A Ce, ; 

rnil.mrs ('..,; (ieert-e 

... ii'ty ler the 

Kllii.t s,,,k; 

Fre.lertek W:iril,' a ("..,; 

; .\ii,«e„ II. F, Ilalnh.lphA C. 

A, S, llaniesA C.i, ; Tin- ( 
.. ; llar|i.T A lin.tli 
; 1>. ,L.S;,dlerA< .. 

ninry C. : T. V ( rii«-,.l| a 
-«: H.nry H..II A c... ; T..«„„,„a 
Churl,-- s,ril.,ier-s S..„«; clnirles 

Edinburgh : Mrmni VillUun Blackwood A Sotu: W .ft R Cbambcra; D*Tid Douglu: Thomu Nebon A Sou; W. 
P Nlmmo; Hay & Mitchell; The Sef>tti»h Kefonustinn Society. 

PhiUulelpMa : Meaara. L. 11. Kvf!t8& Co.; J. B. LIppincott Company; Oldach &1.0.: Porter A Coates. 

Bmton : Meaara. Entfa X. Laurlat ; Houghton. Mifflin & Co : Little. Brown & Co. ; D. Lotbrop Company ; Robeiu 

PuNin : Mesara. James IMilTy & Co ; Ilodtres, Fif?Kia & Co. ; J. J. Lalor. 

C/iir.11/0 .■ Measrs. I'ullak'han A Co ; .\. ('. 5lc.'ClurK « Co. 

Cincinnati : M.'sars. U.iUTt Clarke .^ Co.: Jonea Brotliera PiiblmhinK Co. 

Hartford, Conn : MTOsrs c I Tt dixf * Co ; S. 8. Scranton & Co. 

Aih<iny : Messrs. .loel MuriwU's Sons. 

Cnnfcri'/;;e. Ei\g-: The I'liiversily IVeaa 

.Y.innrA. <'iinn.: The Henry Hill PuhliahinK Co. 

iixford : The ClnreiKlnii I'ress. 

Vrnvidriirr. K I : .Mes.srs,I .V.^U. .\ Held 

A li-t of lidciks i|ii.ilcil from will lie ^'ivcii in ilic liiial volume. 

I mil LTciitly indi'bli'il to the reiiiarkulile kindiiesa of » iiunilMT of eminent liistoriciil scliolars, 
wild have (riticiilly e.Mimincd tlie [iroof sliccts of importiint arliiles uiiil improved lliem by thi'ir 
9ii;.M;esiicin.s. My ilelit to Miss Elleu M. C'liHndler, for lussistame given me in m.iny ways, is 
more tlian I can <!i.scril«\ 

In my imblisliiuj; :irnin^'enicnls I have been most fi'rtiiuate, and I owe llie good fortune very 
lar;;i'ly lo a iminber of friends, amouj; wliom it is just that I should name Mr. Henry A. liichmnnd, 
Mr (ieor<,'e K. Malllii'Ws, and Mr. .loliu (i. Milburn. Tliere is no feature of tiiese arrangenieDts so 
Siili.sfai'lory to me as tliat wliieh places the pub!ic;iti(m of my book in the hnnds of the Company of 
whieli Mr. C'liarlcs A Nichols, of Springlield. Massachusetts, is the head. 

I iliink myself fortunale. too, in the association of my work with that of Mr. Alan C. Reilcy, 
from whose ori;;iual studies and drawin.^s the greater part of the historical maps in these volumes 
have been produced. 

J. X. Larnbd. 


Ethnographic map of Mfxiem Europe Precfding the title page. 

Map of Americaa Discovery and Settlement, To follow page . '53 

Plan of Athens, and Harbors of Athens, On puffv I'li 

Plan of Athenian house, On |)aj;i' 169 

Pour development maps of Austria To follow page 203 

Ethnographic map of Austria-Hungary On page i04 

Four development maps of Asiii Minor and tlic Balkan Peninsula To follow page U'J 

Map of the Balkan and Danubian States, showing changes during the present 

century On page 251 

Map of Burgundy under Charles the Bold To follow page ;{42 

Development map showing the diffusion of Christianity To follow page 44U 


Athenian and Greek history To follow page 151 

Austrian history To follow page 20.'> 


A. C. Ante Christum; used snmrtiiiKs 
Instead of tin' more faiiiiliur iiWinviaticin, li. ('. 
— Hcforo C'lirist. 

A. D. Anno Domini ; Tlie Yiar of Our Lord. 
Bee EiiA, C'liitisTiAN. 

A. E. I. O. U. — "The famous device of An-- 
tria, A. K. I. O. I'., was lirst used l)v Frcdc ric 
III. [144l)-110;i], wlio adopted it on'his plali-, 
IxHiks, and liiiildlnj.'s. Tliese iiiilials staiiil fur 
'Atislriae Kst Impcrnre Orlii Inivcrso'; or, in 
(Jeniiaii, 'Alles Krdnidi ist OsKrrcich rnlir- 
thau': abiild u-siiinplion for a man who was n"t 
safcinaninih of Ills diiininlniis." — II. llallani, 
The Mi'ltlle Alien, r. 2, p. 811, f,Hit-ni>U. 

A. H. Anno Hejirx. See Em, SIaiiomk- 

A. M. "Anno Mundi ;" tlie Year of the 
\Vorld, or the year from tlie be^'iiuiini; of the 
world, according; to tlie fnrinerly nceenteil cliri)- 
uological reelioniuj of Arclibishop I'slier and 

A. U. C, OR U. C. "Ab urbe condita," 
from the fiivindins cif theeityj or "Anno iirl>is 
Condit;e," the year from the fouiidinj,' of the 
city; tlie Year of iiciine. Sei'KoMK:I5. T. T'l^t. 

AACHEN. See Aix-i.A(iiAri.i.i i;. 

AARAU, Peace of (17121. SeeSwnzKiti.Asn: 
A. O. ICriS-lTSU. 

AB.£, Oracle of. See Ohaci.ks of the 


ABBAS I. (called I'he Great), Shah of Per- 
sia; A. D. l.-.8Mfi27. .. .Abbas 11., A. I). 
1041-1006. . . .Abbas HI., A. 1). 1T;K-I7:iii. 

ABBASSIDES, The rise, decline and fall of 
the. See Mahometan ('oN(jn;-iT, lii. : A. I). 
71f>-750; 70;i; and 81.5-94.-,; aIsoIiAoi>vi>: A. It. 

ABBEY.— ABBOT.— ABBESS. S, ,. ^Ion- 


ABD-EL-KADER, The War of the 
French in Algiers with. Sec Hahbart States: 
A. D. 1h:!0-184«. 

ABDICATIONS. Alexander, Prince of 
Bulgaria. See nn.OAiUA; A. I). 1WT8-18S6. 

Amadeo of Spain. See Si-ain: A. I). 

18«6-187:l Charles IV. and Ferdinand VII. 

of Spain. Se(; Spain: A. I). 1S()7-1h(is 

Charles V. Empftror. See (ii iimany: .\. I). 

irMi-l.Wl, and Nethkri.ands: A. 1). 15.m 

Charles X. King of France. See Fhami:: 

A. D. 181.->-18;!i) Charles Albert, King of 

Sardinia. See Italy: A. D. 1848-181!) 

Christina, Regent of !:: pain. SeeSi-AiN: .V. D. 
18:«-1846 Christina, Queen of Sweden. 


1014-ll!!»7 Diocletian, Emperor. SeelioMi.; 

A. 0. 284-305 Ferdinand, Emperor of Aus- 
tria. See Aisthia: A. D. 1848-lMlt 

Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland. Sie 
Netiikiilam>- : A. I). 1800-1810... Louis 

Philippe. See Fuanc e: A 1) IMU-I^js 

Milan, King of Servia. See Skuvia : A 1>. 
18N2-1S8(1 ...Napoleon I. See FinM e: 
A 1). 1814 (.MAmTi-Ai'KiL) aud 1815 ^,I^;^■K- 





AfofiT) Pedro I., Emperor of Bruil, 

and King of Portugal. See I'outuoai. : 
A. 1) IS'M IM-^ll, and : A. P. 1N25-180.'). 

Ptolemy I. of Egypt. See .Ma(Eih)nia, 

vVe : U. C. 2!i:-2sO Victor Emmanuel 

See Itai.v: A. D. 1N2II-1821 William 

King of Holland. Sec Nktiiehi.anus; A. 

ABDUL-AZIZ, Turkish Sultan, A. 

ABDUL-HAMID, Turkish Sultan, A 
IT7t-17S!) Abdul-Hamid II., ImtO-. 

ABDUL-MEDJID, Turkish Sultan, A 

ABELARD, PETER. See Edicatic.n, 

ABENCERRAGES.The. See Spain: A. D. 
12;18-127:i, and 1 170-Mlt2. 

ABENSBURG, Battle of. See Gehma.nt: 

A. I). 18lia(.lANIAUY-.llNE). 

AMERICA. See Canada (New Fkaxce): A. 
I). 17.-..8. 


Enoi.and: A. 1"). 18.-,l-l8rj2, and is,-,,:. 

ABIPONES, The. See Amehican AnoBioi- 
NES: Pami'.vs 'riJIIlES. 

France : A. D. 1,191-1593. 

ABNAKIS, The. See Ameiucan Aboriqi- 
NEs: Ai.ooNKiN Family. 

ABO, Treaty of (1743). Sec Russia: A. D. 

Rise of. See Slaveuv, Xeoho: A. I). 1828- 
1832; and 1840-1N47. 

can AllOUIOlNES. 

ABOUKIR, Naval Battle of (or Battle of 
the Nile). See Fhance: A. I). 1798 (.May — 

AtorsT) Land-battle of (1799). See 

Fhance: A. I). 17!t8-l7!»9 (At cist— Arof^T) 

ABRAHAM, The Plains of. That part of 
the hiijli plateau of Qiieliec on which the mim- 
orablo victorvof ■\Volfe was won, September 13, 
17,-,9. Tlie plain was so called "from Alirahani 
M.artin, a iiilot known as -Alaitre Abraham, who 
had owned n iiiccc of land here in the early tin. ; 
of the colony."— F., M.u<,;,f:ii aii'l 
U»'/.', r. 2, ji. 2S9._For an account of tlie battle 
wliK'h pave distinction to tlie Plains of Abraham 
see Canada (New France): A. 1). 17.-,9, (.Tine 



land, "the owners of abont one-half the land do 
not live on or lavir their estates, while theowners 
of about one fourth do not live in the conntf. 
. . . Absenteeism is an old evil, and in very 
early times received attention from the govem- 
nient. . . . Some of the disadvanta^'es to the 
community arising from the absence of the more 
we:dthy and intelligent classes are apparent to 
every Vr,le=s the landloni is utterly pov- 
erty-stricken or very unenterprising, 'there is 

ahmatkkism in Ireland 


a i:ri:il ihiil ninri' piinc "n ' wIhmi Im' is in the 
(oniilry. ... I am emu liicril mI'm iilrcism 
is :i LTiMl (li-H(|\aiitiij;i' 111 till' iiiiinirv iiiiil llir 
l""!'''' • ■ ll is tiMi iniirli 111 nllriliiiif 111 it all 
llii' ivils lliMt li.ivr liii II Ml (iuwn to its chiirKi'. 
Il i-. Ih.uiiir, Mil iiiipDrtaiit ciiiisiilcniliiiii timt 
llif iHiiiiji- riiianl it as ii L'rii'Viiiuf ; ami tliink 
till' Iwiniy liir or lliirly iiiilliDiis i.f ilollars [laiil 
iviiy Mar 111 llir-i' lanilliinls, nlinaii' rarely or 
iiiviT 111 Inlaiiil, isal;i\ irriivmis tn Iw Iniriir." 
— II li KiiiL', /■/,. Irish v-,,. /„,.,, ,,,,. .-1 11, 

.\Mii;ir\N .\ iiiiiiii.isi * Siiir,\N FwTi.T 
ABU-BEKR, Caliph, A l> i;;!,' ii:il 
ABU KLEA, Battle of (18851. SnEnvPT: 

All I'-'-i :><s.-, 

ABUL ABBAS, Caliph, A. I). T'lO-T'Vt. 

ila> si.f rMiiiii iiiiiis I » ho iiilriiilui'i'il (hrisiiaiiity 
iiilii .\li\ss''iia ill ihr 41I1 (inuiryl cvriy nrllin- 
ili'X I'riniali' of .Mussinia lias lu-in luiisecratril 
liy tlif Ci.ptir I'airi'anli of Ilii- iliiirili uf .Mix- 
anilriii. ami has tinrm' tlir tille nf .\liiiiia" — nr 
Aliiiiiu .^^aliii.a, ■ralliiri.f I'l aii' " — II. .M. 

Iln/ilT, //i llritish Krpiili/i,,,, !■' AhllMllill, 

r I 

HENGE.-CARNAC.-'Thi' iiiiMi.ri.iis 1 ir 
clr^ ill siMiie nr I.f i;irlli ill liiiiain ami liilaml. 
var\iii^' ill iliaim i 'nun :;ii nr ID tVit up In 
l.'-'lili. are m l.i- vir» iiiiplis slaliilini; in 

till- lluvist pns-ilil,. Vila, tnllii- Imrial plail s 

(if ilii- iliail. Till- iiinvi impn^ii.i: i:rniip i-f re- 
mains 1, 1 ihis kind in iliis ininiiiy [i;iii;lanilj i^ 
llial 111' .\Mliinv |.\lairv], n, ar l>e\izis, in 
■\Viltsliiie. rilin'i.l l.y sir .I.-Ini l.iililinik tn a 

late sla;;. in lile .Nenli'lliie nr In I lie lieninilill^' nf 
tile lilnii/. pi rin.l. It (nli>i«ls nl a lar.:e eilele 
111 nnwnikiil llj.liL'll' sinlles l.'Jili! ft el in (lianie- 

Il r. viur..iimli il liy a Ins-e, w liieli in liirn is alsn .1 li\ a rampart uf earlli. liisiile are tin- 
reiu.iinsnf mn enneenlric- tildes nf .slniie, ami 

I 'lie l«n I 111 ranees in the rampart proiiedi il 

Inn.: ni lines llankeil liy sinnes, one leadini; tn 
I'll 1 kiiainpinn. and llie'nilnr tn Wot Keniiett, 
uiiiie il tnrinerly ended in annllier dnelile eircle. 
Il'iu.iii them rises .sill, my Hill, the lariresi 
all ill, iai miiniid ill (ireat Hriiain. iin less than i:!ll 
I'll in lieiL'lit. This i;rniip nf remains was at 
line lime Meniid tn nmie. 'lint iiiifnruinalely fur 
n- |-.a\s sir .Inliii l.iililinekl till' pretty 'lillle 
Nill.i-e nf Avi l.nry [.Vlinry|. like -nmt' lieaiilifiil 
p.ira^iie. lias L'rnu n up at the expense and in the 

niid-I I.f lla ala ielil temple, and nut nf (i."ill frreat 

sinms, n..i tueiiiy are slill slamliiiL.'. In 

spile . if Ihis il is slill In l,e elassi d aillnllir lie 
lineal ruins in l^nrnpe. The tVmnlls telll|ilei.l 

Sl.iii. Ill iiL'e nn Salislmry Plain i.s |irnlialily nf a 
later dale than .Vvelniry. sinee iini niily ari'snnie 
(if the stniii s used in ilscniisirueiiiiii worked, hut 
the surrniindhi:.' haipi" s are iimre elahnrale than 

lllnse in Ihe In iirhhiiurhniid nf llie laller. Il (iill- 

si^ied nf a (irile lull feet ill diameter, of laifrc 
llpri;.'lll hlni ks nf s.irv'll slnlie. I',' feet 7 inches 
hiirh, hiariiiL' imiiosis dm i lailed inin (ae h oilier, 
so as In form a eoniiniinus arehilrave. N'inc 
feet wiihin ihis was a i irele of small fiireij:ii 
-IniKs . . . ami within Ihis live irreal trilillions 
nt sarsin sliini , fnrniiii;.' a linrseshi«'; then a 
hnrse shne (if f.irei ■lones, i'ii;lii feet liii,'li, and 
in tlieeentie a slai iiicareoiis s.indsliiiie cullcil 
'he allar-stiiiie. . .\t a disitauee nf 100 feet 

Ir.'iii till niiti r iihi .1 >inall lump, with a (iiicii 

oiit.siilc, fomii'd the mili r cirelc. 300 feet In 
(lianicler. w liii h nits a low liarrnw iiiiii inelnilcs 
iinollier. mill therefore is eviileiilly of later dale 
than siimenf ilie harmw s nf thedistriet. "— \V. II. 
I)a«kins, i:.,,!;/ in llriliiiii. fli. li)._"Sl(inc- 
li(nt;(' . . may, I think, lie rci^ardeilas a iniiiiii- 
meiit (if Ihe Ilrnnze .See, thdiiL'li apparently il 
was not all erected at one lime, the inner cirile of 
small, iinwroiiuhl, liliie sinnes licini; pnilialilv 
iilili r than Hie lesi ; as reirards .\liiiry. since the 
sloiies aie all ill their natural ( ondilinn, wliile 
Ihiisc nf SloiiiheiiL'e are riiiii;lilv hewn, il seems 
riasoiiahle tn cnncliide that .\l.'iiry is the (ilder 

nf the |»n, and 111 lnnj;s l illier In ifle elnse nf the 
.•slnlle A.i.'e, nr tn Hie cnllimeneemelll of that nf 
liriinze. Hnlli Ahiiry and SInnelieiii,'!. were, I 
lielieve. Used as leiiiples. .Many of the stiuie 
(ircles, howevi r. have lieen proved to lie Imrial 
places. In f.iii, a coinplele Imrial plaia' may 1h' 
(Icserilied as a (lolmi n, eovered liv a tnmiilns, 
and Mirrniindeil hj a sinne linlc. " often, Imw - 
ever, we have only the Ininiiliis, Minietiines only 
the iloliiien, and .sometiines ai;ain only the stone 
circle. The (ilehrateil ninnuincnl iif'Carnac. in 
lirill.iiiy, eniisisis of eleven rows of unhewn 
stoiie-, whiih dilTcr );rcatly liiitli in size uiid 
luiirhl, Ihe lar^'i'st lieiiif; •J'j'feel aliovc ■.-rnnnd. 
while siimi' arc iiuite small. It appiars Ihat the 
avcniKsori'jinally extended for several iiiiles. Imt 
at pres( III I hey arc very imperii el, the slmieshav- 
iiii; lieeii I Icari'd away in plans fur aurieiiltural 
improMincnts. At present, iherelnre. there arc 
several dilaehid portions, whii h. hnwever, have 
the .same L'eneral direction, and appear to have 
lieeii ei.niieciid l(i!;ctlicr. . . . .Most nf the i.'rcat 
liiniuli in liriltany pmliaMy lielon.,' to the Stone 
.\^'c. and I am therefore disposeil in rcirard Car- 
iiac as havini: lieeii erected (lurini: the same 
period."— Sir .1. I.uliliock, I'r(/iii.l.,n'r TimiK 
r/i. :,. 

ABYDOS.— .\ii ancient city mi the Asiatic 
side of the 11, llespoiit. nieiilimild ill the Iliad as 
one of Ihe lovvns that were in alliance wiili the 
Trojans. (Miiiinally Thraciaii. as i-, siipposeil, it 
liecame a colmiy 'of .Miletus, ami passed at 
ililfercnt times under Persian, .Vlhenian. I.ace- 
daiiKinian ami Maeeilmiian rule, lis sile was at 
the narrowest point of Ihe llellesponl — the scene 
if the aiK ieiil rmnanli" sinry nf lleni and 
l.eaniler — marly (ippnsile tn tli'e invvn of .Sestiis. 
Il was in the m iir iieiirhlinrhnnd nf .Miydos that 
Xerxes liiiilt his liriilu'e nf lioats; at' .\liyiliis, 
Ah ihiades anil the .Vlliciiians won an important 
vicinrv ovi r ihe Pelnponncsiaiis. See (Jkeicce: 
li. ('. Wl. and 111-4117. 

ABYDOS, Tablet of.— One of Ihe iiinst valii- 

ahle reinrds nf Kj;ypliall hislmy, fnllnd in the 

ruins nf ,\tiyiifis and iinw preserved i;i the 
Brilisli .Museum. It irivcs a list of kin-swhnm 
Itanisi s 11. SI leetcil from aninni; his aim slots in 
ji.iy lioniaj.'e In. The talilet was niui h niulilaleil 
when fniiml, hut annthiTcopv more pirfed has 
licen nniarlhcd hy >\. .Marieile, which supplies 
nearly all the names lackiiur on the lirsl.— R 
I.eniirnianl. Mkh'/kI nf Anrui,! Hint, cf th, EiiKt 
i: 1, U: :i. 

ABYSSINIA : Embraced in ancient Ethio- 
pia. Sec KtllKlI'lA. 

Fourth Century. — Conversion to Christi- 
anity.—" Whalever may have been the clleei 
produced in his native country liy th,' couver 
siiin (if Queen Candaee's treasurer, recorded in 
ilie Acts of the Apostles [ch. \ III.J, it would 


aippiiir to liavc Imn tninsitury ; and the Etlilo- (ir Ali.vssinian i Imrdi owi s its <iri(;in to an 
(•X|Mililirin niailc early in tlic fimrlli ci ntury by 
Minipiiis, It |i|]il(is.)[i|i(r cf T\ re, fur tlic "pur- 
piw iif M iinlili<' incpiiry. lln'lii-i vcyairc hcnio. 
wanN, hi' anil liis cunipunintis wiri' allackiil ut 
a plan' » liirr tliiy liail lamliil in M-ari li of 
HatiT. anil all wire niassai rid ixrept two 
Vnlli", .Kili^iiis anil Fninii r.lirs. ilic ri'Ialivis 
anil pupils I. f Meropius, Tlii>r were carriiil to 
llir kiii;:iif till' loiinlry, h li.i aclvanri d .Kili'siiw 
I" 111' lii-i riiplii arrr. ami Kruim-nlins to lie liis 
Nrri(ary ami Ina^iirir. On ilie iliatli of the 
kini'. «lio lift a lioy ai liis In jr. ilic iwd 
slranu'iTs. at tin- rnpii-Vt ,,f the ipieen 
ailiil as reiri iits of the uiilil the prime 
laine of aire. .Kilesins ihiii n Inrne.l to T\ re, 
where lie lieranie a prisl.ylir. I'riitiieiit'iiis] 
who. Willi the help of mm h ( hrislian trailers as 
»i-iieilthi' eoiMitry. hail alriailv introdiu eil the 
Christian ilnelrine anil worship into Alivssinia, 
ri|.airiil to .VIexanilria, relati'il his siorv t.'i 
Athanasins. anil . . . Athanasiiis "e,,,, 

seeraliil him to the liishoprieU of Axiiin lllii 
ea|.iial of the Ahyssinain kiii-ilonil. 'I'he eliiinli 
thus lonnili il continiies to this ihiv sulijeet to the 
see of Alexandria." — I. C. WolHTtson. llUt of th, 
C/in\l,:i,i 17,, ir,/,, I,/.. •>. eh. (i. 

6th to l6th Centuries.— Wars in Arabia — 
Struggle with the Mahometans. — Isolation 
from the Christian world.--' Tlie fate of the 
( hristian ehiireh anioii!; the Ilomeritis in Araliia 
Ki li\ ailnrdid an o|.poriuiiitv for the Alivssir,. 
Miis. iimler the rei-iis of the Kinpimrs .iiistin 
and Justinian, to show their zeal in hi half of the 
eause of the Christians. The jirinee of that 
Aialaan population, Dunaan, or Dsuiiovas. was 
a /lalous.idherent of .hnlaistii; and. under pre- 
text o|- .'ivenfrin;; the oppressions which his 
fellow hehevers were oMi-ed to suffer ill tile 
Koin.m empire, he eansi d the Christian nier- 
ihants who caine from that i|uarler ami visited 
Araliia for the purposes of tr.-nle, or passed 
through the eountry to Alivssinia. to he niur- 
deled. Eleshaan. the (hristian kin;,' of Ahvs 
sinia. made this a eause for deelarini; war on t'lie 
Arabian prince, lie eoMipierid Dsunovas de- 
prived him of the ,i;overnmi nt, and set up a 
Christian, liv the iiaiie of Ahraham, as kin- in 
us stead, lint at the death of the latter, which i 
haiipemd soon after, Dsunovas a-ain made him- 
self master of the Ihroiie; and il «. is a natural i 
e.Miseipienee of what he had sinIV,-,.,! n,,,, j,,. j 
now hieamea lierei r and more cnu I persecutor ' 
than he was before. , . . Ipon this, Khsbaau 
interfered once more, under the ni-uof the 
emperor .lustinian. who stiniulaled him to the 
underlakinir. He made .'i .second expe,liti..n 
til .\rabia Felix, and was auain vic'orlous 
Msiinovas Inst his life in the the Vhvs- 
smiaii prime put an end to the amient. 'in 
dependent empire of the llonurilcs. and esiah- 
lishiil a new ).'overmnent favourable to the 
• hrisiians,-— A. Neander. (1, i„ ml lli,t,.n/ ..f i!„ 
< I'li.^lulii l,'</i,/i,,„ „,i,l Chinrli. t,r.,i„rj„'ri,„/ 

'",'■ !~',''" ""' >'""■ ■''"-''■"* nearly as cm be 
i.iliulaled from the dales jjiven bv" the native 
"riteis. the I'ersians, whose power seems to 
have kept pace with the decline of the Uoniau 
1 'npire. .sent a great force against the Abvssin- 
tins, posses.seil themselves once more of Arabia, 
acijuired a naval superiority in the iridf ar.d 
secured the principal ports on either side of "it. 


It is uncertain how long ilusc conquerors re- 
tallied their uciiuisitlon ■ but. in all prolmbljilr 
their ascendanev gave way to the rising gr.'iit- 
Iiess of the Mahometan iiower; which soon 
afterwards overwhelmeil all the nations con- 
tiguous to Ar.ibia, spread to the remotest purt.s 
of the Kast, and even penetrated the ,\friian 
I esct.s from Kgypi to ilie ConL-o. .Meanwhile 
.\byssinia, though within two hundred miles of 
the walls of Mecca, remaineil iinc;.iiiiuereil and 
true to the Christian faith: iiresenting a mor- 
tifying and g.'dling objicl to the niore zealous 
follow ers of the I'ro|,het. On this aiiount 
iniplacabh' and inecss.'im warsrava^'ed her terri- 
tories. . , . .^he lost hercoinmerii', saw hi rconse- 
(pieiK'cannihilatiil.hcrcapital threatened and the 
richest of her provinces laid waste. . There 

IS reason to apprehend that she must shortly 
have sunk under the pressure of repeated iii- 
vasions, had not the I'ortugi.ese arrived |iii the 
Ililh centiiryj at a seasoiiab;e moment to aid 
her enileavours against the .Moslem chiefs."— .\I 
Uiissill, .\„/,/„ „„,/ .\l,i)H^i„i,i, rh. :j,_"\Vh'eii 
Nubia, whieh iiiti rvenes between Kgypt and 
Abyssinia, ceased to be a Christian ("oiinlry 
owing to the distrueiion of its church bv the 
.Mahometans, the Abyssinian church was cut olf 
Iroiii comnMinicaliiin wiih the rest of Cl,risten- 
doin. . They [the Abvssinians] rem.iin an 

almost imiipic spdinieii of a .semi barbarous 
t hristian people. Their w.irship is stran"elv 
mixe.l with Jewish ciisi,, II, s.'_|| F Tozer T/lr 
I Inn;}, au,Uh, l:,i>l,r„ l:,„,,ir, .,-1, . ,-,. 
, Fifteenth-Nineteenth Centuries,— European 
I Attempts at Intercourse.- Intrusion of the 
Gallas.— Intestine conflicts.—" About il,,. mid- 
dleot the ceiitur; , Abvssini.i came in con- 
tact with Westell, Kurope, An Abyssinian con- 
vent emlowed at IJoiiie. ,ind ii gates were 
sent from the Abyssinian convent at'Jerusalem 
to the i,,„,„ il of Florence. These adhered to 
the (ireek si liism. Hut fr,,,,, ||,„; ,j|,„. ,1,,. 
( liun huf It.aiie made an impress upon Klhiopi.i 
I'liniellenryof I'ortU!:al . . . ne.xtopencd 
up eommuniealion with Kurope. He hoped to 
oimi up a r.'Ute from the West to the Kast coast 
ol Alrie.'i [see rimriii.xi.: A. I). Ul.VH(i(l| 
by which the Fast Indies might be reached with- 
out touching .Mahometan territory. During his 
lib. ris to discover such a pa.s.sage to Indi.'i.''and 
to destroy the revenues derived by the .Moors 
Iroiii the spice trade, he sent an" ambassador 
tiamed Covillan to the Court of Shoa. Covillan 
was siillired to return bv Alexaml, r the 
then Negoos[or .\egiis. or Nagasli — the iii|,.,,t 
the Abyssinian .sovereigti|. He niarriid ni,bl\ 
and aeiiuirid rich pos.sessioiis intlie country, il.- 
kept upcorrespomleiicewiih l'ortui.'al. au'l'iirgeii 
I rmie Henry to diligently continue hiselbirtsto 
discover the Sonthirn pas.s;ige to the Fast In 
I r.tsitliel'ortugueseelTiited the circuit of Africa 
llie I nrks sh, Ttly aflirvvards extended their C'ln- 
ipiests towards India, will re thev were baulked by 
the I'ortug .'sc. but lliev established a post and a 
loll at Zeyla, on the African I'oast. From here 
they hampered and Ihreateind to desi-oy the 
trade of Abyssinia," and soon, in alliance with 
the -Mahometan tribes of the, invaded the 
country. '-They were ilelcateil by the Negoos 
I)aviil, and at the same time the Turkish town of 
Zeyla was stormed and burned by a Portuguese 
the! " < •,,!,. i,it^.,:,!,],. iiitiniacv of frii li.Hv'iela- 
tions was maintained for .soine time Iietwi-en the 


AU\>Sl.MA, 1B4+-Ib»«. 

Aliysxiiiiaiw aiHl llii' I'urtiiiriirMt'. wlm 

-Hti'd in 
III thv 

niiilillr i<f t\w mill ri lillin II liiiLTuliDii (if 

Oiillits raiiif frnin tlir Sniitliiiiiil ^wi |it ii)> In uiid 
over III! riiiitinix iif .\li.\Hsiiiiii. Mill i if liulitiT 
(iiiiipli'xiiin Hiiil f:iin r skin tliuii iiiiMt AfricaiM, 
tlirv wi-ri' Pii^jaii ill ri'tiL'ioii itiiil savii^i-s in i-iih- 
tiini-^ N'otwitlinlaniliii).' rrri|iii'nl ctTnrts In illn- 
IimIlt tliini. Ilicy liavr tiniily istalilislicil tliini- 
-rlvi s. A lari;!' r'll.iiiy liis plantiil il~ilf nil llio 
liank< of till' Ipprr Takka/ii'. Ilir .liilila ami llie 
l!i«liiln Siiiii' tlicir rslalilislinii'iit liirr tiny 
! r for llir lllo^t part riiilirai'ril till' rri'i'il of 
M ilioiiu'i Till- prov iiici' of Slioa is liiit an out- 
liir of t'lirisliaii Aliyssiiiia, Mparalril roinplclrly 
from ro ri lii-'ioiiisi ilisirirls hy iln'si- (iailit 
haiiils Aliout till- saint' linit' tlii' Turks tiH>k a 
lirni hull! of Massowali ami of tin- lowlanil by 
thi' roust, wliirli liml hitherto bein riilril by tlif 
Abyssinian llaliar Nnf^iiHh. Islainisni uiiil liratli- 
I'nism siirriMinili il Abyssinia, whcrt' tlir lamp of 
( hristianity faintly t^liinnii'nil amiilst ilark 
siHM-rntitiiiii in llii' iliip nnssis of niL'gi'd val 
li-yH. " III l.ViH a .Ii'siiit niissiiiii arriviil in the 
I'liiintry anil i-stublislicil its<-lf at Fri-niona. " Fur 
nearly a niitiiry Kriniima existiil, uiul its super- 
iors wire the tnisteil iiilvisors of the Ktliiiipian 
thriJiii'. . . . But the same fate whiili fell i:piin 
the companj- of Jesus in more civilizeii laiiiis, 
pursueil it in the wilils of Africa. The Jesuit 
missioimries wire univi rsiillv popular with the 
Negoos, but the pn-jiiilire of the people refused 
to reeo^iiiisc the hi'netits wliii Ii Iloweil from Fre- 
miiim." I'lrsieiition In fell the fathers, iiiiil two 
of them won the erown of martyrilom The 
N'l'L'oos. Fai-iliilas, "sent for a Copth- Abiina 
[i 11 li--.iastii-al primate] from Alexanilria. anil eon- 
eliiileil a triiuy with the Turkish governors of 
.>lassowali and Soiiakin lopn'vent the pas-sa^e of 
Kuropi ans into his iloininions. Some Capueliin 
preaeliers, who attempted to evade this treaty 
and enter Abyssinia, met with eriiel deatli.s. 
Faeiliilas tlius'coinpleteil the work of the Turks 
and the (iailas. and shut Aby.ssinia out from 
Kiiropean iiilliienie and eivili/.alion. . . . After 
the e.\]iiil'-ion of the .lesiiiis, Abys.sinia was lorn 
by internal feuds and coiislantly harassed by the 
eiicroai hiiK'nls of and wars with the Giillas. 
Anareliy and eonfiision ruled supreme. Towns 
and villairi'S were burnt down, and the inlialii- 
taiils soM into slavery. . . . Towarls the middle 
of tile l-^lh I'entiiry the Gallas appear to have 
iiK-nasid considinilily in power. In the intes- 
tine ipiarrels of Abyssinia tlair alliaiiei' was 
eoiirtrd !iy earli side, and in their eoiinlry polili- 
eal ri'Iiii:' -'-' obtained a seeiire asylum." Duriiii^ 
the early years of the pre-H'iit eeiitiiry, the eaiii- 
pai::ns in K^'vpt attraeied Kiurli^li aiteiition to 
the Hi'd Sea! "In l.-*ul l-ord Valentia, tlie 
Vieeroy of India, sent his Sieretary. Mr. Salt, 
into Aliys-ini.i. ' but Mr. Salt was unable to 
penetrate biyond TiLrri'. In islo he aiienipted 
a seeoiid nii^^ion and a;:ain faili d. Il was not 
until IsitM that Kimiish atiempis to open dipio- 
niatie and loiiinieri ial relalioiis with Abyssinia 
bei anie sueee.ssfiil. Mr. I'lowdeu was appointed 
eoii-ular ai;. HI, and iKiXolialid .i tnaly of euiii 
nii'i'i' wiili Kas .Vli. the niliiii; Calla chief." — 
II. .M. Il.i/.ier, T/i, liritish Hxifililimi t> Al/i/i'- 
nnia. Iiili,«l. 

A. D. i854-i889.'-Advent of King Theodore. 
— His English captives and the Expedition 
which released them, -"('onstii Plowden had 

iM'en n-sidiiiif six years at Ma.ssowah when h« 
heard that the I'rinee to whom he had iH-en ae 
eredited, lias Ali, had been deteated and de- 
throned bv an ailveiiliirer, whose niiiiie, a few 
years iH-fore, had been unknown uutshic till* 
hoiiiiilarles of his native provinee. This was 
l,ij Kilsa, better known by his adopted name of 
Theislore. Me was birii of an old family, In 
the mountainous region of Kwara, where the 
land Is'Kins to slope downwanls towards the 
Uliie Nile, and edui-ated in a c-onvent, where he 
U-arnedtoread. andaeiiuiredaeonslderable kniiwl- 
edce of the Seriptiires Kfisa's eoiivent life was 
suddenly put an end to, when one of those ma- 
ratiding Halla bands, whose ravages are the 
curse of Aby.ssinia, attacked and plundered the 
monastery. From that time he himself tisik to 
thelifeof afreebiKiter . . .\dvenlurers tlocked 
to his stanihird: his power continually increased; 
and in l^.'il he defeated Ihis Ali in a "pitched bat 
tie, and made himsi-lf master of central Abys 
siiiia. ' In \KiT> he overthrew the ruler of Tigre 
"lie now ri'solved to assume a title coninien 
siirate with the wide extent of his diinihdon. In 
the church of Den'zgye he had liimsi'lf crowiieil 
hy the Abiina as King of the Kings of Kthiuiila, 
taking the name of Theislore, becaiisi' an auclent 
tradition declared that a great monarch would 
some day arise in Abys.sinia." Mr. I'Inwden now 
visited the new monarch, was ini]iress<'d with 
admiration of his talents and cliarai ter, and l>e 
came his cuunst-Uor and friend, liut in IHHII the 
English consul h>st his life, while on a journey, 
and Thi'iKlore, embittered by sevenil mis- 
fortunes, Ix'gan to give rein to a savage temper. 
"The British Government, on hearing of the 
death of Plowden, imiiiediately replaced him at 
Jlassowah by the appointment of Captain Cam- 
eron." The new Consul was well received, and 
was entrusted by the Aby.ssinian King with a 
letter addressed to the (Juccn of England, solicit- 
ing her friendship. The letter, duly despati lied 
to its destination, was pigeon holed in the Foreign 
Ollk'i' at London, ami no reply to it wivs ever 
made. Insulted and enraged hy this treatment, 
and tiv other evidences of the iiidifTcrence of the 
Britisli Government to his overtures. King Theo- 
dore, in .laiiuary, istll, seized and iniprisoueil 
Consul Cameron with all his suite. .Vbout 
the same time he was still furlher olTcnd' 1 by 
certain passages in a book on .Vbyssinia had 
iKin iiulilislied by a missionary uaniid Stern. 
Sti-rti and a fellow missionarv, Uosentlial with 
the hitler's wife. Were lodged in prison, and sub- 
jected to tlo^'irin^r and torture. The lirst step 
taken by the British (iovernnieiit, when news of 
Consul Caniirons iinprisoiiniiiit reaehed Eng- 
land, was to .send out a ngiilar mission to .\bys 
sinia, lnariuL' a letter signed bv the (^111111. ile 
niaii' ling the release of the Captives. The iiii^?-ioii, 
hi aded by a >yriaii named Uass.iiii, maileiisway 
111 the King's presenie in January. IsiKi. Theo- 
dore seemed to be plai ateil by the Queen's epistle 
and promised freeiloni to hi- prisoners. But soon 
his inoiHly mind beciine till,-.! with suspicions as 
to the gt of |{;is.s;iiirs credentials from 
till t^lii I ii. and a.s to Ille desi^iisaliii intentions of 
all tile forelL-'iiers who were in his power. lie was 
liriiikiiig heavily at the time, and the result of 
liis "drunken cogitations wiis a (h'termination to 
i''lain the niissioii — at any rate until by their 
means he should have obtained asiipply of skilled 
ariisans and maehinery from England." Mr. 

aUVs^IMa, i>cj-ismi>. 


nnwvim iinil hln ciinipanlntm wiir :i(< cinlliiKly 

I'llt illlil Conflllrllll'llt, Ul l':l|>t.lill <':llllir.»l IimI 
l)c*-IL Illll tlll'V Wirr llllMWn) In sthil II IIK s 

^> ri'.'crtii Fjii;laiiil. making' llirir -iiii.iiiuii knnvMi, 
jin.l ciuivryim: tin- diiiiaiiil tif Kinj TlitiHlori' 
III It 11 man !«• srtil 111 liiiii "wlm 1,111 iiiakr r,iri- 
ii"iiii anil miiskrls " Tin- i|irn:iiii| wms aiiually 
ciiinplii'il with. Six Hkilli'il arti»an-i ami a civil 
cniriiuTr wiri' wiit can, i.i'.'rilirr wiili a i|iiaiilily 
(if inaihliiiry ami nihrr pn «i iiN. in ihr |hi|ii' lliat 

Ihi'V Himld liriKliri' till' lrlr:iM- ullllr Ullfiirlllll.lli' 

caplivi-^ at SliiL^lala. AIni">l a yrar was wa'.Iril 
In iliiM' fiililc pri<iiiiliiiL.'i, ini.l it was mii until 
Si pli'iiilMT. I"<ti;. that an ivpiiliiidii , i.ii-.i>iiiii; iif 
4, IKK) Hrili-li an.| x.lKKI nativi' Irii.'ps. innlir "ii'ii- 
iral Sir HnlnTl Napirr, was m iil fnnii Imlia In 
ttrinc lln' insciisjiii- harliariaii tn tcniis. It laiiitril 
ill Anncslcy Hay. anil, nviri •uniii:.' iiiiirniniis 
clillli iillics wllli "rcK,inl tn watT, siipplii s 
ami Iransportaliiin, was rraily, almiit lii.' niiililli' 
iif .lannarv, IISIW, ti) start iipuii its nianli In IIm- 
fiirlrrss (if .Maiidalii. where rin-'^ilnii s priv.iiiTs 
were (■(iiitliied. The (listance was PMI niilis. and 
several hiirh ranireft of inuuntains had In Ik- passnl 
til reach the interinr talileland. The invailiiiL' 
army met with no resistance iiiilil It reached the 
Vallev i>f the 111 shilii. when it was attaikid 
(April 111) nil the plain nf Amu'e "r ArnLri. Iiy 
till- whiile force which Tliioilurr was alile to 
iiiiister, niimlierliiK a few thousands, only, of 
piMirly armed men. The hattle was simply n 
ripiil slaiiirhliTini; of the liarharic asMiilaiiN, and 
vvlieii they lied, hvnini; Tini or ><iiililiad and l.."ioii 
Hounded on the ficM. ihe Aliy«~ini:iii Kiiii; hid 
no power of resi^lance h'ft. lie olTi red at oni e 
lo make peace, siirrenderin;; all the caiilives in 
his hands; hut sir li'oln rl \api r rcipiin.l an 
uiiciiiidilional suliinission. wiih a \ iew loili-jil.ic- 
ini; him from the tlirone, in accordance with 
the wish and e\pi I'l.iiion which he had found In 
he L'cneral in the country Tin miore rcfu-i d 
these terms, and when (April |;ti M.i:.'dala was 
hfinitiarded and stornud hy the I!riti-li troops — 
sliLdit resistance lieiiu; in.ide — he >ho| himself at 
Hie inoincnt of tin ir entrain e to the place. The 
sovereii;nly he had successfully concentrilcd in 
liiiiiM-lf for a time was a^'aiii divided. ]!i i\m in 

.\prii and .1 ■ the i;n_di-h army ciiiin Iv 

wiihdiawn. and " .Miy^siiii.i w.issealcd ii|i mlmIii 

from intercourse with tl ulir world." — ''<- 

KirM llUistr.ituI lli'i. ■■/ /.'.■/., r. i). ,-/,. -js —••Tl,,. 
tHsk of peniiaiienily uniiiiiL' .Miyssinia. in whiiii 
Theodore failed, proved conally iin|iraclic,il,!e 1,. 
.lohii. who came to the front, in the lir-t in-t ii.i !■. 
as an ally of Ihe liriii^h. and afii rward,> Mu- 
ddled 10 the soMTciLriity. l!y his fill iloth 
March. Issili in the unha'ppv war a_Min-l Ih. 

I)er\isl,es or Moslem /ilh.l- of the SoudMll. Ihe 

patli w.isdiand for M. iiilik of Slioi. who 1 n- 
jowd the support of llalv. Tie- 1--1 iii 
of Ihe Italians on the (!ed Si 1 Huonl , . . 
Iironiisesa new era for Al.\ ssinia."— T. Nold. k. . 

Ai.MiiN II. .\. S'ern. T/f I'^ipth:- \f.\,; ,„,tni. 
— II. .M. Si.mley, (•...w,/.-.«e ./;../ M'i'!il.i'i. / '. -J.' 

ACABA, the Pledges of. See Maiiimi;t.v.\ 
CoNyi Kvr: A. 1). (iii:i i;;;'.'. 
ACADEMY, The Athenian.— ■ Ihe Aca 

deiiii.i. a imlilic irarden in the iieiirhlmui liuod of 
.NMiins. was the favourite resort of I'laio. and 
L'lve ils name to the school which he f..iiiided,ii a Aas pialiled wilh lollv [liane iiees. 

nnd iidorniil with temples and •tallies; a (fpntlc 
stream rolled thr(iui,'h it " -<«. II I.ewi - lli'ij 
Ih-i ..f l'h,i.,.„i,h;,.i\tli A)..-A. ^^The masters of 
llie L'reat sdiiKiKof pliilo-opy at Alliens "i hos.' 
for their leciiins ami disc'iis-inns thi' piihlir 
liuililiii--. whiih Hciei.illid t' of which 
there wi re -e\ . ral in diirereiii ipiarlers of Ihecity 
They lould onlv u-c therii hy the suircrance of 
the Stale, which had liiiilf 111, 111 chieilv for 
hodily everciscs .and athlilie fmls. . . . liefnre 
lorn; -everal of the schools drew themselves 
apart in s|ieei.i| Iniililinirs. and even t'H'k their 
iiiost names, such as the rMciimaiid 
the .Vcailemy. from the L'wnna-i.i in whichthey 
lu.ide theln-elves at home. (iraduilly we tini| 
the traies iif „,me mill rial prmi-i.ais. which 
III Iped toiietine and to pcrpeii.ilc the dilTerent 
sects. I'lato had a liille garden, ilose hy the 
sacred Wav, in the sh;ii|y (.'roves of 
Ihe .\eademv. . . . Aristotle, dh we know, in 
later life li.iil tiiuirht in Ihe I.yi eiim. in the rich 
grounds near Ihe Missus " —\\'. \V. ('ajies, t'i>i 
i;r>ll;i, n, I/,.-/,,,/ .I//V, „»,/,/,. :|| -:i:l. - For 

O description of the .\i;c, lemy, Lyceum, etc . see 
(tV\IS\si\, (luKI.K.- -Illl till- sii|i|itession of the 
Acidi niV. see .VrilKNs; .\ I>. .V.'tl 

ACADEMY, The French. - Founded hv 
Canliiiil Kic liclieii. in lil:i."i. lor lie- reliniin.- of 
the laiiL'ua.'e and the liica'ary taste- of France 
Its forty meinliers are styled "the Immortals." 
Flection toasc-at anionir Iheni is a hi;;h ohject 
of aiiitii!i,cn amoij;; Ft- iich writers. 

ACADIA. See Nov v Si iiriA 

ACADIANS, The, and the British Govern- 
ment.— Their expulsion. Sec Nov.v Scorn : 
A I> 171:1 IMn. inn i;.Vi. and I r."i,-|. 

ACARNANIANS. Sei- ,\k\ii\\mans 

ACAWOIOS, The. .■^.e .\mi itn v.s Aiioiii- 
(iisKs; ('Miiiis wii riiciii KiNiini 11 

ACCAD. ACCADIANS. See liv nvi.oMA, 
Pkimi ri\ I. . ami s,i \i; i , , 

ACCOLADE. -"The com ludini; siL-n of 
Iicim; duMied or ad .jite I int.. Ih.' order of 

ki.l^hth I was 11 sli-ht Mow iriicn hv tiie lord 

1.1 th.- cavalier, and called the iicc.Ia.le, from the 
part of the body, the neck, wh.r...ii it was 
struck. . . . .M;iiiy writers have iiiia-.'ine.l th:it 
th.' accolade was'lhe l.i,l lilow which the kol- 
di r a:i_-ht receive with impunily: hut this In- 
|. rpr.lalion is m.l e..rre( t. for llie gipiiri' was as 
j ale us ,,f his honour as tlie kiiijht. The ori-^dn 
of the aecoliile it is imjiossiM.- to trace, hut it 
was ( le.arly consider, clsy mil. of the reliL.'i.iU' 

ai! i iiiorai duties of k'ni-hll 1. ami w:is tin 

olc'.- ccTcllloliv Used whrli klULdits wc re made ii; 
pieces Itlie liel.l .if halilc-. f,cr ills|:in,,c-i. wh.TC 

tine ami ( ir. >iinstaiieis di.l net allow of m;iiiv 
1. r. im.nic s."_C. Mills. //,'../. ,,,' r,'./. ,/'/■./, r i 

ACH.1EAN CITIES, League of the.-This 

wliic h i- not to lieicinfciincl.-.l u iiii tlic ■■ Ac lia; m 

l.c aJCjc- " ccf I'|,I,.|i,ciin, ,-;s, W.l, ;|l! . lllv |., cirue 

of the- Click setilcineaK in sc.iitii, -n' It i]v, „r 
Mai'tia (ir:ec-a, II was ••ec,m|,c.-c d cf Hi., i,,wns 
..t Siris, I'anih.sia. M. .,r ^I. 1:100111-1111, 
Sybaris with ils olTs. is I'ci-i.l, nia aii-1 I.aiis. 
t'roton. Caulohia. Tc luc-sn. Tc ilea aiicl I'v.mis. 
. . . The laiiL'u.-iire of I'olylcius rc--arcliii'_' the 
Acha-aii syminac liy in Ihe I'. lopc-nm-sus luav he 
apidied also to lli. s,- It;ilia!i Achaalis; 'n loiilv 
did they live in fcchral ami friendly comiiiiiiiiori. 
hut till V made use of the s:illle 'laws, .-ind th.- 
same wei;_diis. ni. asur. s mucI coins. ;is well 113 of 


rouilrilltTN tinil jU'U'fw. 
— T .M.iiiiiiiM n. lift ■!/ Itiiiiif, hit 1, I'll. 111. 

So (iilKEi t: B. C. 

Uu* MII1U' nui)rl"trnli'ii, 
T MHiniiiMn, lift ■ . _ 

' ACHiCMENIDS, The.-Tli.< fninily or civ- 
nuAlIc iiiiriii' (ill It't (ircrk fonni of tin' kiiifrt nf 
llir I'cpilaii Knipin' fniindi'il liy (vnis, ilirivid 
fnim nil uncislor, A' '■ i'Iihiii-)*. wIiu'wum pruhulily 
i< liii f 111 llic I'rrMaii trilH' cf Ihr I'axircail.i'. 
"In till' iii-'i ri|itiiiii iif 111 liivMin, Kiiii; Dariim 
sjijs: ' rrniii iilil tiinr wi' «in' kiiict; I'U'liI ipf 
niv family liavr licin kind's. I am the iiliilh; 
from M ry aiirii lit tiiiiis wi' liavr Im i ii kintri." 
Ill' riiiiiiuralrs lii« ami'stiirs: '.My fat Ik r w;.-. 
ViHlavl'a. tlir fallirr nf \'i'.tiii,pa w:w Ar'-ama; 
lli« fallirriif Amaiiia wan Ariyaramiia. tlir falljii 
of Arlyaraiiilia was Khalxpis, tlir futliiTDf Klials- 

f>U was llakhainaiiii; hriirr \vi' an- rulti-il llak- 
iainaiii>ivai .Vrha-iiiciiiiNi. Intlicm* wiinU Oariim 
giviti tlif tr. I' of liiHiiwu faiiiilv up to Khal.iplH; 
this wan till' yoiiniicr braiirli of the Ai'li:!'- 
mriiids. Ti ispri, tlic son of AcIiiU'inriirs, hatl 
two sons: till' iMiT was Cainbysci (Kainlaijiya) 
the ynunLjrr AriaiimrH; tin* son of ('aiiihysrH was 
Cyrus (Kiiriis). Ilic sun of Cyrus was Cainliy-rs 
II. Ili'iiri' Darius roiilil iniliiil maintain that 
liirht priniis of his family had pnirdid him; 
hut it was not corn rt to maintain that they had 
tx-rn kinirs Ih f"ri' him uiid that he was the ninth 
kini;."— -M. Dunckir, lliat. of AHtiijuity, v. 5, 
hk. M. ch. ;t. 

Ai.Hi IN O. Kuwiinsun, FamiUi of the .\rh<f- 
mini'f't, itj'p. ti* hk. 7 of IhrtHli't'lH. — Srr,, 
I'tiiiMA. Am ii.M'. 

ACHAIA.— "Crossing Ihi" rivir I.arissus, and 
pursuiii); till' northirii mast of I'l loponiusus 
Boutli III' till' Ciii'inlliiaii Cfulf, tin' traMllir would 
pass into .\rliaia — a nanir whirh ilisiu'iialiil thi' 
narrow strip of Irvrl lanil, uiiil tlii' pnijirlini: 
Bpurs anildcrlivitii', lictwi'cn that frulf and thu 
n'»rtlnTiimost mountains of the pi-niiisula. . . , 
Arharan ritiis — twclvi' in nuinlirr at li'a^t, if not 
niori — iliiidrd tliis lon^; strip of land anionL'st 
thrill, from till' nimilh of the Laris^iis and lliu 
iicirlli\vi~irrn Capi' Ara.xus in oni' sidr, to thu 
wisiiTii lioiuMlary of Ilii' Sikyoii trrrilory on the 
otlirr. All oriliii:; to tlir a ■ . unts of tlit- am iriit 
Irjinds ami tlic lii lii f of lirriHl.itus, this tirri- 
tory had hrcn onri' ornipird liv Ionian inhabit- 
ants, whom \\\v Arliaians hail cxpiMrd. " — (J. 
Croti'. ///./. ,/ fir,,,:, ,.t. i, ch, 4 (.'. '-').— After 
till' li'iman comiui^t and tin' siipprrs,-ion of tin' 
Achai:iii I.I :iL'ur, till' nanii' Arliaia was ^ivrn to 
till' prii\iiiri' Ihiii orLTaiii/id, whiili 
rmhrari il all liri' ir s..iiih of Mandonia and 
i;pirus.— S.i' (iiii.i.i 1.; li. C. :.'Mi lICi. — "In the 
lloimi'ii' poiiiis. wli rr . . till' 'lliliinis' 
only -'pjii'ar in cm- ili-:rirt of Scullnrn Tlll■^^aly, 
till' naini' At Ii;i :ins is i mpl'iyi-d liy pri-fcrcmi' 
as a iri m ral api'i l.ilioii f"r the w hoir rafc. IJut 
till' Arli.raiis WI' ni.iy ti riii. wiihuut hr^ilalioii. 
a I'l l.i-L'ian pi "I'lr, ill ^11 far, lint is. as wi' ii-,i' 
Ihi- 11,11111' 111' II ly as ilic oppi.^hi' of tho trnii 
'11(IImi'>.' |iri-v:iilrd at ii lali r limp, 
alliioULli it is iriii' thai llir Ih lli ms iIii-hisiIms 
wrri' iLiiliim; nmro than a p.irlii ular liram-li of 
Ihi' IMas-;..:: st,,ik. . . . |l'lii- n.imi- of iIm'{ 
,\clia'aiis. aftrr il ' dro[ipi il its laiiirr and 
niori' uni\i*r^al appliiatioii, was pri'>iT\t il as iln' 
s|iiiial iianii' of a popul.itiun dwi lliiii,' in tho 
iinrlli of till' I*' lupnnnr^i.' and the sumli of 
This^alv."— i;. F. Srlioinann, Aiii:,i, of (,i;,,r: 
,Tlu >i'itc. Int. — "Till' ttiiiii-nts rt'L'ariii'd them 


I the ,\i Imunsl as ii limncb n( the yt^olionii, with 
Hhom they tifterwiinUreiinitt'il Into one national 
limlv, I I . Hot uu an originally dinlltiet imtionulily 
«r lnilr|n mil lit hraiii h of the (imk ixoidi' 
Ai'iiirilini.'ly, we hear iiillhi r of an .Vehieaii Ian 
L'li i|:e nor of .Vi hieaii art. .\ manifest and ileelded 
liilliieiire of the inarilline (Sreeks. wheriMr the 
.\i liaans apiH'iir, is eoiiiinon to the latter with 
the .Kolians. Aeliaaiiii are everywhere Battled 
on till' eoasi, and are always retarded UB pur 
tiiularly 111 ar ^ latloiis of the lonlaiis. . . . The 
.\i ha alls appear seattend alioiil in loealltlen on 
till' eoast of the .Kv'eaii so remote from one 
limit her, that it is iin|nis,|li|e to eoiisider all Is'ur 
ill:: tills name as frit'ini iits of a peoph' oriKinall.v 
united in one hih ial eoii.iiiiiiiity ; nor do they 
In fait unywhire iip|Hai, 'iro'iMrly Bpeakiim, 
as u popular liody. us the main n'toek of the, hut rather «s eminent liimilies, from 
wliii h spring: In nss; li< nee tlio ii«"of tlieexpres- 
sinii ' Soils nf the .\i ha.'iiis' to inilirule iiolile ilo- 
Hiint. "— l-:. Ciiiliiis. Ili,l, of (Imrr.lik, 1, ch. 3. 
Also IN M. Diiiiikir, lU'^Lof llcrce, Ik. 1, eh. 
2. iii,il Ilk. '.', eft. a.— See, aluo, Aciiaia, and 


A. D. 1305-1387. — Medizval Principalltj. 

— .Vnioni tlie eonninsts of the Kn iieh and 
I.oinliard Criisiulersm (Irene, ufli rtlie taking of 
Conslantimiple, was that of u major part of the 
I'l lopomii'siiH — till n 1)1 ;:iniiiiii; to Ih' ealled the 
.Mon !i — liy William de Chaiiipllite. a Kremh 
knl;;ht. nssisteil hy Geffrey di; Villelmrdouln, 
the vouncir — nephew anil namesake of the 
.Marshal of Chumpairne, who wos ehronieler of 
Iheeompiistof the p;nipire of the Kast. Williuni 
deCliamplittc was iiiTesteil with this Principality 
of .\eliuia, or of the .Morett, us it Is variously 
styled, (ietlriy Villehardoiiin represented hlrii 
in the poveniinint, us his " Iiaillv," for a lime, 
and tliiully snieenled in supplaniiiif; liim. Ilulf 
a ei iiturj' later the Creeks, wlm had recovered 
Constuniinople, rediieid the territory of the 
rrinei|)aliiy of Aeliiia to about half the piniii- 
siila, Hiiil n destriii live war was wajjeil hetween 
the two nil s. .Siibseipuntly the I'rincipulity 
bieanie n lii f of the crow n of Xajdes und Sicily, 
and iindiTweiit many changes of possession 
ii'itil the title was in confusion and dispute 
bi-tweea the houses of Aii.ioii, Ara.sion and 
Savnv. Ill b.rc it wxs en.i:ull'ed finally in the 
Kinpire of the Turks, it was ruined hy their 
pineiisand ravai-'es. — (!. Kinlay, 7/i'.i(. ifilmrr 
from itn Vonqu,i,t foj the i'niMiJtrs^ ch. S. 

ACHMET I., Turkish Sultan, A. D. IflOa- 
lili;. . . Achmctll., liWl-lGy^i. . . Achmet III., 


ACHRADINA.-— .V part of the ancient citv 
of Syracuse, siidv. known as the " outer city,^' 
oceupuiii; t!ie )ii nin-ula north of Ortyt'ia, the 
island, w bii h was ibt' " innrr I it V." 

ACHRIDA, Kingdom of.— Aiterthe death of 
.T' Im /iniisccs who had riunited llulijaria to the 
r.wantim' Kinpirc. tlie liuK'arians wi re rousi'd 
to a slruir^Ii' bT the rmivi ry of their indepeiid- 
eiii e. iimli r the li ad of biur brothers of a noble 
f.miiiy. all of wl.oni soon piTi-.lied save one. 
iiaiiii d Satr.ui I. Saiiiut I proved to be so vigor- 
ous ami able a soMlirand had so much success 
that l.e assuniid pr.'.-i iiliy the title of king. Ills 
I'liiliority was cstabli-Iiid over the .irreater part 
of llulirari.i, and extended into Macedonia. 
Jr-pirus and lllyna. lie cstabli.slied his capital 




■t Ai'brlilu (niMli'm (Kbriihi, In Alluiniui. which 
)(avr Itii iminclci \tU kiiiploni Tln' ~ii|i|irrsslcin 
of tliit III w lliilmrlaii ni"iiMrilit oKiijiI'd ilii' 
nyzantlni' Ktiiii<ror, llii«il II , in «Mr« ln>m iwl 
iiiilil lOlN. »lirii iu Insl »lii.ri:.-hnl.l«. ill. lu.llriK 
lliKclty of Ailirlilii, win' Mirn mli rni in him - 
<1. KillluV, J/ilt ff Ihr Jlfi.,li,ti„f /.'m;./)V _/,.../> 
710 f.< \m1, He. i, rh i. ».7 > 
ACKERMAN, ConTintion a'ii8a6). H<.' 

Tl UKIIf A. I) IMJfl-lHJlt 

ACOLAHUS, The. Sec Mkxk o. An. ikm 
TiiK T111.T1.C Kmi'iuj. 
ACOLYTH.Th*. Sic Vahanhiah or Wah 

■Nil (ll'ARD. 

ACRABA, Bkttit pf, A. D. Air-Afi. r ihr 

ilcathof MhIkiiiiiI, hii >iuii i'»i>r, Aliii ll> l>r, hail 
to (leal with wviTiil wriiMiH nvulls. tlir iiio^t 
Ihrentenlng of whiih wuh ni-nl liy nni. Mi.«ii 
lama, who had prctiinliil, cviri in tl«' lifr tiiiii' if 
llie I'Tophit. to a rival iiiN'-icin if n lii,'iiiii. 'I'hi' 
di'ii.sivo Imtllo bolwii'n llir f.illowir- nf Mii«rl 
Ininaanil those of Mnhoinit WM^ fi>ui;lit al Ai nlia. 
nrar Vi nmnm. Thr pn titnlrr was slain iinl (■ w 
"f his army cscapnl, — Sir W Mnlr, Aininh ,,f 
llir Kirlii r,i!,;,/„il,-, ,-h 7, 

ACRABATTENE.Battleof— Asan>,'iilnary 
ihfiat nf the MiiMuans or Kiliniiitis hy the Jews 
unili-r Juilas Marcaliim^', II (' ItM — .losephus, 
Aniin. ffth, Jurn, Ik. \i. rh. H 

ACR'AGAS. See AoiiiiiKNTi M. 

ACRE (St. Jean d'Acre, or Ptolemain : A. 
D. 1 104.— Conquest, Pillage and Massacre by 
the Crusaders and Genoese, .'•le Cni sahk.s: 
A. I). IIOI-UU. 

A. D. 1 187.— Taken from the Christians by 
Saladin. See .lriii>M 1 m: A II lllii ll!<7 

A. D. 1189-1191. -The great siege and recon- 

7 uest by the Crusaders. See Cui'saiiis: .\ I). 

A. D. 1356-1257.— Quarrels and battles be- 
tween the Genoese and Venetians. See 
Vrvtii.: A. I). I'-W. rJ-,7 

A. O. I30I.— The Final triumph of the 
Moslems, bie .If.iii hai i.m: .\. I> IJUl 

i8th Century.— Restored to Importance by 
Sheik Daher.- " Aire, or St. .Ii an ilAere. 
leleliraleil nmUr this name In the history "t 
the Criisaileii. iinil in anlii|iiity known hy'lhe 
name of I'lolemais, hail, liy the miilille lif the 
I81I1 century, hieti ulmost entirely forsaken, 
when Sheik DaluT, the .\rah nliil, restnnil its 
commerce and nuvi|,'ation. This alile prinee, 
uiiosc bway romprehended the whole of anrient 
lialilee, was hiieeeedid bv the iiilamous tvrant, 
Dje.'iar-Pasha. ••ho fortltiid .\ere, and ailornid 
it with a inosinie, enrii hid with n.lumns of 
antique inarlile, eollected fmniall the nei^'hiionr- 
in),' cities."— M. .Malli-Hriin, .'^i/\!, m '•!' r.;ii\ 
'/iv»7 , /,i. 28 (f. 1). 

A. D. 1790.— Unsuccessful Siege by Bona- 
parte. SeeFitANiK: .\. I) 17il'<-i;il9 (.Vlotsx 
— Atr.tsTl, 

A. D. i83i-i840.--Siege and Capture by 
Mehemed Ali.— Recovery for the Sultan by the 
Western Powers. Sei Ti itKs: A. 1) l^ai-l^io 


See KoliKYKA. 

road whieli. by riinnin!; zi!.'za);iip the slo]ie was 
ren.lered prae'tiealile for chariots, led from tin- 
lower city to the Acropolis, on the . dire ol the 
pi.Uform of wUicU »Iim^1 the rniinitta, eleeled 

hy the architect Mne'leles in live yearn, ilurlnir 
the adndnlslrationof I'l rli lo Dnentcrlnu 

through the ({ales of the i'ropvlaa a m cne of 
tinparalhil grandeur and lieaiity liiirst iipmi the 
eye Ni Iriue of human d»t lilt, its anyvilnn 
aiipeiireil, lint on all nldcs temples of inore 1 rhss 
elevation, of I'l ntcllc marlile. Iieaiitiful in ih igii 
and e\i|iiislti Iv delirate in e.xi cntion. s| irkli d 
like piles of alabaster in the --iin On He lift . 
■.tooil the Km till i"n, or fane of .\tlii n.a I'l lias, 
to the ri III. Ihit in III hh^s idii.< 1 I.ihomi > . the 
ll.'i 111. iiiipi dull nf .,|.|, but to a::.^,i^ the 
I'artheiion. (Mln r buililini:s. iillli'lv to the eye 
of an .Vtlii' l.iy u'r.'iipe.l ar.iun.l thr*.' lu.istfr 
ilnictiiris, and, in liie open s|i.i. e< li.'iwi.n, to 
wliati vcr ilirei lion the spi 1 tutor ini_dil h.ok, ap- 
peared statui s. some ri inarkablc f..rtlii irdiinen- 
siiins, others for tin ir beauty, and nil f- if the 
Icijendary sanclity whi. h surrounded No 
city of the uneicnt or iniKlern world evi rrivalld 
Atlii nil in the riches of art (liirbi.t Idh.l inn 

SI iinis. thoiiLdi ti'cmini; with her spoils, ure | r 

I collecli. 'IIS of fra;:mcnls eompan-il with that 
itssemlila^'eot (;isls and heriH-s which pcopli d tin 
.\i ropolis, the genuine lilvmpos of the arts."-- 
,1. A. St, .John, r/,f ll.'ll.i,,,. hk. 1, eh. 4.- 
" Nothing in uni lent (ireece or Italy coidd he 
i-omparcd with the Acropolis of Atfiins. In its 
j comliitiatioiiof bcatity ;-,nii crandeur, surrounded 
US it was by tt-inples and theatres uinong Its 
I rocks, end encireli-d by a city aboundin;^ with 
: iininuments, some of which rivalled those of the 
. .\criipolis. Its platform fnimed one (jrca* 
I nanctu.iry, pariilioncd only bv the houndarii-s of 
- ihe , , . s;icred porlioiis. \Ve cannot, thcre- 
: fore, admit Ihe suf,'i.'i-stion of (handler, that, in 
I addition to the temples iind othi r nionninents on 
■ the stiinnut, there were houses divided int.) repti- 
lar streets. have bci n consonant 
I either with the cusi- ins or the goo.l t.isle of the 
.Mheiiians When the people of ,\t til a crowded 
into .\thens at the be;;innin)' of the ret.iponne 
i sian war. aii.l rcli:,dons prcjuilii-en t'-'i^c way, la 
every ji. .ssiblecase, to the necessities of the oeea- 
; sion, (M-n then tlie Acropolis ri maimd tmin- 
1 h.'ibileil. . . , The west! rn end of the Acropolis, 
j which furnished the onlyarce-s to the summit of 
' the hill, Was one hnnilrcd ami sixty cii.'ht fi ct in 
I breadth, an openin;; so narrow that it apiieared 
j practicable to ihe artists of I'erii l.s to till up the 
I space with a sin;;!" biiildin',' w hii h slniuld serve 
the purpose of a piteway to the citadel, as well 
as of a suitable entrance to that glori.ais dis- 
play of architecture and sculplere whii h was 
within the indosurc. Tills wurk [ihe Tropy- 
hca), the greatest jirodnction t-f arilil- 
l.'cture In .Vthcns, which rivalled the Parthenon 
in felicity of e.\e(-uti.n, suipas.scd it in bold- 
n.'-s and originality of desi^-n. ... It may be 
ditined as 11 wall pli n-cd wilh Ihe d.iors, be- 
fore which on both sides Wire Doric hi .\astylc 
poriiioes. "— W. M. I.i.-ikc. 7'";«'jo'.i/:,'i//./.lr//("/.«, 
»,.■^ H -See, al^o. .VrricA. 

Kiti.wDs: A. 1) I577-I."i'*l 

ACT OF MEDIATION, The. See -^wit 
/.l-;iii.ANI): .V. I). lS0;i-ls4-<. 

ACT OF SECURITY. See Scotiand: A 
I). 17irt-17"t 

Emii.asi): a. 1). 1701 

luKLAMK A. D. iilfii)-i(>U>"j. 




ACT RBSCiSSORV. Sr s. ..tiank a 
l> iiwi i<Km 

ACTIUM: B. C. 434.-N4T»l BsltUoflht 
Crccki. —A ilrdut Inllii tt'ilu|><>ri ili' ruriuiliinhA 

tiy iln' ( .in tri.iiit, in iIm miiii -t m, r r|ii<l.iiniiMi 

ullhh »ll'> llir |<ril>Ml>- t'l ll»' I'l l'i|><>nllr-'illll 

W ir i; ( iiniiiK. //-.' .7' (,>,,,■,. .'/ 1, ,•;, 1. 
B. C. ji. The Victory of Octa*iuf. Sir 

llnMI II ( ;ll 

ACTS OF SUPREMACY, s. . s, ,-m. 
UK'S. Air" i<r, uuil Km. i and .\ |i \'ii'. 
I" , ili'l i.-i.-w, 

A l» IW.tiiri.l liiilJ ItMl.-i 

ACULCO, B«ttl« of (iSioi. S<<' Mkxko: 

A l> IHI.i-lHIlt 

ACZ, Battle of (1S491. Si. At»iiitv A l> 

IMC I -111 

ADALOALDUS, King of tht Lombards, 
A. 1» Oil! Il.'d 

ADAMS, John, in the American Reiolu- 
lion. Sic I'.MTMi STATKtiiK Am. . A. l>. lTr4 
(M\v— .IiNii; 1771 iSki'ikmhkii), 1T;,"i|Miv~ 
AiMiM), 17711 (.Jam Aiiv—Ji M.i. i;7ti(.li c.V) 
. . . lo diplomatic tervice. S<i' I nitku Hiatk* 
iif Am a I> 17h..> i Ariiii I K"'.' iSni 1 miu u - 
Nmumi.ii.i Preiidential administration. 

tki IMihji ■•niK- III- Am .V l> I7i«l iwil. 
..Death. N r tin stiini' A. D lf>'Jll. 

ADAMS, John Quincy. — The Treaty 
of Ghent, '^ir I'mth) '^r vtkh hk \\i .'. 1>. 
l"'l I illKi KMi-.mi . Ai President. Sii'siinic; 
A II I ".'I l-^.M! Defending right of Peti- 
tion. >rl' KllMlf I'^ti 

AD\MS, Samuel, in and after the American 
Revolution. Sir IMtkii Siahs m Am : 
A I' IT7J-177:l. 1774(Sh'ti-;miiki:); 17'."iiMvik 
17-7 17»1). 

ADDA, Bnttle of th* (A. D. 490). t^ie 
lioMi : A. I» 4-<-.VJtl. 

AD DECIMUS, Battle of lA. D. 533). S<c 
VvMiM ■.: A 1> ."i;i:)-."vit 


l.iil![l-.l. hi of llir !rLill:ll mmIiT, lli-l llDllsr. 

I'.irinl'irli I i !!:;.•< ;iiiil till 1 .^ m . ■ ilii't..ft ainlrnill.' 
»lili iif .n'li'iin I u(i|>' iti uaiit < niiiihiii 
riL:lit>. lt..ri' aai. ii_' (In- ii'TiJnrii M.iiiiii-* [rurly 
'i"i Ml. 'Ili. 1 till' ii.uiir I'f < >ii;il, ' r IMli- 1 , till priim- 

■IM- In 'l,.r ^ilhlL'l W:ii nil \: ■lli>, IT Alllll- 

Uaiu , ' . ■-. -ii r wiis nil Ailn i'n'ii'li': On' ^.uiic 
Wor.l Ail. I i.r .Vllnl NiL'iuti'il nl-i luiliiliiy of 

ili-^i ' nt, :iMil ;1M \'! tlin.' \Ml" M llnlilrMiJin." ' \V'. 

-.1 ,1.1,-, /...,,' // ' ../ /-.■/,';,..,'. :! ...,r '.M Srf 
ill-... .\,..i. ,!!•! I ,h', 1. 
ADELAIUU, The founding ard naming of. 

S, . .\l -I I'M 1 \ .\ II 1>11II |~4ii. 

ADELANTADOS. An 1 ,irly till.' l-Iuu to 

till' i;.i\iil. 't V III >| ilil-li .\lii. riiii, 

TI..S, Ml ;■. Ill h.i;m- : .\. I), l-iil l.-iU. 

ADEN. .\ |...ii ..11 llir Mii.iliiiii iiia^t of 
Anil'ia, lak. It 1'. 'ir.iii l!rit;.iii fnini llu- Sullan 
1.1 A'Imi in l-<:l:i 1. niii.rv. niih 
I'l rim inil ..till r 11. i_'lil...riii^ i-laij.U, Inn In . n 
ar.|l'ri't -iliii , alTiinliiiL' a alul r...tliii_' 
sWiii'.ii imp.. iianl 111 llir il<.iiiiii.iliyii i.| ihr Ur.l 
>r a aii'l III.' ^iii'Z Canal. 

ADIABENE. — A -.v lii' li nun.' t.. h' a]. 
|.l;. '1 :in.i..ji!l\ 111 till' ir.ii I 'it II .11 1, My la^t i.l ilii' 
iiiiililli' Tiirri^. iiiitiraiin:: uliat u a^ nriuinaih 
ihi' |.i..|iii' tirriiiii'\ I.l .\»Miia. t..i;i'lli(T "ilh 
Arliiiiii.-* I'liiicr 1111' railhiaii nmnarcliv it 
iDniii'il !i triliiiiaiy k!ii;;.!ii!!!. uiutb aisjAili':! 

U'twrin Piirtliiii unil .Vriiiiniu. It wnii lU'iuHl 
■u'Viriil liiiii* liy till' Kiininiw. Iiiil lirvir |M'riiia 
III lilly 111 III -II ItawlliiMin, .SXA timil (huiilat 

.l/..mir.'/iv. 11 nil 


.Vllilllli.lMX .VlllllliNr>Al H*. 

ADIS, Battia ol (B. C. t5<). 8rt Pcnic 

W til. I'lIK Kill"! 

ADITES, The.— "Thf Cu.liltM, thi- flrni to iiiIh iif .\riiliiii, iiri' knunn In tin' • i'l mul 
IrailiiiiiiH hy till iiiinii' nf Ailiim. (mm llieir 
|>r.iKi!iiiiir, uliii 1.4 iiilliil All till KriiiiilMin uf 
llum. "— K Ij niiriiiiiiil, Miutunltj Aiinrnl lliil 
i-k 7. .'/i ■• ».. Vimiiv 

AOjUTATORS. .-mi Kmiam> A I» W\: 
i.Vi'iiii — \i i.r'<r). 

ADLIYAH.The. ShI-hm 


ADOLPH I of Nasiaui, King of Garmaay, 
A. I». r.'UMJllH 

Sweden, A. I» 17,M-:"1. 

ADOPTICNISM. — A iliKirlnr, lonili'mncil 
HH lirri'tkiil in till' I'ltihth niiliiry. tthlrh ihiikIiI 
lliut "(liriil, 11.1 til Ilia liiiii.iin niitiirt', wua um 
truly till' Sim uf (IimI, but imly Iliii um by iiilii|i' 
tliin. " Till' ilii|;iiiii U nUiikiKiwn hk thu n liciao 
UrrcKV, fniin a S|miiiiih biiilKip, Ft'lU, wh.i wm 
priiniliiiiit iiiiiiiiiK itH Hiip|Mirtiri nmrliinaEnF 
took 111 livi'iiiruniiri'Hli>iiii|i|iriMttli<-lii'ri'iiy. — J I 
.M.iiil.. rt, llift ,f Chaih, Ih,, bk i, ch U 

ADRIA, Propoied Kingdom of. Brc Itai.t 
A II i:n;i-;;wit, 

ADRIAN VI., Pope, A. I). 1»2'.>-1,V2:). 

I ity hi Thrill 1' finiinliil by the Eiiipiriir lliiilriiiii 
anil ili'siitnati'il by liU iiaiiii' It wus the sciiii' 
i.f ('iiii.'<tantini''ii vli I. ry nvir I.i' iiiliu In A. 1» 
1123 (*ie HiiMK: A. I). itO."i ;!',':li, .ml nf the de 
fiat iiml ilialh uf Vuliiw in biittli' «ltli the 
Uulhs (-(!' (Joins (ViniiiiiiiiK): A. I) l!7-i In 
i:Ull it lii'ianii' fur son yi.irs the capital uf the 
Turks in Kiiri'|ii' (le '. Akm: A II. l:itlO-i;i><U). 
It wa« un iipii .1 bv till Hiissiiins in Ib'JW, and 
iikhIii In 1M7S1NI1' Tt iiKu: A II 1H;'I1-1W0, and 
A. 11 is;; IsTH;, anil cavi- Itn iiiiine to the 
Trialv 111 ;;iiti.;ii il in IH'.mi biiHicn l{u.H»i» and 
the l'..ii.' i-ii- (iiiKi I K: A II IH.'l IH'JK). 

ADRIATIC, The Wedding of the. See 
Vi;.Mi 1; A II. 1 177. uiiil 1 iTii Cknti'kt 

ADRUMETUM. See Cahtu.«ik, The Do 


ADUATUCI, The. See nKi.(i.K 
ADULLAM, Cave of. -When Haviil had 

111 .11 1 asl lint hy till' ^llili^lilll's, iinii.ii|{ whiini he 
- .ii;;lii ii fii:;i' 'fnuii llie niiiiity i.f Saul, "his 
lir-i Kill the Cave <if .Viliilliiii. probably 
till lar_'i' lavirn not far fnnn Hillilihcin, umv 
lalli'il Kliuri'itiin. From its viiinily In lli'thle- 
In 111. he was joineil there by his whole fiiinilv. 
ii.iw felling' Ihi'in.-alM -1 iin-riiire from Sniil's 
fury. . . . Iti'-iilrs Ilii'M' \M re outlaws from 
i-\iry part, iin biilitii; (l.nibiless sniiie of the 
i.ri;:iii.ii Canaaniles - -of wlioiii the iiaiiie of one 
at least has bi-i-n presi-rMil, .\liiiiii lull the 
lliitite. In the vn>l ii.liiiiinnr hnIK ami nreliiil 
rliainliers of iliis Mibtirraiiiaii pnlaei', all who 
hill any grinlL'i' nL'ainst the exi^tinj; system 
LMthireii rounil the hero of the eouiinjr »t;e. " — 
Heaii Siaiile\ . I.,(Vk ..11 the Ui«t. 1/ th, JeviA 
Ihurrh. I,, -I ■■J-J 

ADULLAMITES, The. See E.nulam- : A. 
I.'. IHIi.'i IHf!" 





ADWALTON MOOR, B«ltlt of (A. D. 

164]).- Till* wiM » liiiiili- foiiiilii iii'»r Hriwlfonl, 
Jum ■!» |IU;l, In ttw Rnul Kiii:li-li (nil War 
Tlw I'lirlluimnUr)' lurii'.. iinl. r i.nril Kulrfii* 
virrn: riiuli'il liy Uin Hinull«t«, iiii<l> r Ni'Witt«il(' 
—r. K. Mitrkhitin, l.ij'r „j ihr (in.ii I/ml tUir 
f,u, eh. II 

iBAKIOS (VEacidti.- TIm' Mi|i,»,'.r.l ilf 
•rrnilaiitii of thr (Iriiil uxl .K ikiin. mIic.m' t'riiiiil 
•(•11 wmi Aihllleii (Stv Mvhmiihin- ) Miltiiulin, 
till' licniof MHintlii'ii. »tiil rvrrliii-, ilic viurrinr 
Kiiiif nf Kiilriw, » Ti! sinniiir' iIiuh,' (iuiiiiliiK to 
Ijtiniiir to ilin rt>y»l nici' of .f.uki>l>i 

JEOHILING. Hi-,' Kriii I, 

^DILBS, Roman. M«<'I(omk II (' 4»4-403 

"Tlw two moHt powtTfiil iiiilliiii^ III Italliii wire 
the .Cdiii |or lliiiliil| iiml the ArviTrl Tin' .tMiii 
orciipt^l tliiit purt wlili-li lii'i iH'tHci'ii tin' iip|H r 
Tiilliv of the Ijiin' mill the ftiionc. v, lilrli rivir wan 
part of till' hiitiiiilitry iHtwii'ii tliiiii ami thi' 
Siiuanl, TliB l.olri' wiuirainl tlw .Ediil from 
llif Uitilri^i'i, wliiMr chii'f Icmii Wiin Aviirinim 
on ttir tlte of Uuiirxi'ii. At iliix ilmi' |U (' U| j 
lilt! Arveml. the rivalH of the .Kiliil, wrn' M-rk- 
ing the tupn-nmrv in Ualllit. Tlu' Arvirni •». ii- 
pictl the luoiiiitiilnoiii toiiiitry of AiivirKni' In 
thi'crnlrt' of Pruncp ami the firtlli' vullry of (hv 
Ehivir (Alliiri ucurly uii far ut the jiiiii liiiii of ihi' 
AllUr anil till- lioire. . . . Tin y wtrc 011 friendly 
Urninwilh lln' Allolirojfi'i. 11 poWirfiil nuiion iiist 
of till' Ithoiii', whoornipiiii llii loiiiitrv Utwr 
the Ultoiu' iiiiii till- ]^iTii ilsrrf'i III iin>. . 

bri-iik till' forniiiiiililt' lointiiiiaiinu nf t)i'< Arvrri 
anil the Alloliro){es. the Itoiiiuiii iiiiiili' iim' of tl 
itMui. who were the eiieinir^ IhiIIi of the Alio 
bn>i{i'H iiml the Arveml . A tn atv wus niaile 
either lit thin lime or koiiii »|i it eiirllir In tiv> 1 n 

the .Kiliii uinl the Koin n; te, who i .nilirnil 

on lliiir new Oiillir frieuilitlii nonoiiralile title of 
broiliir-^ anil kitiitin-Ti. Tlii>s Iraierni/iiiLr was a 
pjiir of political laiit whiih the U..iiiaiis prae 

til'll wheil it was ll.-M'ful." — <i l-nlii:. I h flint- .4' 
thr Uitmaii Ikpitl>li<\ r. 1, f'A, -21 —See, uUo, 
Uai is 

MGX. See KiiKs>A (Mai KiioNni 

^CATIAN ISLES, NaTal Battle of the 
(B. C. 24I). See I'l Ml Waii. Tin; Kiitsr 

iCGEAN, The ■•Till' .K-iaii. or While 
Sea, ... lis ilisliiit.'iiisheil Iriiiii the Kiiviii'." 
— K A. llinlnrinil (,'i<»/, „J' Huroii,- i, 
\y.\..u,il /..•!, ml,. 

iiiil aaine of the nortlii rii iiiaM of I'l^u-., 
aii'l its inhuleianH. See tiiiKiii:: Till. .Mii.i;\ 


iCGIKOREIS. See I'llvl.K 

iEGlNA. -.\ Miiall rorkv i.^Iaml in tie' > ,r 
onie u.llf. hetucn Atliea', 111,1 .\rL'"li-, lil-t 
eujiiiii/ceil liy .Vehaaiis it Has al'ii rwaivis or, ,, 
piid liy Dorians (se,'(;ui;i.i 1.: Till. .Mn.i: \ 1 ion-i 
ami was iiiifrieiiilly to .Vllnns, Huiin^' tin- 

sixth eeiitiiry H, ('."it rosi' to mat pnver 1 

emamen ial iiiiportaine. ami liei aiiie 1. r a time 
ih.' inost brilliatil ec nter of (in, k art, .\t ili,' 
[M raxl of ilie I'ersiau .llirina wis ' Hi,- 
lirst iiiaritiiiie power in (ireic-." liiu ihe 
.KL'initaiis were al that liiii,' I'li^'i.;,,! in 
*ith Athens, as till- allies ,.f Tli,i„s. aii,l ritlar 
than foreir,! their enmity, they ,.ir, r, ,| siihini"i,iTi 
to ihi' Persian kinir. The .Vilieiiians tlereiipon 
appeah'il t.i Sparta, as th,' liei,| ,,f ilnee,'. to 
■■■tterft-re. aiel ihu .i);;iiii-lau3 v.'trt i,..i,o„ il, ,i (,, 


(tl»e hi»l.iKe« lo Alhi ns for their flilelitv to the 
III Ihllle ■ allM' i><ei (liit.n f II ( ilW-IBI » 
Till) piir.'i.l till iiisilvr. I,, a itriit e«lenl of 
their inl, iiili'il tn ivjii ii> t ,e exiraonllnarv valor 
with whii h they luiiuhi at >iliiiiis jtiii ihn 
•iiililen pre I mini II, e 1,1 wliiili Atlu iis rose east 
a liliilhtiiiL; s' ,i|,,» ii|,iii .K.'iiia. mil III Ull II (' 
It l,,»l iis InihpemI, M. . , till Villi hi ihs takiiii; 
pos«s«|,,n of iiiiir ili.<.iiiiiitii| riuil — t'. Thirl 

wall, Ih'l 'if liriifr, r |, ,'/, |t 

Also IM (i (Ir Ili'i I'l I,,,,.; . i,f ■;. r 4, 

M ;m >ie ,ii„. .Villi ss u ( iNii (so 

B. C. 458-as6. Alliance with Corinth in 
war with Athena and Megara. Defeat and 

■ubjuntion. N, limiii. II 1 t >» di; 

a. C. ^]l. Expulilon of the iEginetant 
from their iaiand bjr the Atheniana. - Their 
lettlement at Thjrrea. See (imni it c 
4;ii -tJtt 

B. C. 310. Deiolation bjr the Romani.— 
The rtrst appearanie uf the Itmnans in (ineie. 
when they 1 ntereil the nniiitrv as (he allies of 
the .'i'^toliaa.s, was siunali/eil liy the harharoiis 
dcHlriii lion of .{-^tdna The eliy leu in;; been 
taken, II ('. 'HO, itsentire population wasrediieiil 

10 slavery by the Itomaii" ami tin' laml and 
iMilldiniis of itie eity were sold to .\tl iliis, kit,,' 
of I'erifamus — K .V Kreemun, Hitt. "I I'lilfr'ii 
ilorl . ,-h H, mrl 'J 


iEGITIUM, Battle of (B. C. 446.— A r< 

11 rse experieiiei d liv the .Vtheniaii (iiinral, 
l>i inosihem s, in liis I'la asioii of .Elulir, durin,- 
the rel'i|i,iniiesian W ar,— Thuevdidis. llitl'i-ii. 
U :i, «,'/. itr, 

iEGOS^OTAMI (AiKOipotamoi) Battle of. 

See (illlji k: 11 C 111.") 

iCLFRED. N , Vi 1111.11 

iCLIA CAPITOLINA.-The new name 
i;iven to .Iiriisalem liv Ilailrian See Jcwn 
A. It l:lo-l:!l 

'I'lie and Fiili.iii lai\ s ile:,', s ,I".lia and 
l-'iilia) III, -iL'e of whii h unl'iirlnii.iti ly weean- 
not aeeurali ly detiriiiiiie . , . eiiai 'te,l a 
| .issiinlily |al Uniiie) iiii;,'lit he ilissulvid, 
iir, in oilier woi^ils. the aeei pianee of any pro- 
posid l.iu jinvenli il, if a ina^'ivirate anmaineeil 
lo till pr, siilent of the ass, inMy it wis hi, 

iutiiition to ejioo-,' lile r-allle tillle for Watrllill;; 

tlieh aMils Sill II an .■innoiiiieine lit (nliniinli- 
alioi was hi 1,1 to li,' a siiMii lent , au^,' lor inler- 
nipiiiu' an a~-enililv." -W, llm,'. //r■^ ri' /.'■■.if 
•/.■. C, .'.. Hi, " 

.«M1LIAN WAY. The. M .Emilin, 

I.I (iiills. ( .ili-nl I'T llie y. ar ISO li C. . . . <,,|i. 
-Iniil, 1 Hie ^'11. It l',,a,l uliiili 11 !,■ hi, name. 
I'h,' .I' Way 1. ! l!-,'in .VriMiiinim liir,iUL;h 

the 111 w ell, my of 1!, uiat'i I'lai riili.i, lii in;; a 

, .iiiliimali'iii of the I'l.iiiiiiiian W.iy. or Knut 
ii'Tih road, mail, liy ( ', ri;iiiiiiiiiis in '.'JO li. C, 
lr,ii!i li,inie to .Viimin'im. At tin- ,.iiiie epmli. 
l-'iaininiiis the son. I>ein_' th,' i ,ill,' i;;ii,> , .f l.ipi- 
, Ills, mail,' a liratiili Mel Irun l!'n,,iii;i ai r,'ss 
the Apinuines lo .Vrnl iuiii. ■ — II. Ci. I.i,lUell. 
//.■■.</ ../ I.'uii,. !:.'.: .■), ./. II 

iEMlLIANUS, Roman Emperor, .V I) '.'."i:! 

itOLIANS, The.-' Till- inlliriu,- sim U of 
(ireek nalionalities tails, ar, ..nlinu'- lo ilie vii w of 
those aneient writers i\li,i iai„'Ur,,l nio^t to 
obtain an knowleiL- of ethuoi-raphie 
reiallolisiiips, into time inaia divisions, .toiians. 



Dorians and loniiiiis. . . All llic i.lhir iiilmbit- 
iiiit.< i>f (iriicr [ri.)t Doriiins iiiul limians] and of 
llif i?.lunds iiiiliiilii'. in it, ure comprised under 
tln'ioninidii nainciif .t^oliuns — a nanir unknown 
lis vil to lloincr. and wliith was inrontestalily 
applied to a );f''at diversity of peoples, anionj; 
wliieli it is certain that no such hoinojieneity (if 
mi-e is to he ass.inii'd as existed union); the Inni- 
ans anil Dorians. Aniong the two forniiT nicis, 
thoUL'li even these were .scariely in any i|Uarl(T 
coniplctelv unmixed, there wa"s ineontestaMy 
to he fouiiil a siufrlc orii.'inal slo<k, to^ which 
others had nierily lieen atl.iclied, and as it were 
cnuTafted. whereas, anionj; the jieoples assijrnc'd 
to the .t^nlians, no such original stock is reccg- 
nizalile, hut on the contrary, as great a dilTer- 
ence is foimd lii-tween the several menihers 
of this race as lietween Dorian.s ana loiiians, 
and of the so-called .Kolians, some stood nearer 
to the fornicr, others to the latter. ... A 
th )roii!;h and canful invi sligatiou might wdl 
lead to till' conclusion that the Greek pcoph' 
was dividid iioi into three, hut into twci main 
races, one of which we may call Ionian, the oilier 
Dorian, while of the sociUled .Kolians some, 
and proliahlv the greater number, belonged to 
the former, the rest to the latter."— O. F. Schij- 
man, AnUq. .>f Gntcc : Tin Stale, pt. 1, eh. 2.— 
In (ireek niy'tli., .Kolus, the fancied progenitor 
of the .Ei>lia'iis, ajipears as one of the three sons 
of llcllcn. •■-Kiihis is repiesenled as ha\ing 
rci-'ni'd in Tliessalj ; his seven sons were Kre- 
theiis, Si^\ phus, .\lhainas, Salnioneus, Deicin, 
Magnesan'l I'c rirres: liis live daughters, Canace, 
Alcvone, I'eisidike, Calyce ami I'tnnede. The 
fables of this race seem to be distinguished by a 
constant introduction of the Cod Voscidon, as 
well as bv an imusual prevalence of liaughty and 
prrsumptu.ius attributes among the .Kolid 
benies, leading them to afTront the gods by pre- 
tences of equalitv, and sometimes even by deti 
ancc."— G. Grotc, //(■«(. of G new, jit. 1, cli. 6. 
—See, also, Tiiessai.y, Dohi.vns and Iomans, 
and Asia Mi.ioii: Tiie Giu:kk Colo.mi;s. 

iEQUIANS.The. SccOscans; alsoLATitM; 
and KoMi-,,li. C. 438. 

iERARIANS.— Honiau (itizens who had no 
political riu'i.s. See ('KNsoits, Homan. 

iCRARIUM, The. SeeFis<is. 

iESOPUS INDIANS. Si e Amf.uican Alio- 
KKiisKs. Ai.ooMjiiAS Family. 

iESTII, or /ESTYI, The.-" At this pohit 
[beyond llie Suioncs] the Su.a ic Sea (the HallicJ, 
on its casli ni sliore, w:islie> the tribes of tlic 
.F-stii. wIimm; rites and I'asliiuiis and st\ les of 
dros are iliosc of the Sue\ i, while their language 
is more like the Ilritish. They worship the 
mother of Uie gods and wear as a nli.irious sym- 
bol the device of a wild l»)ar. . . . They often 
use clubs, iron wiapons bul M'ldorii. Tiny are 
more paii'iil in culiivatiiiL' loiii aipl other pro- 
duce than l'ii,'lit be expected ftMUi Ilie u. ueral 
indoli le i' of Ihi GiTrnans. liut they al-i^ si an h 
ilip (!. ■ p a id are the only i.eople" who gather 
aiulirr. uliifh they call i:li -.uiii. ' — " The .Kslii 
■d iliat part of I'ru--sia which is to the 
:i^t of the Vistula, . . . Tin.' name still 
;s in the form r-lo?iia. ' -Tacitus, (!er 
trins. bi) Chnre'i iin'l lu-'ulrp:':, irilh 

-Sie. also, I'lU sslAN I.VSIirAOF., TlIK 


lliirlh I 

nut It V, 


iESYMNETiE, An.- -Among Ihe Greeks, 
an cxpidirm " -.vhiih seems to have been tried 


not unfrequently in early times, for preserving 
or restoring tranquility, was to invest an indi- 
vidual with absolute power, under a peculiar 
title, which soon became obsolete: Ihat of 
asymneta'. At Cuina, indeed, and in other cities, 
this was the title of an ordinary magistracy, prob- 
ably of that which succeeded the Iicndilary nion- 
arcliy ; hut when applied to an extraordinary 
ollice, it was eipiivahnt to the title of protector 
or dictator."— L". Tliirlwall, llitt. nf Omce, eh. 
iETHEL.— iETHELING. See Etiikl, and 


See IVrini.iir.iiT, etc. 

iETOLIA.— iETOLIANS.— ■■^tolin, the 
country of Dioiiied, though famous in the early 
times, fell back during the migratory period 
almost into a savage condition, jirobably through 
the influ.x into it of an lllyrian population which 
became only partially Ilellenized. The nation 
was <livided into numerous tribes, among which 
the most important were the Apodoti, the Ophi 
oneis, the Eurytanes and the Agrauns. There 
wire scarcely "any cities, village life being pre 
ferred univcrsall.v. ... It was not till the wars 
which arose among Alexander's successors that 
the ...tolians formed a real political union, and 
became an important power in Gnecc. " — G 
IJawliuson. Jfanualof Ancieht Hint., Ik. 3. — See 
also. Akarnanianb, and Gbkkce: The Mioiu- 

iCTOLIAN LEAGUE, The.— " The Acha 
ian and Ihe .Etolian Leagues, had their constitu- 
tions been written down in the shaiie of a formal 
doeumeiit. would have presintcd but few vari- 
eties of importance. The same general form of 
government prevailed in both ; each w as fi deral, 
each was democratic; each had its popular as- 
sembly, its smalli r Senate, its general w ilh hirgc 
powers at the head of all. The dillereiices bc- 
twien the two are merely those dilTerences of 
detail whieliwill between any two 
pnliiiial systems of which neither is slavishly 
copied froni the other. ... If therefore federal 
slates or denioeratic slates, or aristoeralic stiites, 
were necessarily weak or strong, peaceful or 
aggressive, lionest or dishonest, wc should sec 
Achaia and .Ftolii both exhibiting the same 
moral characteristics. But lii.siory tells another 
tale. The political conduct of the Achaian 
League, w ith some mistakes and some faults, is, 
on the whole, highly honouralde. The political 
conduct of the .Etolian League is, througliout 
the century in which we know it best [last half 
of third and tirst half of second cenlury B. C] 
almost always .siiniily infamous. . . . Tiie coun- 
sels of the .'Etolian "League were throughout di- 
rected to mere plunder, or. at niosl, lo scllLsh 
Iioliliial aL'L'r.indiscincnt."— E. A. Frcemiin, ///.<^ 
<■/ r,d,ml (iiiit . eh. 0.— The plundering aggres 
.sioiis of the .Etolians iiiMilvi-d Iheiii in coiuinual 
war with their Greek kimlrnl and iieiglibours. 
and they did not .scruple to mi k foreign aid. It 
waslhrouuh their agency that the Uoiiiaii^ were 
lirst broimlit into Greece, and it w;is by tin ir 
insininieiitalitv that .\ntioclius fought his b.attle 
with lionie on 'he saeredi-t "f all lb lleiiii ^.lil. 
In the end. 15. C. !"!l. the League was snipped 
by the Homans of even its nominal iiidepeMilence 
and sank into a I'oiiienipiible servitude— E. A. 
Freeman. J'be mnin , e/i 7-!t. 

Also in f. Tliirlwall. jlixt. of Grem. ch. 63-fill 




AyGHANlSTAN, B. C. 330. 

AFGHANISTAN, 1803-1838. 


AFGHANISTAN: B. C. 330.— Conouest 
by Alexander the Great.— Fot'ndtng of Herat 
and Candahar. Sir Ma(1I>oma. >Vi. : H. ('. 
.'J30-323; ttuil India: H. C. :L'T-:!1->. 

B. C. 301-246.— In the Syrian Hmpire. Sec 
Selkucid^; and Mackdoma, ic. : JiUl-JiOl mul 

A. D. 999-1183.— The Ghaznevide Empire. 
See Tluks: A. D. 999-Uh;j, uml I.ndia; A. D. 

A. D. 13th Century.— Conquests of Jinghis- 
Kban. See Mo.sddi.s; A. 1). ll.j;{-12J7; and 
India: A. D. 077-12!)0. 

A. D. 1380-1386.- Conquest by Timour. 
Sec TiMOin. 

A. D. 1504. — Conquest by Babar. See In- 
dia: A. It i:l!)9-lfiO,j, 

A. D. 1722.— Mahmoud's conquest of Persia. 
See 1'kusia: A. D. 14i)U-l^^*7. 

A. D. 1737-1738.— Conquest by Nadir Shah. 
See India: A D. HiW-ni^ 

A. D. 1747-1761. — The Empire of the Door- 
anie, Ahmed Abdallee.— His Conquests in 
India. See India. A. I). 1717-17111. 

A. D. 1803-1838.— Shah Soojah and Dost 
Mahomed. — English interference. — " Sh;ili Sc « .- 
j:ili-iii)l Miw)lk, 11 (;r;imlscin of llie illu>t.ri.iiis 
Ahmed Sliiili. reij,'ned in Afdi!inist:in I'mm V'>yt 
lill ISK'J. His youth li;id been f: M of tninl.le 
:ind vicissitude. He liail tieen 11 wanderer, on 
llie ver;;e <if stiirv:ilii>ii, 11 pedlar, and a li;in- 
dit. wlut nused nuinrv liy jjiumlerin:^ eanvans. 
Mis ennraire w;is liirlitly reputed, and it was 
.IS a nieri: <'reatnre of eii'eu!nst;uiee that he 
readied the limine. HisreiL'n was |>ertuihed. 
and in 1HI)0 lie was a fuirilive and an e.\ili\ 
Hiinjeet Siii:,'li, the Sikh riilcr of tlie l'tiiij:iidi. 
defraudeii liini of the pinions Koli-i iioor, wlilili 
is now the most preeiuus of the crown jewels of 
Eii:;Iand, and pliiiuh red and impii-oned the 
fallen man. Sliali Soojali at Iricth CM-.-ipeil 
from Lahore. After fiiitlier ipi-foitiines lie 
at lenfrtli reached the Iiritish frontier station of 
l.oinlianidi, and in ISlti l)cc;iine a iicnsioner of 
:lie Kast India Cianpaiiy. .\fler tlie downf^dl of 
Shah So()j;ili, .Ugli:iiiistan fi>r nnmv years w,i<a 
prey to unaiehv. At h'liirth in 1^,'fi, Dost -Mi- 
iionicd succeeded in makinij himself snpnnie at 
Calml, and this masterful man tlieneet'orwaid 
held sway until his death in IW!:). uiilnterrnpt- 
edly .save dnrini; the three years of the IJriiish 
occnpation. IhM .Malioniecf was neither kith nor 
kin to ihe le:;itiinatedynasty which hedisphiecil. 
His fiither I'oynihih Khan was an alileshite^man 
and ualhint soldier. He left twenty-one sons, of 
whom Kutteli Kliau wiis the eldest, and l)o-t 
Mahoined oneof the voniii^est. . . . Tll^ou^llont 
his Ion;; reign Dost Nlahianed was a strong' and 
wis'' ruler. His youth IkuI been ncLdecod and 
diss ,lnte. His cdiieation was defective, and be 
had been aildieted to wine. Once seated lui the 
throne, the rcbirmation of our Henry V. was not 
inmc thoioniili th:iii was that of Dost Maboincd. 
lie t.iii^'bt hinisidf to rc-id ami w rile, studied tlie 
Koran, iieeame scrupulously absteiniotis, a^^idii- 
ous ill air:iirs, noloniicr triu ulent. but courteous. 
. . . There was a tine ruiri;ed honesty in his 
nature, and a streak of Lfeiiuine cbi\;ilry; not- 
«ithsi:indiii:r thu despite he sulleied at our 
hands. lie had a real regard for the Kii!.'li-li. 
and his loyalty to us u:is broken only li\ bis 
mined support of Ihe .sil.hs in the second 
Punjaul) war. The fallen Shah .s.iojah, from 

Iiisasylmnin I.oodlaniih, waHoontinually ii.tri;;u 
ini; for liis rcsioration. His seheincs were long 
ino|ierative, and it was not until 18u2 that cer- 
t.iiii arranixements were entered into between 
liim and the -Mabaraja Ilnnjeet S:n;:li. To un 
applieation on Slnili Sooj:ih's part for countc- 
nauee ami pecuniary aid, the Vnu'lo-ln" ,n Oov- 
ernment replied that to uiTord li"u istanec 
would be 'Ticonsistent with the policy 01 neutral- 
ity which the (Jovernnient h:id iini;..sed on itself : 
lint it iiiiwiscly contributed lin;incially towird 
his undertakiiti; by grantinu him lour" nioalii-i' 
pension in ndv:ince. Sixteen tlioiis:ind rupeis 
formed a se:iiit war fund with wliieli to atlcinpt 
the recovery of a throne, but the.'sh;ili started on 
his errand in l"cbru:iry, ls:i:i. .Vfier a success- 
ful contest with the.Vmccrsof Scindc. liem:ir(hed 
on Candalair, and be^'esed tlait fortress. C':inda- 
har was in cxlrcinity when Dost .Mahomed, 
hurryini; from (';ibiil, relieved it, anil joiniiii; 
forces with its defenders, be defeated and routed 
Shah Soojah, who Hid precipitately, liaviii!.' be- 
hind him his artillery and camp ciiuipaL'e. Dur- 
ing' the Dost's absi nee in the south, liunjeet 
siiurb's troops crossi'd the Attock, occupied the 
.\f';h;in ])roviiice ot I'e-liawiir, and drove the 
Af:.'haiis into the Kliyber I':iss, Xo subscipient 
elfortson Dost .Maho'ined's part tivailrd to expel 
llie Siklis from rcsbiiwiir, and sii-picious of 
IJriiish connivance wiJb Ilnnjeet Siiurli'ssucecss- 
ful au'^Tevsinii, he took into rati 111 tlie 
polii y of fortifyini' himself by ii lounter alliance 
wiih'l'er-ia. .'\s lor Sluili Silojah. be h;id crept 
b:ickto hi, refuLTe at I,oodi:in:ih. Lord .Vuckland 
succcdled LonI William lienlincl-- as (iovcriior- 
(leiieral of India in Marcli, IstiiJ. In reply to 
Do-t Jltihonicd's h tier of coiii.'r:itul.ition,' his 
lordship wrote: 'You are aw ire lh;it it is not 
the practice of the Ibilish (ioveriinient to inter- 
fere willithealciirsof oiher iiMlepcndeiit States;' 
all alistcniion whii li Lord Auel.iainl was soon to 
\ii.lale. He had broimlit fniii r.iuihind the fiel- 
i:,L' of di~i|iiii tilde in rei:ard to the ile-i 'lis of 
I'l r-ia anil l£u~-ia which the comniiinic atiiins of 
our envoy ia I'cr^ia had fosti red in the Home 
(iovernnunt, bit itwuuld appe:ir th it he was 
wholly niidecided wliat line of action to pursue. 
'Swayed,' s;iysDurand, ' by the vaTue appre- 
licn-i.ins of a reinole daii-'cr entrrlained by 
(tilers rtilhcr tli.m bimsell',' lie despatched to 
Af::haiiist;in Captain lluriies on a nominally 
commereial mission, which, in fact, was one of 
political (li-eovc ry, but willioui de;.i:ite in truc- 
tioiis. IJiinies, an able but r;ish and jimbilioua 
111:111, reachel (*;ibul in Si'iilembi r, 1 -m, two 
months before the I'er-ian army bcL'aii llie sid'O 
of Herat. . . . The Do-t made no conce:ilinent 
to liiirncs of bis appio:ichcs to !'< i-i,i and Uus- 
sia, in despair of l>rili--h eood ol',ie( s, and liein,:; 
buii'.'ry for as-i-taiue from any source to meet 
the ciii-roaehinc Ills of the Sikhs, he profcs^ril 
Iii;iseU' re:idy to abandon bis ne_'otiatiiins w itU 
the wcsteriipower- if he wen' ::iven reason to 
expect countenance and a-^i-: nice a' tlie h;iiids 

of the ,\lc.;lo Iinii;ill (Jovcnillli lit. . . . The sitlt- 

aiioii of liurnes in relation to the Dost \\:.s pi-e,- 
I ntly eoniplicated by ttie arri\;il at Cabiil of a 
liiis^ian olticcr elaimiiiL' to be an einoy fri'ln the 
(Var. whew credentials, however, were re_'arded 
as dubious, and who, if that eirciim-i:incc iian 
the Iea--I \vei.riit. w:is on his retiiin lo Iliissia ut- 
terly repudiated bv Counl Nesselrode. The 
Dost look small aeeoiiiit of this emissary, con- 


AFOIIANISTAX, 180a-1838. 


tinning to assure Uiirma tlmi Ik <:in ■! for mi 
connoctiim cx<vpt will; tlie Knjilisli, and liurms 
profosstd to liis (iovcrnmcn*, his fullist cdn- 
(idcnce in tlic sincerity of tliosc <Icclar:itions. 
But till' toiii' of Lonl Au( kliind's reply, addrissi'd 
to the Dost, w;iH so dietatoriul and sujiercilious 
as to indicate tlie writer's intention that it should 
givi' oilinee. It had that elTeet. and Humes' 
rais.sion at once beeaine hopiless. . . . The Rus- 
sian envoy, wlio was profus*' in his promises of 
evervlhini; wliieh llie Kost was most anxious to 
olitain. wasreeeived into favour and treute<l with 
distinction, ami on his return journey he efTeeteil 
a treaty witli tlie Candahar chiefs which was 
presently ratitied liy the Uus.sian minister at the 
Persian Court. Hurnes, fallen into discredit at 
Caliul. quilted that place in August IMIli^. He 
had not licen dixrci't, hut it was not his indis- 
cretion tlial liroiiglit aliout the failure of his 
mis.sion. A nefariiuis transution, which Kaye 
deuounces with the passion of a just indignation, 
connects itsilf with Iturnes' ne,gotiatiou.s with 
the Dost ; his ollieial eorrcspomienci* was unscru- 
pulously mutilated ami garlded in the pulilished 
Hlue Hook with ilcliherate purpose to deceive 
the Hritish pulilie. Hurnes had faileii because, 
simc he had i|uilti'd Inilia f' (aliiil, Lord 
.\uckland's police had u'radually :illered. I-ord 
.\uckland had lanilcd in Iiidiain the character 
of a man of pcaei'. Thai, so l.ite as Ajiril IWiT, 
he no design of oljslnieting the existing 
situation in Afgliaiiistan is proved hv his writ- 
ten statement of that dale, that ' t"li.' Hritish 
(Jovernineiit had ri'solved decideilly todiscourage 
the proM'culinn liy tiie ex-kini.^ Shah Smijali-ool- 
Moolk, so loiiL' as he may remain under our pro- 
teition, of fiiiiher selicmes of hostility against 
the chiefs now in power in Caliul and ( audahar.' 
Vcl, in llie followiiiL' ,lune, hceoiicluded a treaty 
wliieh sen! Shah Snojah to Caliul, escorleil hy 
lirilish l>a,\(inels. (If this inconsisteiiey no e\- 
Iilanaiinn presi ills iiself. It was a cry from 
our froiiiiir mi liie Sutlej to Herat in ll'ieeon- 
lim s of Ci ntral Asia — a liisianee of more than 
L'-'oil miles, over some of the most arduous 
niateliiiiLr ground iu the known world. . . , 
l.oi'd William llenlinik, l,ord Auckland's prede 
cessnr, deuouiieed I hi' proji el as an act of in 
credilile folly. Manpiis W.'llesley reL'anh'd 
'this H ild es|irdilinii iiitii a di-tan't region of 
ro( ks and ill siris. uf saiuU and iei' ami snow,' as 
auaei'if inlainaiion. Tin Duke of Wellinglon 
pron.Miiicid Willi pp. pin lie .sa^'aeiiy, that the 
<'oiise,(iieiicr of ome ' io-..inL' the Indus to .settle 
a ;:'»\i iniin Ml in .Vfglianistaii would he a peren- 
nial maicli int. I that ei uutrv "— A. KorlH'S. '/'/.. 
vl.;.;/„i„ II..,.,, ,■/,. I, 

"Ai-o i\: .1, r. Keiiier. 11,^1. ..;' Il„ At'"/fii" 
rh. 10 ■ill— Mi.lian I.ii: .,/' Amir Uu-t .1/ - 
f„i,„„„'l hi,.,,.. ..1. 

A. D. 1838-1842. — English invasion, and 
restoration of Soojah Dowlah,— The revolt at 
Cabul. Horrors of the British retreat. - 
Destruction of the entire army, save one man, 
only. Sale's defence of Jellalabad.— lo ap li .\!'i;liani^laii il \\as neecvsjiry lo secure 
till' fiiemlship of the Sikhs, hIiii were, indeed, 
ready el!.. iiL'li t.. join against lluirold emniii,~, 
and a Ihiei li.l.l triaty was (i.ntracted lietwein 
Kiinjed Singh, the Knglisli, and Shah Sni.jnlr 
for tile restonition of the banished house, 'hie 
rxpedition — whiih according to tin uri'.' 
inlention was to hare been carried out chielU 

by means of IriHips iu the pay of Shnh 
S(K)jah and the .Sikhs — ra|iidly" grew into 
an Knglish invusion of Afglmnisian. .\. 
consiilerablc force was gathered on the Sikh 
frontiir from Bengal: a .scdiiid Hniiy. under 
CJeneral Keane. was to come ii|i from Kumiclice 
through Sindh. of these nrmies, and the 
trmips of Shah Soojah, were to enter the high- 
lands of Afghanistan by the Bolan Pass. As 
the Sikhs would not willingly hUow the free 
passage of our troops through their country, an 
additional burden was lah! upon the armies, — 
tlie indepemhnl Ameers of Sindh had to be 
coerced. At length, with much trouble from 
the dilliculties of the country and the loss of the 
commissariat animals, the tones were all col 
lected under the command of Keane beyond the 
imsses. The want of fiMHl permitted of nodelay ; 
the army pushed on to Candahar. Shah Soojah 
was declared Monarch of the southern Princi- 
pality. Thence the troops moved rapidlv 011- 
warifs towards the more important anil dirtii ult 
conipiest of Cabul, Ghu/.iiee, a fortn-ss of 
great strength, lay in the way. In their haslv 
movements the Knglish had left their battering 
train behind, but the gates of the fortress were 
blown in wit' . unpowder. and by a brilliant 
feat of arms ti.e fortress was stormeil. Nor clid 
the Knglish army encounter any important 
resistance subseiiuently. Dost Mohamed found 
his followers deserting'liim, and withdrew norlli- 
wards into the mountains of the lliiidiKi Kisish 
With all the splendour that could lie (olhited. 
Shah Soojah was lirouglit back to his throne in 
the liala Ilissar, the fortress Palace of Cabul. 
. . . For the moment the policy seemed thor- 
oughly sueeessfiil. The Knglish'.Ministry could 
feel that a fresh <heek had been placed upon its 
Hussiiin rival, ami no one dreamt of the terrible 
retribution that was in store for the unjust vio 
leiice done lo the feelings of a people. . . . 
Dost .Moliamed thought it prinleiit to surrender 
himself t.i the Knglish envoy. Sir William Mae- 
iiaglilen, ami to withdraw w ith his family to the 
Knglish provincis of llindo.slan [November. 
l'*4(ij. lie was there well receiveil and treated 
with liberality; for, as both the (ioverm.r 
(ieiicral and his chief adviser Maenagliten filt. he 
hail not in fact in any w.iy oirended us. but had 
I'alli n a victim to our policy It wa- in the full 
belief that their policy in India had been crowned 
with pennaiieut sill less that the Whig Ministers 
withdrew from olliee, leaving their successors 
to eneonnti r the terril.le results to w hich it led. 
For while the Knglish otl!ci,ils wi re Mindly con- 
gratulating tlieinselves upiai tin' happy comple- 
tion of tlieir enterprise, to an observani eye 
siirnsof aiiproailiing dilliculty were on all .sides 
visible. . . . Tlie removal of the strong rule of 
the IJarrukzyes opened a door for undelincd 
hopes to many of the other fainilirs and tribes. 
The whole country was full (if intiiiiues and ef 
(liplonialie barL'aining. carried on by the Kng- 
lish poliiieal agents with the various chiefs 
and leaders. Hut they soon found that the 
hopes excited by these negotiations were illu 
sory. The allowances for which lliey had bar- 
gained were reilun-d. for the Kiigiish envoy 
beu'an to be (lisc|uieted at the vast expenses of 
the (iovi rnmeiit. 'I'liey did not tind that tiny 
derivid any advantages from the estalilishment 
of the new puppet King. Soojah Dowlah; and 
every Mahomedan. even the very kiiifr liinisi'lf. 





AFGUANI8TAN, 1838-1842. 

AFGHANISTAN, 1888-1842. 


felt dlsijrracoil at the pre<lominiince of the Eng- 
lish inUdels. But as no actual insiirrcctiDn 
hroki' out, Macnaghtcn, a man of sanguine 
temiK-ranient anil anxious to lielicve wliat ho 
wished, iu s[>ite of iinniiatukuble warnings as to 
the real feeling of the people, clung witli 
almost angry vehemence to the persuasion that nil 
was going well, and that the mk King had a real 
hold upon the people's affcition. So completely 
liad he deceived himself on this point, that he 
had decided to si'nd hack a piirtinn of the Fng- 
lish army, under Ceticral Sale, into Hindustan. 
He even" intended to acciMiipiiny it himself to 
enjoy the peaceful post of (ioverr.or of Honihay, 
with wluch his successful policy li;id been 
rewarded. Ills pliice was to lie iatcn hy Sir 
Alexander Hurnes. wliosc view of the troubled 
I'onilition of tlie country underlying the com- 
parative calm of the surfaei' was much truer 
than that of Maciiagliten, but who, perhaps 
from that very fact, n as far less popular among 
the chiefs, 'tiie army which was to remain at 
Candahar was under t'lc conunand of General 
Xott, an able and decided if suniewhat ii'ascible 
num. Hut Oeniral Klphiiistonc, the conunander 
of the troops at Cabid, v is of (piite a dilTcrent 
stamp. He was nuicl spectcd and liked for 
his honoureble cliai:'' r and s(H-i;tl (pialities. 
but was advanced in years, a cniilirmed in^'alid, 
and wholly wanting in the vigour and decision 
wliich his critical position was likely to riiiuire. 
Tile fool's paradise witli wliicli ilie KiiL'li^li 
Knvoy had surroumlcd liini.self was rudi ly 
ilostroyed. He had persuaded himself that the 
frequently recurring distnrliaia c-, mihI espec ially 
tlie insurreiticMi of the (iliilzyis lirtween (':ibul 
and .lellalabMd, were nxTc local outlireaks. liut 
In fact a uTi at conspiracy was on lout in wlii( h 
the chiefs of nearly ev>'ry important tribe in tlie 
country were implicated. On tlie eveninir of 
the lat of November [1841] a meeting of the 
chiefs was held, and It was decided that an 
immediate attack should be made on the bouse 
of Sir Ale.xandcr Burnes. The following morn- 
ing an angry crowd of assailants stormed the 
houses of Sir Alexander Burnes and Captain 
Johnson, murdering the inmates, and rilling tlie 
treasure-chests Ix'longing to Soojah Dowlah's 
armv. Soon the whole city was in wild iiisur- 
nctfon. The evidc'iice is nearly irre^iMible tliat 
a little decision and rapidity of aclion on thi' 
part of the military would have at once crushed 
the outbreak. But although the attack on 
Barnes's house was known, no Irocips were sent 
to his assistance. Indeed, that unhrcikcii coiif-e 
of folly and mismanagement wliiih inarlic'd ' ic 
eoniluet of our milit.ary alTairs thrc)Ugh'Mit tiii-i 
' risis had already begun. Instead of oeiuiiyicig 
ihe fortress of the Bala Ilissnr. wlicre the army 
^^"ulcl have been in comparative security, 
i'.Iphinstcine had placed his trooi>s in cMnt'cii- 
iiurils far tcx) cxlensi\i' to be projicrly dereiicled, 
surrouncled by an cntrcnehnient of the nio^l 
insignilieant cliaracter, eonunandecl on alinci>^t 
all sides by higher ground. To ccmi]ilele the 
tmruness of till! jiosilion, the conimissariat 
supplies were not stored williiii llie caiilon- 
ments. but were placed in an isolated Inrt at 
some little distance. .\n ill-sustained and f-itile 
as.saiilt was made upon the town on the :!d of 
November, but from that time onwards the 
British troops lay with incomprehensible supine- 
DesB awaitine their fate in th'-ir defcncelesa 

position. The comniLssariat fort soon fell Into 
the hands of the enemy and rendered their situ- 
ation still more deplorable. Some flashes of 
bravery now and then lighted up the sombre 
scene of helpless misfortune, and served to show 
that destruction might even yet have been 
averted by u little tirniness. . . . But the com 
mander bad already begun to despair, and before 
many days had p.issed he was thinking of mak- 
ing liTins with the enemy. Macnaghic ii had no 
course open to him uiuler such circumstances 
but to adopt the suggestion of the general, and 
attempt as well as he could by bribes, <'aj(7lery. 
and intrigue, to di\icle the chids and secure a 
safe retreat for the Kiiglish. Khiin, the 
son of Dost Mohamed. though not present at the 
beginning of the insurrection, had arrived from 
the northern mountains, and at once asserted a 
predominant inlluence in the insurgent councils. 
With him and with the other insurgent chiefs 
Macnaghtcn entered into an arrraniremcnt by 
which he prcanised to withdraw the Kngli4i 
entirely from the country if a s;ite pa.ssage were 
secured for the army thnaigh the . . . 
While ostensibly treating with the Barrukzye 
(liiefs, he iiitrigued on all sides witli the rival 
Irilies. His double dealing was taken advantage 
of by AkbarKhan. He sent messengers to Jlac- 
naghten proposing that the English sliould make 
a .separate treaty with himself and support him 
with their troops in :.n assault upcm stmie of his 
rivals. The proposition was a mere trap, and 
llie envoy fell into it. Ordering troops to be 
got ready, he hurried to a nu'cting with Akbar 
to complete the arrangement. Tliirc he found 
liiiiiself in the presence of the brother an-^ »*ela- 
Ii\c'S of the very men against whom he was 
jilotting, and was .seized and murderiMl by 
Akbar's own hand [DeeerilMT 2:i]. Still the 
(iciieral thought of nothing but surrender. The 
negotiations were entrusted to >Iajor I'otlinger. 
The terms of the chiefs gradually rose, and at 
length with much confusion the wretched army 
marched out of the cantonnienls [.January 6, 
IstC], leaving behind marly all the cannon "anil 
superlluous military stores. \n .\fghan escort 
to secure the safety of the' troops on tli<*ir peril- 
ous journey had bec'ii proiiii.scil, but the promise 
\\asnot kept. The horrors of thc> retreat form 
one of the darkest passages in Ijiglish military 
iii^torv. In bitter cold and snow, which took 
all life out of the wretched Sepoys, without 
proper <'lotliing or shelter, and hampiTed by a 
disorderly of thousands of camp-followers, 
the army entered tie- terrible deliles wliic li lie 
bctwi'eMi'f'abul and .Ji Whether .\kbar could, had he w i-.lii cl it, have restrained 
his fanatical followers is uneiTIaiii. .\s a fact 
the retiring crowd — it can scvirc e!y be called an 
army — was a mere unn-i^ting prey to the 
a-^^aults of the ipcamtaineers. ('onsi;iut eum- 
niuiiicalion was kc'pt up with Akbar; on Ihe 
tliird day all the hidies and children with the 
married men were' plaeed in his hands, and 
lin.-illy I'ven the two generals irave themselves up 
as he.,lau'es, always in the hope that the rem- 
nant of Ihe tirmv niiirli'. be alh>wed to esc-ape. " — 
.1. F. Bright, Ili«t. nj Kii'jhniil. r. 4, pp. iil-(ifi.— 
"Then the march of the army, witlioijl a gen- 
eral, went on again. Soon it became the story 
of a general without an army ; before very long 
there' was neither general nor army. It is idle to 
leDEthcn a ttde of mere horrors. The strag- 


AFliHAMST^V^, 1888-1843. 

AFGUAMSTAN, 1843-1869. 

glini^ rcmiiant of an army entered the Juf;dulluk 
Pass — a (lark, Btiip, narrow, ascending i)atli 
li(t\v<<'n iTaj,'s. The niiscraljlc toilcrM foiinil 
thil till' f.inalii'al, iinplaiulilc triliis hail b.irri- 
<:iili'il the pass. All was over. The ariiiv ot 
Caluil was linal'y extinguished In that liarrl- 
cailccl pass. It was n trap: the British were 
t.iUi II in it. A few mere fugitives eseaped from 
the siine of actual slaughter, and were on the 
ro.ail to .Icllalahail. where i^ale and his little 
army were holding their own. When they were 
wiiliin .-ixteiri miles of .Idlalaliail the nunilur 
wiis r.diicc.l to si.x. (If six tivo were 
Killed liy straggling marauders on the wav. 
One man alone reached ,Ii llalaliad to tell the 
t.ale. Literally one man. Dr. IJrydon, came to 
.Irllil.aliad (.lainiary lllj out of a m iving ho>t 
whi. h had nuniiiercd in all .some Ki.DOO when it 
set out on its march. The curious eye will 
search throu^'h history or liction in vain for 
any picture more thriliiin; with the sngirestions 
of an a«-fuli atasirophc than that of this solilarv 
sur\ivur. faint and reding on his jaded horse, 
as he appeared under the walls of .Ii llalahad, to 
hear the tidings of our Thermopylae >f jiaiu and 
shame. This is the cri-is i,f the storv. With 
this at least the wcrst of Ih. pain and .shame 
Were ilciiiicd I,, iTid. The rest is all, so far 
as we are i onccrncd, reaction and recovery. 
Our Mici' s .are mnimon enough; we may till 
till ir tall' luiclly in tliis instance, Tlie garrison at 
.Ii llalahad had' received liefiire Dr. Brydnn's ar- 
rival an intiniatinii that tiny were to go out anl 
march tow.ird India in an lu'ilance with the terms 
of tlielri aly cxl.irted fi-nm I'.lphin.tonent t'.diul. 
They Very properly d'l lined to he hound hv a 
treaty Hl'iiili, as (oin ral Sale rightly cc.iij'ic- 
I IT' 1, had hccn 'fnriid from our envoy loid 
miHl.iry coMunauder with the knives at" tin ir 
throat-;.' (icneral Sale's determination wastlcar 
and -iini'h'. 'I iini].o>e to hohl this place on 
the iiartof (oAcrnment until I receive its iirdcr 
to the contrary.' This resolve of Sale's was 
rcallv the turninir point of the history. Salo 
heM,; Nnlt was at Candaliar. Akhar 
Khan he-icgeil .lcll:dahad. Nature si'emed to 
h : e di clareil herself emphatically on his side, 
< 1 sun oinii of earthiiuake shocks sliattercl 
t'. walls of the place, and iiroduced more 
terio.le destruction than the most formidal-le 
L'unsof luudrrn warfare could h.-ive dnne. liut 
the garrison held out fearlcsly ; they restored 
till' parapets, n-estaMi-hed ewrv h.-utcrv, re- 
trcni hed ilie wide of tiie ijates aiid huill up all 
the lireaehes. They resisted ev cry attempt of 
.\khar Khan to advance ii|.on tlii'ir W'uks, and 
at lenu'th, ulieii it hecame certain that (icui r'al 
rollocU Was fori inir Ilie Khvher Pass to come 
to their relief, they deienuinl'd to attack Akliar 
Khan's armv; thc'v issued lioldlv out of their 
f.irls, forced a hatlle on the Afdian diief, aial 
eomplctdy ilefe.'ilcl him. Hefi'ie I'ulli.ik, hav- 
ing gallantlv fought his wav tlirnu!.-li tin' 
Khyher i'ass. had reached .Tdlalahad (April llij 
the hde.igueringarniy had heen entirely defeated 
ati'l ilispersed. . . . 'Meanwhile the unfortun.ite 
Shah Soojah. whom we had restoieil with so 
much pomp of announcement to tlie throne of 
his ancestors, was dead. He was nss,'issiuateil 
m f'aliul, soon after the departure of the British. 
. . and his holly, strip]M'd of its royal robes and 
its many jewels'^ was Hung into il ditch." — J. 
SId'arthy. Jfint. ofiturtmn Timfji^ v. 1, rA. 11 


Also in J. W. Kave, /titt. of the H'.ir in 
.\J]lhiini»t:iii.—Q. U. Gleig, SaU'a Bri'jadi' in 
Afyhii nM,i II . — Lady Sale, J'nirital vf the I)u i^- 
lim ill .l/y/i</;ii«<i(«.— Mohan Lai, Life nf Il^t 
M.ilKiiiiiiiid, ch. 1.5-18 (c. 2). 

A. D. 1842-1869.— The British return to 
Cabul.— Restoration of Dost Mahomed.— It 
wa.s not till Siptemher that General I'ollock 
" I onldohtainpernii.ssion from th" Governor-Gen- 
eral. Lord Kllenhorougli, to iiilvance against 
Cahul, though hotli he and Nolt were hurning to 
do so. When Pollock did advance, he found the 
enemy posted iit .lugdulluck, the scene of the 
massacre. ' Here.' .says one writer, ' the skeletons 
lav so tinek that they had to he cleared away to 
allow the guns 01 pass. The savage grandeu'r of 
the scene rendered it a litling i)lace fur the deed 
of IiIoikI which had lain enacted under its horrid 
shade, never yet pierced in some places hy sun- 
light. The was strewti for two miles with 
nnmldcring skeletons like a charuel hmise.' Now 
the eneaiv found they had to deal with other 
men. nnilcr oliier leaders, for, putting their 
whole cm TL'V into the work, the British troops 
sc.ded the hei^'hts and steep ascents, and defeated 
tlie enemy in their strongholds on all sides. 
After one more severe tight with Akhar Khan, 
ami all the force he conlil collect, the enemy 
v>, re heaten, and driven from their mountains, 
aad the force marched tjuielly into Cahul. 
.V"tt. on his side, started from Candahariin the 
Till of August, and, after tighting several small 
li.itiles with the enemy, he captured Olinzni. 
whire Palmer and his garri.son had been de- 
stroyed. From (iliuzni General Nott b.ought 
away, hy command of Lord Kllenhorough, the 
g I'.es of .Somnauth [said to have been taken 
from the Hindu temple of Somnauth bv Mah- 
moud of (ihazni, the first Mohammed'an in- 
\aderof India, in 1()'241, which formed the suh- 
.iect of the celebrated 'Proclamation of the 
(iates," as it was called. This proclamation, 
is-ued by Lord Kllenborough, brought upon him 
iiidless ridicule, and it was indeed at first eon- 
sideied to he a satire of his enemies, in imitation 
of .Napoleon's address from the Pvraniids; the 
Duke of Wdliniitoii called it 'the Song of 
Tiiumph.' . . , This proclamathin, put forth 
with so much flourishing of trumpets and ado, 
was really an insult ti tin.* whom it professed 
to praise, it an insult to the .Mohammedans 
under our rule, for their power was gone, it was 
also an insult to the Hindoos, for their temple of 
Somnauth was in ruins. These eelehrated gates, 
whidiare lalicveil to he imitations of the original 
gates, ;,ii' now lying neglected and worm-eaten, 
ill the baeli part of a sm: 11 museum at Agra, 
liut to return, (teneral Xott. having captured 
(Jhuziii and defeated S titan , Ian. pushed on t'l 
Cabul. where lie arrived on the ITtli of Septeni- 
her, and met Pollock, The Kriglisli prisoners 
(amongst whom were Brigadier Shelton and 
Lady Salei, who had hi eii captured at the time 
of the niass^iire, were hroiii'ht, or found their 
own wa>. to (ietieial P'lllock's camp, (icneral 
Klpninsione h.-nl die,; during his captivity. It 
was .., , now considered necessary to take any 
further sti't^s; the lia/.aar in Caliul \\;is ile- 
slrnyed, and on the C'th of October Pollod. and 
Nott turned their faces southwards, and began 
their in.ireh into India by the Khyher roiite. 
The .\fL'hans in captivity were sent back, and 
•he (ii'Vem-.-r Genera! received the tnaip-j at 

AFQIIAXISTAN, 1842-1869, 

AFGHANISTAN. 186B-1881. 


Ferozppoor. Thus cmleil the Afi;Iian war of 
18:18—12. . . . Tlio war Ixiiitf over, we with- 
drew our forces into India, leaving tlie wui (if 
Shah S()<)jah, Fallil Jiiti).', wli'> hail escapecl frutii 
Cabiil when his father was iiiiiiclereil, as kiiit; df 
the eountry, n pnsilion tliat he was imalile tn 
tnaliitain Imig, beini; very slmrtly afterwanls 
assassiiiateil. In \K{i I)ii-.t Alihomrd. tlie riilir 
whom we hud deposed, nod wlio had lieeii liviii:; 
at our expense in India, n turned to Caliul uml 
resumed his former position as kin;: of tlie eoun- 
try, still bearin;; ill-will towards \is. which he 
Bhowe<l on several occasions. initaMy durini,' the 
Sikh war, when he sent ii \ii>t\y of his horsemen 
to tight for the Sikhs, and In- himsi If in;irehcit 
an army through the Khylier to I'esliawur to 
assist our enemies. However, the oeeupe.tion of 
the Punjab forced upon Post Mahomed the 
necessity of bdng on friendly terms with his 

fiowerful neighbour; he therefore eoneluded n 
ricndly treaty with us in ls"i4. hoping thereby 
that our power woidd be used to prevent the in 
trigues of Persia au'ainst his kingdom. This 
hope was shortly alter n'ali/id, for in IM.'jO wo 
declared war against Persia, an event w hieh was 
greatly to the advantage of Dost .Mahona d, as 
it prevented Persian encroaelimenis upon his 
territory. This war lasted but a slmrt time, fur 
early in WoT un ngreiinent was siL'ucd between 
'''igl.ind and Persia, by which the latter re- 
■JCed all claims over Herat au<l Afghanistan. 
lb-Tat, however, still remained independent of 
Afghanistan, until ISC:), when Dist .Mahoineil 
.iltaeked and took tile town, thus uniting tlie 
whole kingdom, ineluding C'andahar and Afghan 
Turkestan, under his rule. This was almost tlie 
last act of the Ameir's life, for a few days after 
taking Herat he died. I!y his will he direeti d 
that Where All, one of his sons, should succeed 
him as .\meer of Afghanistan. Tlie new Ameer 
iinnicdiately wrote to the (Jovernt r-tleneral of 
Iridi.i, licird Elgin, in a friendly tone, asking 
that his succession might be aeknowlcd:.'ed. 
Lord iClgin, however, as the eonmieiiccment of 
the Liberal policy of 'masterly inactivity' 
neglected to answer the leltcr, a iie'.jlect which 
<'aniiot but be deeply rei:-rettcrl, as Sh. re .\li was 
at all events the de faito ruler of Ilie country, 
and even had he bein beaten by any other rival 
for the throne, it would have been time enoULrh 
to acknowledge that rival as soon as he was 
really ruler of the eountry. When six months 
later a cold acknowledgement of the letter was 
given by Sir William l)eni-on. ami when a re- 
quest the Anicer made for (i.OOO muskets 
had been refused by Lord Lawrence, the Ameer 
concludril that the disposition of F.n^lind 
towards liiiu was not that of a friend, parlii u- 
larly as. when later on, two of his lir.ithers re. 
volteil against him, ea^li of them was tnld by 
the Government that he would be uckiiowli dgell 
for that part of the co'.iiitry which lie broUL'lit 
under his pr .er. However, after various 
changes in fortune, in ISO!) Shere Ali tinally 
defeated his two brothers Af/ool and Azini, 
together with Afzonl's son. Abdurrahman."— 1'. 
F. Walker, Afffhini^t.m, pp. 4'<-r,\. 

Also in J. W. Knye, IIM. ..f thr W'lr in 
Afyhanistan.—O. B. JIalleson, Ilixt. </ Affffiftn- 
istan, eh. 11. 

A. D. l86,-l88i.— The second war with 
the English and its causes.— The jxriod uf 
fcturbanec in Afghanisttm, during the strugcic 

of Phere Ali with his brothers, eoinci led with 
the vice royalty of Lord Lawrence in India. 
The policy of Lonl Lawrenie, "sometiinea 
slightingly spoken of as masterly inactivity, 
eoiisisti'd inholdint^entircly aloof from the dynas- 
tic ipLirrels of thr- Afghans , , . and In attempt- 
ing to cultivate the friendship of the .\ineer bv 
gifts of money and arms, while carefully iivniif. 
ing topii s of olfenee. . . . Lord Lawrenie was 
himself uiiabn to meet the .\ineer. but his sue 
ee-sor. Lord Mavo. had an Interview with h'm 
at I'mballiih in 'isfiK, . . . Lord .Mayo udhercd 
to the iMiliry of his preilc<-ess, ir. He refused to 
enter i!ito any (lose alliance, he reftiscd to pledge 
himself to support anv dynasty. liut on the 
other hand he pron eil tiiat he would not 
jircss fur the admissiiiii uf any I'.nglish oiacirs as 
Uesilents In Afghanistan. The re'urn exiiei tid 

by Lngland fortius attitude of fri lly nouin- 

terfereiiee was that every otlier fun i 'I'll slate, 
mill espi<cially liussia, should be forbiilden to 
nii.t eitiier directly or indirectly with the alfairs 
of the country in which our iiitere-ts were so 
closely Involved. . . . liut a dilTi rent view was 
held by another si-Iioolof Indian politic i, ins, and 
was supported by men of s nh eminence as Sir 
ISartle Frere iitiil Sir Henry liawlinson. Their 
view was known as the Sindh Policy as con- 
trasted witli that of the Punjab. It appeand 
to them desirable that Knglisli agents should be 
established at tiuett.i, ( andahar, and Herat, if 
not at C'abul itself, to keep the Indian Govern- 
ment comidetcly informed of the affairs of 
.Afghanistan, and to niiiintain English inllueni e 
in the eountry. In 1874, upon tliencccssion of 
the Conservative .Ministry, Sir Hartle Fri re pro- 
duced ii memorandum In which this pf|i(y was 
ably maintained. ... .V Viceroy whose views 
v\ere more in accordance with those of the 
(fO\crnincnt, and who v\as likely to be a more 
readv instrument in |it-] hands, was found in 
LonJ I.ytton, whowiiit to India Intrusted with 
the duty of giving elfect to the new policy. He 
was instructed ... to continue payments of 
money, to recognise the permanence of the 
e.visiing dynasty, and to give a pledge of 
laaterial support in <-ase of unprovokt d foreign 
aggression, tint to in-i~t on tlie acceptance of an 
lOngli^li llesideiit at certain pi. ices in .Vfglianistan 
in excliange for these advani.igi .s. . . . Lord 
Lawrence and tliox who thought with him in 
r.ngland prophesied froui ;lie tirst the disastrous 
results which would arista from the alienation of 
tlie .Vfirh.ins. . . . The of Lonl 
I.ytton that an English Commission should go 
to Cabul to discuss matters of common interest 
to the two (eoernnients, was calculated . . . 
to excite f( clings alrcadv somewhat unfrii ndlv 
to Knglaiid. He [Sliere AH] rejected the 
mission, and foriniilated his grievances. . . . 
Lord I.ytton waived for a lime t'le disp.itch of 
the mission, and conscnti d ton meeting between 
the Minister of the .\inee" and Sir Lewis Pelly 
at Peshawur. . . . The English Commissioner 
was instructed to declare that the one indispen- 
sable eondiiion of the Treaty w:is the admissioD 
of an English representative within the lim'ts of The almost piteous reijuesl or 
the part of the for the relaxation of 
this demand proved unaviiling, and the sudden 
dcitli of the .Vmeer's eiuiiv formed a good 
(xcuse for breaking off the jegotiation. Lord 
Lylton treated the -^ Ulcer as iln on ie ildt, gave 


AKUIIANI8TAN. lH6t-18l)l- 

iilm til iiiMlcrstaml tliiit the English wniiM pro. I gallant but futile resistmiri- of tlio Uoslclciit and 
(■('I'd ti)8( 1 iiri'tlicirfrciiilii r niilidut fiirtl]cTr('l'( r- Iiis ctitiri' I'scnrt. KDitunati'lv tlic rxtri'ine 

rut p to liiiii, niiil willnlrrw liH iiiili\c agent 
frum Cabiil. Wliilr tin' relations lutwren tin' 
two rountrii's were in tlii.i unc-oniforlalili' ron- 
ililion, information reached Inilia that a Uiissian 
Tnis-.ion had been received at Catnil. It was jn^t 
at tliistiiiie tliat ;lie acli..n of llie Itonii' ('loverii- 
iiient Merni-il to he teniliii!^ rapjdty towards a 

war witli liiissia \a the ite^puteh of a 

mission from Hiissia uas (ontrary to the 
eni:ai;enieiit.s of that eminlry, ami its reeeptimi 
uniiert'xJstin'T circumslam es w.^re an unfriendly 
■is[H'('t. Lord I.ytlon saw his way witli some 
olausihle ju^titiealion to demand the reception 
at f'alml of an Knglish embassy, lie notified 
liis inlemiiin to I lie Ameer, but \\i'' >ut wailing 
for an answer selieied Sir Neville i iiainberlain 
as his einiiy, and .sent him forward with an 
escort of nioretlian l.ll'M) men, too large, as it 
was observed, for peace, loo small for war. As 
a matter of course the mission wis not admitted. 
. . An outcry was raised both in la'dand and in 
India. . . . Troops vvtTe liaslily collected upon 
the Indian frontier; and a curious light 
thrown on what had been done by the assi rtion 
of the Premier at the (tuiMliall that 
the object in view was the form.atinn of a '8eieu- 
title frontier;' in other words, throwing aside all 
former pri teiiees, he declared that tlie policy 
of Kngland w :is to make use of the opportunity 
offered for direct territorial aggression. ... As 
had been foreseen by all parlies from the first, 
llie Enirlish armies were entirely .successful in 
Uicir lirsl advance |N'ovenibir, IHTMj. . . . liy 
the close of December .lellalabad was in the 
hands of Ilrowne, the Shutargardan Pass Iiad 
been surmounted by Iloberts, and in Jaiuiary 
Stewart cstabli^lnd himself in CimLahar, When 
the resistance of his arnir proved inelTectual, 
Shere All had taken to flight, only to die. His 
refractory sm Yakoob was drawn from 
his pri>on and assumed the reins of government 
as regent. . . . Yakoob readily granted the 
Knglish demands, consenting to place hisforeiirn 
relations under Hrilish control, and to arei pt 
Uritish agencies. With considerably more 
reluctance, he allnwcd what was rcipiired for lie' 
reelilicaliou of the frontier to pass into Enu'lish 
hands. He received in exeliange a promise of 
support by tiie llrilish (Jovernnienl, and an 
annual subsidvof .LliO.lHK). On the conclusion 
lif til" treaty liie tr"o]is in the ,I( Valley 
withdrew ^\ i'liiii the new Iri inlier, and Yakoob 
Rhan w.'is left lo i ^tabH-h his tiutln'rity as bc^t 
he could at Cabul, w' her in .luly Cavagnari 
with an >>\' twen;;, -i,\' troopers and ciL'"tity 
infantry beinoU him-i If. Then was ena< terl 
again the sad slury which pnliidid the lirst 
.Vfgli.m .Ml ihe |i.iris and seenes in the 
ilrama repeated theni-ehas with curioii-, 
uniformity — the laiL'!i--li llesident with his 
little garrison truslieg blindly to his capacity 
f'T intlui mini: the Af'/Iian mind, the puppet 
IJng. without the power to make himself 
n spected. irritated by the con^tiriit presence of 
the Resident, the chiefs mutually distrustful and 
atone in nothing save tle'r h.atredof English 
interference, the people seething with anger 
against the inlidel foreigner, a wild outbreak 
which the Ameer, even had lie wished it, could 

e-ot v"n*re.I, ,r,n .liTtfirk Vijv.u *!>•"■ Il^si.!,.].. y ttj;.! 

the complete destruction [Sept., 1879] after a 



ided. Tin 

T of the previous war wiis avoided. 
English tr.Hips w liieli were withdrawn from the 
country w 11, • Htill within ri'aih. . . About tlie 
2Uh of September, three weeks after the out- 
break, the Cabul liehl force under (ienenil 
Uoberts was able to move. On the "itli of Octo- 
ber it forced its way into the EoL'ar ValUy at 
(harassiab, and on the 12th (ieiiertil ISoberts 
was able to make his fonnal entry inti^ tin- city 
of Cabul. . . . The .\ineer was deposed, mart' tl 
law was established, the disarmanii nt of the p -o- 
jile reiinircd under pain of death, and the 
country scoured to bring in for |iunislinient 
thcise ehielly implicated in the late oiitlireak. 
While thus engaged in c.irrying out his work of 
relribulion, the wave of insurrection closed 
behind the English general, communication 
through the Kuram Valley was cut olf, and he 
was left to pa.sH the winter with an army of 
some H.OOt) men eonneeted with India onlv by 
the Kybur Pass. ... A new and formiilable 
personage . . . now made his appearance on 
the scene. This was Abdurahnian, the nephew 
and rival of the late Shere ,\h. who upon the 
defeat of his pretensions had sought refuge in 
Turkestan, and was supposed to be sujiported 
by the friendship of Kussia. The expected 
attack did not take place, reinforce- 
ments had raised the Cabul army to 2(1,000, and 
rendered it too strong to be assailed. . . , It 
was thought desirable to break up Afghanistan 
into a northern and southern province. . . . The 
policy thus declared was carried out. A cer- 
tain Shere All, a cousin of the late Ameer of 
the s.ime name, was appointed Wall or Gover- 
nor of Candahar. In the north signs were 
visible that the only possible successor to the 
throneof Cabul woiilil be Abdurahman. . . . The 
iiengal army under General Stewart was to 
march northwards, and, suppres,singon the way 
the (Jhuznee Insurgents, was to join the Cabul 
army in a sort of triumphant nturn to Peshawur. 
The first part of the prograininewas carried out. 
. . . The second part of the plan was fated to 
be interrupted by a serious disaster wliicli 
rendered it for a while uncertain whether the 
withdrawal of the troops from Afghanistan was 
possible. . . . Ayoob had always cxpres.scd his 
di.saiiproval of his brother's friendship for the 
English, and had constantly refused to accept 
their overtures. Though little was known 
about him, rumours were nlloat that he intended 
to advance upon (ihu/nee, and join the insur- 
gents there. At length about the niidiile of 
June [IHSDJ his army started. , . . But before 
the end of .tune Farah li.iil been reached and it 
seemed plain Candahar would be assaulted. 
, . . Generil Ibirrows found it necessary to fall 
back to a ridi'e .some forty-live miles from 
Candahar cdled Kiish-y-Nak'hud, There is a 
pass called Maiwand to the north of the high- 
ro.-id to Candahar, by which an army avoiding 
the position on the rid^'c might advame upon 
the city. On the 2Tth of '.Inly the Afghan 
troops were seen moving in the direction of this 
pass. In his attempt to slop them with his 
small force, numbering about 2,.'i(K) men, Gen 
cr.d Ibirrows was disastrously defeated. With 
dilllculty and with the loss of seven giina, about 
h ' le English trix-ps returned to Candahar. 
Oci.. ■ .il Primrose, who was in command, had no 



AFHR'A, 1»18-1»18. 

cliiiiii' liiit III strcnutlicn tlic pliici'. siilmiit to an 
iiiM'^lnii'nl. and uiiil till lie >lii>ulil lir riMiii'il. 
. , . The Inxips ill ('iil)iil »rn> mi llir poiiil of 
williilniwinu' wliiii tin- thus of ilic ilJNiytcr 
ri'Mi lull llifin." (li-ncnil Hiilnris al "<iir inishcil 
forwarl In tlii' liilramurtil > ilv, ami ili-|i. i«i(| 

Ihc army of tin- AnniT. Caniliiliur wiu tlic'ii 
lirlil l>> llii' HriU^li iiiilil Ihi' tall i>l 1hn|, when 
tliry willi(lr(». AlMluralinian liavini; appiirrnlly 
(•^lal)lisllt■ll liiiii-,ill in p.nvir, aiiil llii' cnniury 
biini; in a ipiiilid ^laliv — ,1. F. Hrl),'lil, J/ft. </ 
Ki:;i.. i„ riml \, in,. 5U4-.I-M. 


Ancient. Sc i Khvpt; KniMirn; l.iiiVAN>: 
CviU'iiAii : ('\i:knaii \; Nimiiiisn-, 

The Mediaeval City. Si u iUiiiiAHV Sr vtks ; 
A. I). l."ii:l-l.".<iii. 

Moslem conquest and Moslem States in the 
North. Sii Mmiihu T\N ('(>Ni(i»T. \i : A 1) 
tipi lilii ; (14T-TIKI , and '.HIM-IITI ; al^.i Hauuahv 
I Statks; Kdwr. A 1). l-J.'Ml I'<1T, amliitlcr ; iiiul 

■;. !Sri)\N. 

I The inhabiting races. — Till' imliiriiKnis races 

I of .Vfriiaan- ron^iclmil in lie fnur in nnnilirr. 

% namely: the Ne^'nies proper, whn neeupy a een- 

I Iral zone, stretehini: fr.ini the .\tlaiilie' to the 

^ F.iiyplian Suilan, ami whn edinprise an eiiornioui 

•5 nnnilier of iliverv trilies ; the Fnlahsi «illi whom 

I the Nuliians are assoeiateil), sellleil inainlv lie- 

p tweeii Ijike (hail anil the Ni;;er; the lia'ntus, 

fi who oecupy the whole south, e.\ee|it its e.xlrem- 

I ity; anil the Hottentots, who are in that extreiiie 

.sonthern rp;;ion. Some anthropologists inelinlu 
with the Iloltentols theHosjesmansor Hn ;hmen. 
J The Kutirsuiul Heelimmasare lianlii tii^K's. Tlie 

I north anil northeast are ocenpieil by Semitic ami 

a Hainitic races, the latter imluilinj; .Vlivssinians 

I anil (Jalhia.— A, H. Keane, Th,' Afnr.i,, /t.i,;., 

^ A. D. 1415-1884.— A chronological record 

^ of European Exploration, Missionary Set- 

J tlement. Colonization and Occupation. 

J 1415.— C'oniinest of tenia liy the I'ortnL'iiese. 

^ 1434-1461. — l'ortu>;iiese explorations ilown 

the western toast, from t'ape Kojador to Cape 
Mesurado. in Liberia, under the direction of 
I'rinie Henry, called the Xavijrator. 

1443. — First African slaves brouEht into El ■ 
ro|>e by one of the >liips of Prince itcnry. 

1471-1482.— I'ortnituese explorations car-ied 
III yoml the Guinea Coast, and to the (iolil v. oast, 
where the first si-ttlement was established. 

1482.— Discovery of the month of the Zaire 
or Coniioby the I'ortUL'Ucse explorer, |)ioi;o Cao. 

'485-1596. — Kstablishmcnt of Homau Catholic 
Mii-sions on the western coast. 

i486. — Cnconscious roundinir of the Cape of 
• iooil Hope by Hartholomcw Diaz. 

1490-1527,— Visit to Abyssinia of I'ciiro da 
Covilh.Ao, or Covilham, the l'ortii!.'nese explorer. 

■497- — \'".*'''S-''' I'f V'asco da tiama round the 
Ca))' of (ioo.1 Hope to India. 

•S<'5-'508,—l'ortU!.'nese settlements and forti 
lii'il st.ilions established on the eastern coast. 

1506. — Discovery of .Madagascar bv the I'or- 


'552-1553.— He4rinnini; of Kn!,'lish vovaL'es 
'1 ilie (Jninea and (Jolil Coasts. 

1560.— Krcneh Iradinj; to the Sonejal and 
teiinbia liej;nn. 

'562. — First slave tradiii!.' voyau'c of Sir .lohn 
Hawkins to the liuinea Coast. 

1578.— Foundiiii; of SI. Paul dc I.oando, I'or- 
'I'iiesi. eiipita! oi. Ilie west coast. 

1582 (about i—Fouiidini; of the French post. 
>i l.oiiis. at the mouth of the Senegal. 

if trade on the western coast 

if the Hivcr fiam 
Company of Knj;- 


1595.- ' 'I"'"!"!; 
Iiy Ihe Diitih. 

1618-1621.— Ksploration 
bhi for the l{,,^al Mi; 

1644, — Fort Dauphin founded by tin 
in the i>lanil of .Mailai.',isc,'ir. 

1652, — Dull ll .siltlemelil at the Cape of (ioiKl 

'694-1724,— Kx| I .ration of the Hiver Siiiej;al 
for the Uoval Senci.'al Company. 

1723. — kxploralion of the" (iambia for Ihe 
Knirlish Hoyal .\frican Company. 

1736,— Moravian .Mission on the (!old Coast. 

1737. — .Mor.-ivian Mission planteil by George 
Schmidt amiinj; Ihe Ilolti'ntols. 

I754- — Substantial becinnini; of the dominu- 
tion in .Madajfascar of the llovas. 

1761-1762.-1)01111 expedition from Cape 
Colony beyond the Oranjie Kiver. 

1768-1773.— .lourney of .lames Uruce to the 
fountains of the Ulue .Nih' in .\byssinia. 

1774.— Foumlini: of a French colony in Mada- 
iiascar by Count Henvowskv. 

1781-1785.— Travels of .M. I,e Vaillant amon;,' 
the Hotteiilots and Katirs. 

1787-— Fimndini; of the Knfrlish settlement 
for freed slaves al Sierra l.cone. 

1788. — F'ormalion of the .Vfrican Association 
in Kniilaml, for systematic exploration. 

1795-— Ilic t'ape Colony taken from the Dutch 
by the Knglisli 

'795-'797-— I'lu' lifst cxplorini; journi'v of 
Munt'o Park, in the service of the -Vfricau .Vs- 
Si "ia',ion, from the (iambia. 

1798.— .Mission of Dr. .lohn Vanderkemp to 
the Katirs. for the London Missionary Society. 

1798. — lourney of the Portu^'ucse Dr. " I,a- 
cenla from Ihe Lower Zambesi to tile kinjrdom 
of Cazeinl«'. on Lake Mocro. 

1802-1806.— Uestoration of Cape Colony to 
the Dutch and its rccoiniuest by the Knu'lisli. 

1802-1811. — .lourney of the Pombiiros nie- 
.1,'roes) across Ihe lonlinent from .Vniiola to Tele. 

i804.--Fiiunilini.' of the Church of Kniiland 
Mission in Sierra Leone. 

1805. — Second expnlitioi, of Muiiiro Park from 
the (iambia to the Xiirer, from which he never 

1805.— Travels of Dr. Lichtenstein in licchu- 

1810. — Missions in Great Namaqualand and 
D.imaraland beiiun bv the London Missionary 

1812.— Kxploralion of the OraiiL'e Hiver and 
the Limpopo bv CamplM-ll. the ini^sionarv. 

1812-1815.— .lourney of Hup khaiilt umler 
the auspices of the .Vfrican Association, up Ihe 
Nile. Ihroujih Nubia, to Hcrbcra. Shcmlv, and 
Suakin ; thence lhroui;li .liilda to Jlecca.'in the 
character of , M.^-wliieoi. 

1816-1818.— Fatal and fruitless iittempis to 
explore the lower course of the Niircr. 


AFHICA. 1818. 

iSlS.— Mluion In Mailagaacar uodertsken by 

the l-iindiin MiHulonury SimU'Iv. 

1818.— IWK'lnnlri).', on llif ()raii(t« Hirer, of 
the miwilonury lalwra of Kobert Moffal In Wouth 

1818.— Kxplomtimi of the •oiinea of the 
Gani'ila by Oasniinl MoUlin. from Fort St. Loula, 
•t the nuiiith of llic Senegal. 

1818-1820.— Kx|ilorntion of Fezzan to Ita 
aouthcrii limit, from Tripoli, by Captuiii Lyon. 

i8jo.— First Wealeyan Miaalon founded In 

1820.— Treaty abolishing the slave trade In 

1821.— Missioiiworli in KalTraria undertaken 
by the Glimgow Missionary .Sociity. 

1822.— Fouiidini: "f tin- rrpniilic of Liberia 
HceSnvK1iv.NKi.lio: .\, I) l.xl(Ms47. 

1822.— Olliiial journey of Liiiitcnant Laing 
from Wierra Leone in llie""Timauuee, Kooranko 
and SiMilinia" eounlrii-». 

1822-1825. — Expidilioii of Captai.i Clapper- 
ton, l>r, ( 111. Iriiy, find C'oliinelDenlmm, from Trip- 
oli to Lake I'l liad and beyond. 

1825-1826.— Kxpeilition of Major Lalng, In 
•he service of the British Oovcrniiieiil, from 
Tripoli, tlironph the ilescrt, to Tiinlnicloo, 
which he reached, and where he remained for a 
month. Two days after leaving tlie city he was 

1825-1827.— Expedition of Captain Clapper- 
ton from tlic Higlit of lienin to Sokoto. 

1827. — .Moravian .Mission settled In the Tain - 
bookie territory, Soutli Africa. 

1827. — .Journey of IJuant de Hdlefonds, for 
the African Assiiciatiim, up the White Nile to 
IIP U' ii.irili latil\i(le. 

1827-1828.— .loiirniy of Caille from a point 
on tiie west coast, lictncen Siirra Leone and the 
Oamiiia. to .Iciine and Timliuctoo; thence to Fez 
and Tangier. 

1828, -I'ndcrlakingsof the Basle Missionary 
Sociciv on llie (iold Coast. 

1836-1831.— E.vploration of the Niger to tiie 
8i-a by Hiclianl and .lohn Lender, solving tlie 
question as to its moutli. 

1830-1840.— Frendi eon(iwest and subjugation 
of Alu'icrs. 

1831.— I'ortuiruese mission of .Major Monteiro 
ami Captain Gamitto to tlie court of Muata 

1831.- .\bsorplion of tile African Association 
by the Uoyal (ociL'rapincal Society of London. 

1832-1834.— Kifst commeicial exploration of 
the lower .Nii;er. from its mouth, by .Macgregor 
Laird. Willi iwo slcaniers. 

1833.— .Mi>-ioii in Itasuloland estalilislied by 
the Kvanirclicil .Missionary Society '^f I'aris. 

183^, — HcginiiiMir ol nii-sinruiry labors iiiider 

the .Viiierican Hoard of Missions in South Africa. 

1834.— Mission fouhilid at. Cape I'alnias on 

the wisliTii coast, by tlie American Hoard for 

Foreign .Missions. 

i83^._lhi- (Jrcat Trek of the Dutcli Hears 
from Cape Colony and tlieir founding of tlie re- 
pul)li< ot Natal. 

1835.— Mission -iinonir tlie Zulus estalilislied 
by tlie American Boaid of Konign .Missions. 

1835-1849. — I'ersecution of Christians In 

1836-1837. — F.xplorations of Captain Sir 
James E. Alexander in the countries ot the Great 
I4amaqua«. the Uushmeu and the Uill Uamaras. 

AFKICA, iss:. 

1839-1841. — Egyptian eipedlttona ieDt by 
Mehemet All up the White Nile to lalltude 
6" M' N. ; aeconipanied aad narrated In part by 
Ferdinanil Werne. 

1839-1843.— Missionary realdenee of Dr. Krapf 
In tlie kiugdom of alum. In the Ethiopian high- 

1840. — Arrival of Dr. LIvingatone in South 
Africa us a misaioiiary. 

1841.— Expeilltion of Captains Trotter and 
Allen, sent by the Itrltisli Government to treat 
with tribes on the Niger for tlie ()|Mning of com- 
iiieree and tlie suppression of the slave trade. 

1842. — Travels of Dr. Charles Johniton In 
Soutliern Abvaalnla. 

1842.— Oa'biKin Mission, on the western coaat 
near the eipiator. founded by the American 
Board ot Foreign Missions. 

1843.— The Klieiiish Mission established by 
German missionaries at Iktlmnleu in Nama- 

1842. — Wesleyan and Norwegian Misslont 
openeil In Natal. 

1842-1862. — French oceuiiation of territory 
on tile Gabinm and the Ogowe. 

1843.— Ilritish annexation of Natal, and mi- 
gration of the Boers to found the Orange 
Free State. 

1843. -Exploration of the Senegal and th« 
Faleiiie by lliiard Bcsslnli^res and Haffeuel. 

1843-1645. — Travels and residence of Mr. 
Parki lis in Abyssinia. 

1843-1848. — llunling journeys of Gordon 
Cumiuing in South Africa. 

1844.— Mi.tsioii founded by Dr. Krapf at Mom- 
oassa. on the Zanzibar coast. 

1845.— iMiiiians journey for the Royal Oeo- 
grapliiial Society from Wiiydah, vlu Amime, to 

1845. — Mission to the Camermms established 
by till- Baptist Missionary Society of Enirlaml. 

" 1846. — I'nsiHcessful attempt of IlalTenel to 
cross Africa from Senegal to the Nile, through 
the Sudan. 

1846. — Mi.ssiim of Samuel Crowther (after- 
wards Bishop of the Niger), a native and a 
liberated slave, to tlie Yoruba country. 

1846.— Mission on Old Calaliar Kiver founded 
by the Cniti'd I'resbyleriau Church In Jamaiea. 

1847-1849. — Inteiior exploratlims of the Qer- 
niaii missionaries Dr. Krapf and Mr. Kebmann, 
from Moinbassa im tlie Zanzibi-.r coast. 

1848.— youiiding of the Transvaal Itepublic 
by tie Boers, 

1849. — Missionary journey of David Living- 
stone nortliward from the country of the Bchu- 
aiias. and ids disi-overy of Lake S'gami. 

1849-1851.— .loiiriiey of Ladislaiis. Magyar from 
BeiiLMiela to the kingdoms of Bilie and Moluwa 
on the interior tableland, and across the upper 
end of the Zambesi valley. 

1850.— Sale ot Danish torts at Quctta, Adda, 
and Fingo, on the western coast, to Great 

1850-1851.- Travels of Anderssiai ami Gallon 
from Wallisii Baj to Gvampo-laiiil and Lake 

1850-1855.- Travelsof Dr. Bartli from Tripoli 
to Lake Tchad. Sokoto and the I'pper Niger to 
Timbuctoo. where he was detained for nine 

1851.— Discovery of the Zambesi by l)r 


AFRICA, 1803-1868. 

AFRICA. 187»-187S. 

ll5a-lU3.— Hunting knd trading journcTi of 
Mr. Cliapmsn In Houto Africa, Iwtween Natal 
10(1 Waldib Bay and to Lake NgamI and tba 

1853.— Founding of the Dlocpue of Natal by 
tbe EnglUh Church and n|ipolntmenC of Dr. 
Colenio to be Ita bUhnp. 

1853-1856. — .Journey of Dr. I.lvln««tnne from 
Linyanti, the .Miikololo capitui, up tbt^ Zamlx'sl 
and across to tin; western coaxt, iit 8t. Paul de 
Loando, ttipnce rptiirning pntirily across the 
continent, down the Zumbpsl tn Quillmane at Its 
mouth, discovering the VIctoriu Falls on hii 

1853-1858.— Ivory seeklnKc-xiHidltions of. lohn 
Petlicrick, up tlie liahr-vl (iiiazcl. 

1853-1859.— l{oman C'lilhollc mission cstab- 
llsbea at Uondokoro, on the I'ppcr \lliv 

1854.— Exploration of llic Somiili lounlry — 
the "eastern born of Afiica" — by (aplalns 
Burton and Spi ke. 

1855. — Beginning of attnnpts liy the French 
governor of Senegal, tJeueral ralilherhc, to 
carry the flag of France Into the Western 

1856-1859.— Journeys of Du C'lialllu In the 
westirn eciuatorial regions, on the (iaiioon tin. I 
the Opobal. 

1857-1858.— Expedition of Captains nurton 
anil Speke, from Zanzibar, througli rziinnio, 
U8H);ani, Ugogo, and L'nyamwezi. to I'jiji, on 
Lake Tanjtimyika — making tlie llrst Kiimpe^iu 
Jlseovery of tlic lake; retiiining to Kuze, mid 
tlience conliuued l)y Speke alone, durini; Bur- 
ton's illness, to the discovery of Lake Victoria 

1858. — .rourney of Andersson from Wallish 
I!;iy to the Okavango Uiver. 

1858.— mission station founded at 
Victoria on the Cameroons coast. 

1858-1863.— Expedition of I)r Livingstone, 
in the service of tlie British Uover.unent, explor- 
In;; tlie Shire and the Kovuma, iiiui discovering 
and exploring Ijike Nviissa — said aowever, to 
have iHcn known previously to th;^ I'ortuiiuesi'. 

1860-1861.— .lourney of Uiiron von Uecken 
friiiii Monibassa on the Zanzibar coast, to Klli- 
iiiuiijuro mountain 

1860-1862.— lietum of Speke. with Captiiiu 
Grant, from Zanzibar to Lake Victoria Nyanza. 
visiting Kanigwe, and Uganda, and reaehing tiic 
outlet of tlie Nile; thence throUL'h Unyoro to 
Oonilokoro, and lif.meAard by the Nile. 

1861.— EstJiblislimeut of tl'ie I'niversities Mis- 
sion by Bisliop Mackenzie on the Upper Shire. 

1861-1862.— Englisii acquisition of the luwn 
and kingdom of Lagos on the Bight of Benin bv 
cession from tlio native ruler. 

1861-1862. — Sir Samuel B.iker's exploration 
of til" .Vl)y«inian tributaries of the Nile. 

1861-1862. -.lourney of Captain Burton from 
Lai;cw, im the western coast, to Ahcokuia. tlie 
capilui of llie Akiis. in Voruba, and to the Cam- | 
aroiiiis Mounlaiiis. 

1861-1862,— .lournevof Mr. Raines from Wal- 
fish iiay to Lake Niraiiii and Victoria 1'mIIs. 

1862.— Resumption of theClirisiian Missiimin 
Maihitiascar. lorn; suppressed. 

1862-1867.— Travels of I>r. Rohlfsin Morocco, 
Algeria and Tunis, and expUiring journi v from 
the Oiilf of the Svrtes to tlie Gulf of Giiitiia 

1863.— Travels of Winwojd Rcadu on the 
western coast. 


1M3.— Incorporation of a large part of Eaf 
frarla with Cape Colony. 

1S63.— Second visit of Du Challlu to the weit- 
em equatorial region and Journey to Ashango- 

I863-IS64.— Official mission of CapUin Bur- 
ton to the King of Dahomey. 

|M3-|844.— Exphirathm of the Bahr-el-Ohazel 
from Khartoum by the wealthy Dutch heiress. 
Miss TInne, and her party. 

1863-1865.— Ex|>editi<m bv Sir Samuel Baker 
and ills wife up tiie White N'ile from Khartoum, 
resulting In the discovery of Lake Albert Ny- 

'H. as one of Its sources. 

.1864. — .Mission of Lieutenant Mage and Dr. 
Quintin. 8<'nt by (ieneral Faidherlie fMm Sene- 
gal to the king of Segou, in the Suijan- 

1866.— Founding of a Norwegian mission In 

1866-1873.— Last Journey of Dr. Livingstone, 
from tlie liovuma River, oii tbe eastern coast, to 
Lake Nyassa; thence to Lake Tanganvika, Lalie 
Moero, Lake Bangweolo, and the Lualaba River, 
wlilch he suspected of flowing Into the Albert 
Nyanza. and being the ultimate four'aln hctid 
of the Nile. In NovcmlK'r. 1871. Livingstone 
was found at Ujiji, on Lake Tanganyika, by 
Henry .M. Stanley, leader of an expedition sent 
in searili of iiim. Declining to quit th<! country 
with Stanley, and pursuing bis exploration of the 
Luulali.i. Livingstone died May 1, 1873, on Lake 

1867. —Mission founded In Madagascar by tbe 
Soi'iety of Friends. 

1867-1868.— British expedition to Abyssinia 
for tlie rescue of captives; overthrow and death 
of King Theodore. 

1868.— British annexation of Basutoland lo 
South .Vfrica. ' 

1869.— Christianity established as the state 
reliuinn in .Madagascar. 

1869.— Fatal expedition of Miss TInnfi from 
Tripoli into tlic desert, wliero she was murdered 
by her own escort. 
'1869-187-.— Explorations of Dr. .Schweliifurth 
betweiii tile Bahrel Gliazi 1 and the Upper 
Con;;o, iliscoveriiig the Welle River. 

1869-1873.— Expedition of Dr. Nachtlgal from 
Tripoli tlirough Kuka, Tihesti. Borku, Wadal, 
Karfiir, and Kordofan. to the Nile. 

1870-1873.— Ollliial expedition of Sir Samuel 
B.iker. iu tin- service of tlii' Kliedive of Eirypt, 
Ismail I'usha, to annex (.ioudokoro, then iia'niei'. 
Ismalia, and to su|ipres9 tlio slave-trade in thj 
Egyptian Sudan, or Eqiiatoria. 

1871.— Transfer of tlii^ rights of Holland on 
tile (Jold Coast to Great Britain. 

1871.— .\nnexation of Griiiualand West to 
Capi- Colony. 

1871.— Scientitic tour of Sir .. '.eph D. Hooker 
and .Mr Hall in Mohkco iin<l liie Great Atl;is 
_ 1871. — Missionary journey of Mr. ("narles 
New in the .Mas, i country aiid a.scent of .Mount 

1871-1880.— Iliintinir Journeys of Mr Seloua 
in South .\frica. beyond the Zainbesi. 

1872-1875. -Travels of tin' natumlist. Rein- 
liold Huehholz, on the Guinea coast. 

1872-1879.— Travels ,.f I)r llolub between 
the South African diamond tields and the Zam- 

1873-1875 — Expedition of Captain V. L. 
Cameron, from Zanzibar to Lake Tanganyika, 

APitii A, !■<:.) !•<:■. 

AKUICA. l**0-l»rtl 

iiikI rxplomtiiiii ipf till' l.iiki'. tlicmi' In Nyun 
^\\f nh tilt" Ijialii));!. itMil IlifiM t ,u ri'^-i the run. 
lirii'iil. Iliioiii'li riiMiihi. I'i llii' rmiiiiriHsc mt 

til IIK'Ilt nl III iil:ii< I;i. mH ||,r Alhintir r. ,lsl 

1873-1875. Iiiiil-...! ilii riiiiirMliHi. Kniik 

|ir ( olnll\ 10 III- \ K'lilK 

i;\|.:..iMii.iii-i I'l <.ii>iii.ii, Kill 

I'll liiiil l.iii <i lie. mull r llir 'Ills 

{ilri'siit ilii' (iiTiti.iii Arririti) Assiii'iitiliin.froiii tlir 
.OIIIIL' ll^I Il'iltll I'f llli' ( iilll!'! 

rxiMiliiinii iiL'iiinst the Aslmn- 
niirii'.il i'M\ n CiinrnasHii' 

(hill 1 Iriirii I 

kcli-^hill allit 
lit llli'(ii 
iiiullL'ii I 'ill>! 

1874. - llrilW 

tt't'fi. ili'Hiiiiviiii; 

1874 - -Ml»»i'iii iif Ciiliiiii I CliMilli'' l.iiiii.' In 

(iiiiinil (iiiriliiii. ,ii (i Iiikiiro. I'll lln' Nili'. In 

M'lfsr, kill',' iif IVmiiiIii, ili-iim-riiiu' l.-iUi' llmi 
llilll III! hit ii'llirii. illlil rolllpli'lihir lll^^^l<^k i>f 
S|ii lii' mill ll'llir. ill lllr ri'lllill II Inilil:',' I'f 

till iiT'M'iil till' Nili' frmii llii' Viri"iiH Nvmii/m. 

1874-1875.— F.\|M'.iin"ii Iif Ci'liiiiil ('. (■Iiiiilli'- 
I.iiiijr 111 l.iiki' Viriiiriii Nviiii/i iiiiil ilii' MnUrakii 
Mi.tiii Niiiiii I'iiiMirv. ill till' Kt.'.\ pliMii MTvirc. 

1 874- 1 876. -First ailniinislriiinii nf (iniiral 
Giiriluti. rnniiiiisKiiiiii'il liy tli<> Klinlivr lut iiov- 
(Tllnr nf Ki|llilliirlil 

1874-1876.— Olrlipilliiill mill IXpliintiiill nf 
Durfiir Hiiil Konlnl.'iii liy tin' K:;vptiiiii». luiilrr 
('ninllrls Piirily, Mu.siin, I'mut Ullll Cnlstnll. 

1874-1877.— Kxpi'ilitinii nf Ilrnry .M Stiiiiliy. 
titli'il nut liy till' [iriiprii'lnrs nf thi' Nrw Ynrk 
llinilil mill till' l.iiiiilnii Dully 'IVIi'irnipli, wlilrli 
crnsscil till* rnntiiiriit frnMi /iiii/lliar tn tlii' 
niiititti i>f the Cniitfii ItiviT; iiiakiiiK a prnlntiiri'il 
may in tlic cnipiri' nf I'^anda iiiiil uri|iiiriiig 
ruiit'li knnwlt'tl^'f nf It; I'iri'Uiiiiiiiviiratiiitf Laki'ii 
V'ictnria ami Tniifiaiiyikii, ami I'.xplnriiiK tin; 
then invstiriniu gri'at Cnii),"' Hivcr lliruiighniit 
iU him'th. 

1874-1877.— Explnnitiiiiis nf Dr. .lunkcr la 
I'pi"''' N'iIjIk ami 111 till' liiLsiii of tliu Uahr cl- 

1875.— Exprilitinii "f l)r Pniriri'. fnr tlic 0<t- 
inaii Afriiau Assncialinn. frniii tin' «i'.i(l iiiiist, 
siMitli III' till' ('nni;n, ill till' t'lintn liasiii, piiii'. 
traliiit; tn Kinviinli'. Iii'yiini! tin' Uiiru or l.iiluu 
Hivir. ('a|iital nf tlii' .Miiata Yanvn. who rulea a 
kiiiL'ilnm ii.s larjii' as (ii'riuaiiy. 

1875. — Expi'ilitiiiii of (nloiiel ChailU' Long 
iiitn the country of tlii' .Makraka Niaiii NIainii. 

1875.— Koiiniliiin liy Snltish Buh.scrilM'rs of 
till- iiiissinn Ntatioii caliril jjvlngHtniila, at Tape 
Mai-lrar. on tlio sniithi'rn Nhnrt-s of Laki- Nyaiuia; 
liiaili|iiariirs nf Ihi- niissinu rfinovcil in IHMl to 
Huiiilavvi', nn llif saiiii' laki*. 

1875. — .Missinn f'lnmhil at Blanlyrp. In the 
liiL'lilamIs atmvi' ilio Shire', liy the Estulilisheil 
fhiirrli of Scullaml. 

1875-1876. S. i/uri' of IV'rlii'ra ami the region 
of till' .liilia lii'.ir. 1111 ilie Somali ('nasi, liy 
C'oliiiii'l Cliailli' l.iMiu:. fnr till' Klii'ilivi'of Egypt, 
ami tlii'ir s-pwly evaeuatinii, nn ilie riiimnstrunce 
of EiiL'laiiil 

1876. — CiMift-ri'ni'e at Hnis.'^rls aiiii forma- 
tion nf the Inti'riiatiimal Afriiaii Assni'iatinn, 
unilrr tlie preaiilency nf the kin-; nf the lii'l 
gians. for the exploration anil livilizatinu of 

1876. - Voyage of Uumolo Gessi aroiinil Lake 
Alliirt Nyanztt 

1876.— Mission in rganda rstahlished by the 
Cliiirili MLiwiiinary Society of Englaml. 

1876-1878.— Scientitic explorations of Dr 
ticiineiiiiiirth in the Ara'uiau Deserl between tne 
Nile aotl the lied 8^a. 

1I76-1880.— Exploratlonii and PreDchsnnrxa- 
llonH liy Svorgiiuiiili' llra/zu betweeu the Ogiiwi 
anil the Cnnktn 

1877. -The l.lvliiirsiiine Inland Mlnslon, for 
I lirisilan work In lliel'niii'n valley, esialillahed 
\i\ the East l.iinilon liiitltute for iloiiie and 

h'liliigll MisslnliH 

1877-1879. - Second ailiniiilslratlon of General 
Giiriliiii. IIS (ioveriiiir Gi iiiTal nf the Sudan, 
Darfiiraml the Ei|iiai<>rlal l'i'ii\ iiiees 

t877-j879. -\V ir nf the llriti^h In Snnth 
Africa v\llli the /Cuius, and pnuthal •iil>|iigatlou 

nf Mint lia!]ntl. 

i877-l879.~.Iiuirm'y of Ser|m Pliitn iicrom 
the ciiMiiiieiit frniii Iteiigiiela via the Zaiiilii'sl. 

1877-1880. -Evploiatlniia of the I'liiliigiieie 
nlllcers. (apelln and Iviiis. In western and cen- 
tral Africa, frnni Hcngiicla tn the terrilnry of 
Yucca, for the mirvey of the river Ciiungo In 
its relaliniis tn the hyirogruphic basina of the 
<*oii<:n and the /C;iiiiIh'sI. 

1878, Knuiiding in GlaHgow of the African 
Lakes Conipany, or ■The Llvingntone Central 
Africa t'onipaiiy," for trade on Laken Nya»»» 
and Taiigaiiyikai by which company the " Sle. 
venson Koiid " was Hiilmeriiieutly built tietween 
the two lakes above iiaineif. 

1878.— WalHiih Hay and fifteen miles around 
it (nil the western coast, in Namaqualand) de- 
clared Itriiish territory. 

i878.--.lniirney of Paul Solelllet from Satnt- 

LoIiIh to .Segnll. 

1878-1880.— Knyal Oengraphleal Sorlcty't 
East Central African expedition, under Joseph 
Thomson, to the Central African lakes, Tangan- 
yika, NyasHA and Leopold, from Zanzibar. 

1879.— EHtabllshiiient, by the lit'lgian Inter- 
nathinal Society, (if a stuthiii at Karoma, on the 
eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika. 

l87{).— Formation of the International Congo 
AssiK'iation and the engagement of Mr. Stanley 
in its service. 

1879,— Missionary expeditions to the Upper 
Congo region by the Livingstone Inland Mission 
and the Kaplist Missionary Society. 

1879.— .loiirney of Jlr. Stewart, of the Living- 
Btnniu Mission, on Lake Nyasaa, from that lake 
to Lake Tanganyika. 

1879. — Discovery of the sources of the Niger, 
in the liills alHiiit 2IK) miles east of Freetown, the 
capital of Sierra Leone, by the French explorers, 
Zweifel and Moiistler. 

i879-:88o.— .Journey of Dr. Oskar Lenx, 
under the ausplcesnf the German African Society, 
from Morocco to Tiinbuct(«), ami thence to the 
Atlantic coast in Seiiegambia. The fact that the 
Sahara is generally above tliu sea. level, and can- 
not therefore be tiiMHled, was determined by Dr. 

1879-1881,— Expedition of Dr. Buchner from 
Loamla to Kawemie and the kinudnin of the 
Muata Y'anvo. where six months were spent In 
vain efTnrts to procure permission to proceed 
further intii the interior. 

1880.— Mission established by the American 
Biiard of Foreign Missions in "the leginu of 
BIhe and the Coanza," or Quanza, south of the 

1880-1881.— War of the British with the Boers 
of tlie Transvaal. 

1880-1881.— Official mission of the German 
explorer, Geriiard Kohlfi, accompanied by Dr. 
8t«cker, to Abyssinia. 


A^'KIC'A, INwi I'H^. 


lM<Hl§84. -(umpuli-nH in I pp.r Sfni'^iil, i Pi.rtiiKuci.i' |««Hc»»loim uml tli.«.i- of Ih.- 

Mtmillntt ItciiiIi i<ii|iriiiMi(v In llir Nlif.r 

1I80-18S4,— (ii riiiiin I'.nxt Alridin i:\|M>i||i|iin 
III ncpl.irr. iiillirfiiiiK.iliii^iii. ilii ri ^'ioll iMtwcin 
tile l.iiuliiliu mill till' l.iiiipiilM 


i>f llr .Iiinkir hi 

ill Sniiili Alrii 

1884. --(iirniiin im riipiitioii nf ti rriinry on ilir 
KaiiiiruiiH KiviT. iiiuli r Iniiiiis uitli tlii iiuiiM- 
iliiiN Kniiliili iriiiiirH «<'i iiiiiii; <iiiitii:uiiiiM 

till' ciiiiiilry .if the .Niiiiii Niuin, iiml liis Jniirrii'V 

I.rritiiry li. iiml inriiuliiik' tlir ili'ilii nf llii' \ 

frnlll I 

I.- f: 

1884.— Orriiiiiii iiiiiii 1 iiiriiti' 

iiiliiriiii rnivliMi-, llirmiL-li'l'iiyiirii i 011 (lie (iuM t(,„,i ili.luritl 




111 I ^'llllllll, til /;lll/i(ltir. 

1R80-1889.— .I'liirtii'v iif ( •ipliiiiiCuwitI, 

rKpn.iiliiit of till' liilinn 1; 
' I.' Kxplomliirr, ■ rroiii Himl,ii 
*" il 



1884.— Kxpi'iliii if Dr I'l'tim. ri'|irc x ntiiin 

lif (iil'lllilll <'ii|iilii 

I'll till' Kill Si'ii, 
iiiliuini, Hi',t iif Luke 

ri'vii'w, , luaHt n'U'iiiii of Ziiii/.ilnir. uml lili 


ini.i till- (liiiricl i.r till' Mil 

AIIktI. mill till' iiMinlry of ilir Niaiii Niiiiii : in 
■lilt urri-iliil hy till' ri'Viilt i.f 
'il to riiiiuin Willi Kiiiiii I'li-lm 

'ri'iitii'M with till imtiM' rlilcfs, ciilinj; thi 

V'litv of Ihrir iluiiiii 

Mliii'h tr!ivil'( III' WHS urri'ili'il hy tli 

till' Miiliili mill riiiii'il to ri'iiiuin vviili 1 

iiiilil ri"<('iii'i| Willi thr Im ir liy Si.iiili'v. in Ivxti" 


CriAMI I nil 

of ItritMi KK'liiiitiiulaiiil 

1881.— Kri'iii II protfctiirMti'iivir TiiiiIh 
1881. — riii'iu.nii'»i' i'i[|»'i|iii,,n ,,f Caiiiiiin .\n 
ili:iil,i lioiii Siiiii.i iMi 111,. Zaiiil),.,i Uivcr to till' 

iiM ::olil mil 

"f Maiilr 

1881. — liiiriiiy of K I, aii'l ' ' l» .Imai's 
fniMi Suakiii, on tin- Itiil Nia, liirimi.'li tin- Has.- 
(iiiiiitry. ill the K_'yptiaii Mi'laii. 

l88l. — h'oimilinir of a iiiii^inii mi tlir Cont'o. 
at Siaiiliy I'ikiI. by tin- llapli^l .Mi»^iolla^v >o'. 
c ii'lv of KnL'laiiil. 

1881-1884. — Kxpi'dition of Dr I'mru.,. ami 
Lii'iitinaiit WiHsiiiaiiii In Nyanirwr on ili.' 
lalia, from wliirli point {.initinaiit Wis'imanii 
iiiir-iiii.l till' joiirni'y In /.aiuiliar crossini; tin' 

1881-1885.— Ui volt of th.' Maluli in tin- Su- 
ilin ; till' nii'<-iion of (ii'iiiTai (ionloii; thr nnsuc 
ri'vsinl rvpiilitioii from KiiL'Innil to rcsitii' liini - 
till- Till of till' city ami his iliaili. 

1881-1887.— Fri'iiih priiti'ctoril,' I'sialilishi il 
on till' rppir \t:;i'raiiil 1 pji.r Si'iii'iial. 

1882— Itiilian i"'('iipation of Alivssiiiiaii tirri- 
tiiry on tlir liny uf AmmiiIi. 

1882-1883. -<iirina.i si'ii'iitiric I' 
im.lir Dr. liolim ami Hvrr Itiirharil. lo l.aki'S 
Tan^'anvika ami Mmro, 

l882-i883.-.(oiirniy of .Mr. II. II. .lohnston 
on 111.' Coii^.i 

1883.— (ii-rniaii ari|iiisition of tirrilorv on An 
i:rt I'lipn'na liav. in (Jnal .\'ain:ii|inilani|. 

1883.— K\|iii.riilioii of .\|a>aihiml liv Dr 
Ki-i'hrr, iimlrr ihr au<pi,','s of il,.. Hainliiiri; 
<iiiiL'i.i|iljii at .Su iriy. 

Ih»3.— K\ploiaiion-i of Lii'iiti-nant Ciraiiil i;i 
Ka-l Iriitral Afriia. ilrM-rniliii;.' for xilnr ili.. 
liim'i 111' l.n.iiiiiia. 

1883. — S.-j, iitiiii. invi'stiiraiioii of ihi' l,a~i'i^ I.f 
I.iik. > Nyas,.'i ami 'raii-ain ik.i. In- Mr llmrv 
'•niinnionil. for tin' Airiran' l.akrs toinpanv 

1883.— .liMirni'V III M. Urvoil in U,, - ,i,tli 
^'■111 cli niiinirv 1.1 till' rppir .liili 

l883-i8S4.-K.\|,i,iiaiii.ii~nfMr.l..-i|.|. 1 . .,„ 
-"U Iroiii .Moiiilia-i, llii'i.ii-li .Ma-aila'iil. toIll,• 
m||■:!|■ 1st .'i.nii'r of ihi' Viri.iria Nvan/a, uinir r 
till' ,iii-|.irr, ,,f th,. H,,\al (;r,,-raplH,al >.., i, u 

i883-i88s.-\Var of th, I'l, n, I, win, th, ||,,. 
V I- "I M:i,l:u"iM'ar. r'^'iliiii:.' in ih,' ,-1 iMi^h 
111' lit 'it a Ko'iirh iir,.l.Tt..i':,ii. ,n,.r llir i-lniil 

1883-1835. — i;\|,l,,raii 1 l.ii'Mii'iiaii! (Jiraml 

111 111 laiM' ri'^i.iii 

:883-i886.— \iistrian 1 Tpi'ilitinn, uinlr r l)i 
Iiol'ili. troni Call,' Cohaiv. through tl,,- |i,„ r 
^'.I'l-. I'.c'chiiiinalaiMl anil .Matalii li laml t,, ih,' 
/.al!,h,si, ami hi'V, 111,1 

1804.— .Vniii'vatnin liv Cirmanv of th,' wh.ili' 
wi -1, rn cMst (I'xcipt Wallish liiiyi lH't\ 

aii|niriil from thr Ninth Afriian lie pijhlic 

1884. — Piirtimui-Hc (iovirnn 



iiniliT .Major ('ar\allio, frnfii l.oamlii to tlii' ( 
tral Afriian pnli ntali- lalliil tlii' .Miiata Vuin 
1884.— I'A) :ora 


1884 .-N 

l.y lliirKI.'pl 

of till' III mil 

III till 

I'll th. 

ixp.ilitlon of .Mr. 1| II. 

.lohnsiiiii til Kilimanjaro .Mountain. 

l884.-Diiii'o\rrv of thr M liant'i or I li.nurl 
Itivi r lalti rwarili Iili'ntitli'il with thr Willi'i, hy 
Captain llanHi'iiM anil I.icnti'inint \ an fii'li', 

1884.— Kxpiiiration of Hiirhanl in the hontli- 
rastcrn part of the Coniro Stall 

A. D. 1884-1891.- Partition of the interior 
between European Powers. Iln pariiiion 

of .\friia iiiny Ih- miIiI to ilatr fnin thr Hi rlin 
Ciiiilrnii, I oflKM-Kalsd' Com.o Khu.. m-vti- | 
I'liorlii liiat Cuiifiriiii I' the i|ni'siioii of inlaiiil 
iiiiunilai'ii s was srarnly roiisiihri il. . . . Thr 
foniiiliii;; of thi' Ci.iiL'i'i hull pi iiihiit Statr was 
proh.ilily thi- most important nsnli of i|||. ( ,,„ 
tin nee. . . . Two months aflir the Confi n nii' 
hail coin hull il iis lalmnrs, (inat liritain anil (or 
• iniiiiy hail a s, rioii- liispntr in n i-anl to tin ir re 
1 spi'iiiM. .spheres of inlliicncc on ihc (oilf uf 
, <liiinia. . . The eoniprnniise . . . aniinl at 
j plariil ilie Missiiin Station of Vii loria uiihin the 
("inian v|,|ii.|,. ,,f intlneiiee." Th, fmniiir lie- 
twiiii thi lw,i spill re, i.r intluence on th, |li:..|,t, 
! of liiafia was -ulwi ,|ni ntlv ilelincil hv n line 
iliawii, in !>"•»;. from the c,mst lo Vola'. on the 
lleiiiie. Till' lioyal .\ii.'er Company, ei.nsi imiril 
liy a royal 1 h.irler. "was ;;i\eii a'lliniiii-lratiM' 
powers ,iver t'iriiories covin, I In its tniitiis. 
I The reirii.i:, ih. 1, hy pi.ji,,l Mini, r lirin-h pni- 
I tieiion . . . apari Iroiii till (111 Kiwi's Di-iri, I, 
; whiili is iliriiilv aiiminisi, r, ,| l,v the Ch.'mi^ 
j cinlirai.tli, , ',11,-1^11 lai'ilsheiH,., n i.a'..i-an,l ilie 
. iiortlhin lioiili. r ,if Cam.iroiis, i|ie l...w 1 r Nil', r 
nil, liiilini.'- I, rrii,,rl,s of Sokolo. (laii'iu ami 
l).'!-^ "I. ami th,' i;,iii;,'. fr,iiii \u\.i to it- ,,.11 
tlueiii', " Ml a |ir,itoeiil siijneil Diciinlur -,'1. 
|ss.-,. (;,.rniaiiy ami Kraiii ,■ ",|elin.,l th, ir r. 
s|i,, liv,' -ph, les of inlliiime ami ai tion mi i|;.. 
Hi;; lit I.r liiafra. anil aNo on the sla\i ( ■ i. -1 au'l 
ill Sem'iramhia. ' This ■tixiil lli,- inlaml , \t,ii 
siiiii of the (Il niian sph, re of imiu, ik ,' i( .■■innn.ii-i 

I I l."i- I'. !,in;:ilu,li'. (O'celiw il h \l live., nl 

it ailii"s ill,. |-'r,.nih Cc>ii;;o i.iTi'.iiJ, s t', , \p,in,l 
almii- the M,, tern liankiii Ihi .MhuiiLti . pro 

villi, 1 11,1 ,,t|i,r triliularv of the M'tiaii^i-i C..!i'/,, is 
r.iiiml to the Wist, inwhiili I'asi'. ac.rilih- 1,, 
'lie Berlin Tnaly of [""sl s.-, n,,. emu iii'imi,,l 
hasin of 111,' Cmi:;-., h,,ii|i| m;,i„ an e\ti iivi,,,, ■ 
On til. I'.'ili ,,r May, Ivs,-,. I'lanee ami rmiii-il 
si;:ni'i| a eon\,iiti,,n tiv w hi, h l-'raiiee ■s.riiiiil 

inaii/a lin Si neL'aiiihiai, and thi' I',.ri ii-nr,,' 
frontier in the 


mtli was ail vaiici (I approximately 

AKIJIfA. 1*M 1H9I 


til till' xiiilhtrn limit nf llii' Iwln i>f the Csnlnl I lrrrltori«, inrir wliltli n ri|i'ilillr liml Iktii pr» 
llnllif < .'111.'... I'l.rliicil riliil I Ihr Mu.wthl ilU | .liilrii.-.l, *M iiliw.rlMil lUiinUr 1»W7) liy thu 

Irlit, III »liiili Krihii liml liii<l i hiiiti. 

lull IkiIIi I rmimiiiil. iIh' riiiiiiiiiili r wim mlilnl (Mill Mujf 

iiiiifii Ml ri' 

liiinkK III I III' I.I 

|X»t liilii' ri imiuiiluliMi 

li II 111 Krtiiu 

).f ilii- SihIiIv fur 

III IHHTi III Ihi' llrlllili |iiii<i"»»liin« AiiiiiliiMi;ii 


( .iliiiii/ulliiii Itr I'liiri, |>r .llililkr 


liril I iiiiii 


^iira li\ \* liii li 1 

tn I 111 

I IMiil jillill 
if 1 

111 IXJ*^ iil«.i liiki II iinilir llrllWi |iriili< ilmi 
Hv II iiiini iilliiii Willi Ihi- Si.iilli Atrium Hiniili 

Ini iriiiliiiwilli I lii\ llrlliiiii iiii|iilrii| in IM-*! Il»<'riiwn iiilimjr 

rkiiiiil, N.Mirii. ami I >.i ! nf Ik rliiiiiiia liiinl; ami 1" iIh' ■■arlv piin uf !•«« 

li.tM' ii rril.iiiii »irr < n vnl ii llrlii>li I'tnln Innii- «ii» [.rm liiiiiii'il mir III* 

1 ii I y ill i|(ii iliii 

Ilr I'lli rn 

Hfiiiiil Hiili lil» iniiii^. nliiniiil t>i Ikrllii in I iimn 

■inaiiiin-' {"irl 

• f IkrIiuiiiMi liiiiil ' Kiirllii r 

Itrili'.li I'rnlnliiriili' »ai« iii'.llliili'J 


iriiar. . li"'! • >ii ilii' '.'Till Ki linmry, ilii' ilay ! (I'<»'il nvi r lln 

iiiiiiirv l"iiimlril liv llii' /am 

fiilliittin',' III 
llirliii I iinfi ri I 

Cli irli r 111 I'rnlii limi. m run 

.f till (ii ii-i-al Arli'f llii 
an lin|ii rial >■ liiil/lirnr, ur 

ilii iii.rili, ;lii' llrlii-li |i.i-.«<'«i,iii 

• 111!' riirtiii.'iii -i' jirii' 

i.f Si.fala 

I liilhi 
III Mil 




li 111 llir N« li IV fur mill liir '.'mil lli'LTn 

iif la^l liiiii;ililili' ill llir wi St. 

(Iirinaii I '<>l>ini/aliiiii llir lirritirii s 

It \»:i. Ill lliii Iniiiliirr 

llml Mr I nil llliiKlm 

.1 I'.ir llii i:i llirniicli I>r I'l li r^' In alii- 

iiilnr »iinl«. i lii rinaii I'nilri inniii' w;h pm 
1 laiinnl \S III II 11 I'll anil' kii'iw ii lliat lirrinaiiy 
li.iil .ii/i(l iii'iiii til. /aii/iliar niainlaml. llir In 
il'i.'n iii'iii ill nli'iilal 1 in ii H km'" tin liiiiimi- 
I'liur I'l l**^!. till' iiinlini'iilal lamls f.n iiit- 

laiiir I'Twanl. ami, lia\ liiir n'llainiil ' 
ri',.ii.n« fnun l.iiliiii-iilii. fiiiiniliil tlir •' h 
Siiiilll .Vfliia Ciillllianv On Ilir '.'. V 

liilur l""!', till' Sniitli .Vfrira l'iiin|i..iiy 
«a» L-rantiil a rnval i Inirti r ll was ilirlarril in 
thi-ii harti r that ' llir |a'iini|i:il lli lilnf llii> hihtu 

Ziii/iliar will' alinii.t i'mIiimviIv iimli r llriliMli , limi-i i.f tin' lirlti-li Si.iitli Afririn ( ' imiiy shall 

inilninri' 'i'lii' |iriiii Ijial Irailirs win' Uritlsli \ li.' tin r.'Lrinn of Smilii Afiiia l> Im; iiniiiiiliali'ly 

Mili|.,i. all. I till' >iiltaiii (Ji.nrmiii'iit wa- ail , In llir iinrlii nf llriiivli lii i liiiaiialaiiil. ami to 

1 i-iin.,| iitiiiir till' aiiuii'i.f till- lii'.i i tlir iii.rlli ami wr. I i.f tin- Smitli African Id puli 

,1,1.1 Till' iiiiii.' n'-i.i.'i lMU\iin till' t'oi.t anil Hi', ami i" iIh' wi-t nf llii' I'nrlii,L'iH"ti' ilniniii 

III,' l.ak. . tta. ri i; iniiil.'i. Im IhL' iimlir till' miiiil inn.' ' Nn miriln tn liinil was ^ivi n. aiultlie 

nal .ii/iriliiiv "f till' ^llllan . . . Still, (in'at , nlliir Imiiiiilarii s wm' vat'iirly ililliiril. The 

lirltiiii i.niirrili.rial il,'ilti..niillii'ilniiiiiiiniis ! |iii.lliiiii nf .Swa/i l.iml was ililinili'lv si'lllrl u 

nf till' .Niiliaii Till Siillati fnnnalK iimli'sli'il ! l-tlfi l.v an arraiiL'i'iiii nl liilwi'i'ti (in'at lirllalii 

aii'l I in ll llii'aini iiaiiijii il lii. i ,iu..' , lull Id no ' ami ;l,.' Nmili Afriiaii Ui'imlilir. wliii li |iniviili'» 

, iT. It. In till' mil till' Sultan nf /iii/iliar \ii'liliil ; fiirlla i ■ nliiiiii.l inili pi luliliriiif Swazi laml liml 

till (il rni.iii I'n.iiitniali'ini rtlii'fniir.iilaii'.ipinv a jnint mnlnii mir llir « iiilf .illlirs, A Itrili !i 

liii'.'. ami nvir Vim. anil -111' llrlti.hiimKiirinan IVntirlnraii' was iirm lalnii'il nvir Nyas.a laiiil 

(linrriini.iiisiirran-iii i|iii'.tlnns l.iiwii'.i thiiii, . ami tin' S' ■ llk'lii'inil. In INMMK). Tn ntiirii 

prnvi.iiiiialix. liv till' AiiL'ln di riiiaii (■niivi'tilliiii , iniH In 111. .«'i'i'iliii,i;siif nilii r I'nwirsiii A If an: 

nf l-o-il, wiiiili' wa. .upi r.i lii'ii liv "Ilaly ImiK fnrnial |ins.i'ssiiiti, in .Iiily |s.m',«, of 

111.' ni'ii ill liiiiti' ( niivi ntiiiiinf .liiK INIHI. wliii'li till' liay ami ti rrll irv nf Assail, Tin' Italian 

Hill ill' .p..kiiinf liilnw In April I"*"*:. Mil' r.ia.l lim thr Unl Sia wasi'Xti'nilril fnun Itm 

riu'lil. nf till' NiiiiU fur (iiriiian Ciilnni/atiiiii Kasar IIH r .N,,» In lln- .miliiirn Imumlary 

w.n' liiii'-firnil In lli.'li.rtiian r.a>t Afriia As nf liahi'ila, Inwanls ( il.nk. Dnrinir Ix"*!', .Imrtly 

...I i,iti..n, wiih III' I'llirsai iis lirail. Tlii' lirit- 1 aftir tin' ili'iitli nf Kini; .Inhapm-, K" an. I 

i.!i i;. I .\fiiia Cniiipanv Inuk nvir r.inii s.inns ! Asmara win' nniipinl liy Italian tn.ii|... ' . .!■. 

tlui ll I 1 I.. Ill l.v till' Sultan n, Zan/iliar ; lik nf Slma. wh.i .m 1 1 iiliil In tin' tlinini' nf 

t.. >ir i\ illiani Mai kiiim'.n. 1 n ri ivnl a i Aliyssinia alli r su!..|i! ' itiiiv' all lln' Ahyssinian 

. 1 :i'. r in M pti iiiIm r. IW''. In .Sniitli wi'.l Af '■■ pnivinr.s. rMi'pt Ti;.'ri . .ii.|ialrlii il an iiiiliassy 

li. I. ■ ,11 1 fli r].ri-ini; llnnnn iinnlianl. llrrr . In Kiiii.' Iliimlnrl, lln' n .nil nf w hiili wa. (hat 

111! li'/, ami .iili^i i|iii'iiily Ihi' (l.rmiii ('nii.ul llir tnw Nririi. ackimwl. .iiriil r.'lltli Si plrmlirr, 
(i. la 1 ll, Dr, N,ii liii'jal. I niiiliiili ll a sirii's nf pi 
li',;, ll ami i i.iiinirn ial tnaliiswitli nativr i liirfs 

wli,|i!.\ ,'i 1 I aim w... ili.tillllril iiMT .VllLTa 
I'i,|ii, I'll, ami I'ViT \a-i lii.irirl. ir lln' Inlrrinr 
Iriui I Ji till' I ir.iiirr liivi r ami C.ipr Frin. . 

U W as llsril .. f. -r till' C.lpr 1 ..1.. III. I. Ill prillr.t 

On till' Inlli (I1I..I., r |ss4 (irnnaiiy fnnnally 
nntiiiiil 1.. till' i',.uii'. liiT I'r,,!, , Inrair nvir 
S.i'itli \Vi .1 Airi. ,1 , iiii:;r,i \u-'u.i lss,-itiii. 
(i.rinan ( n|iini,,| I ,,in|.iii> I..1' S..UII1 U 1 .1 Af- 
tir,! »a. fniilnl..l, ami , niiivnl llir Itli 

lx^<!ii llir I'mli 1 tnralr nf Italy nrr .Miyssinia, 
ami its ..ivrn'iirnly nvrr llir Irrritnrirs nf .Ma,s 
sawa. Km n ami .V.mara " liy llir rn.tiiriils 
nf '.'till Manli ami l.'iili April. 'iMil. Ilaly ami 
(inal liriiain ill linr tlirir n'.p.iiivr Spinrrs nf 
Inllnriii'i' in Ka.l .\frira " liiii siiicr thru Ilaly 
has |irariiially wiilnlrawn Inr |iii,.ilinn. 
Sill' has ali-nliilrly till li.ilil nvir .\liy..lllia, , , 
llalv li'is al-.i silirriiliil i'l I .tahlLliiir,' hrrsrlf 
nil I'hr S..iiial C.a.t," liy in a'irs r.iiu luili il in 
l'<si,i "tliii 1,11-tallaniislM luri'n( a]u' Warshiikh 

prrial .,iiiiti.,ii Inr il. ini ..rpniaiinii, lint in (aliniit '." :iii' N, Ial 1. ami I'.ipr linlwin («' 

Aii'jii.i l'<wiamw A....ri, wa. f..rmril— i ;r N, lai . — a .ii-i,iiii r nf t-Vl tiiilr. - win' plai nl 

Ihr (i. iniaii Wr.i Afrii a t ,.iii|..iiiv — ami ihr ail- j iiinlrr ll ilian iiinii Ilaly siili.ii|iirnily rx 

iiiini,ir,iii,,ni.f ii.tiirilnrii. ua. i'laii .1 umli ran ! li I..I (Isim, Inr I' tnralr nMr lln- Smniil 

Iiii|,riial (■iiniiiii..iiini r, , . , 1;, nf . ('...i.t In lln .luli riiir, . . . Tin- I'm 

In nil iiiv ini.i Si.iith-Wi .1 .\frii aiii' Ini k ! n 1 miair mi ihr Snnail ( na.l fai in:: A,l,ii. in.w 

ilp..n. li'i ll .. than a .|iiir 1... ihr M.ii.i.ninf ; rMm.l. fn.iii Ihr Italian Ininliir at Has llaflin 

Iiiiii. ll iMillliIllr in.llhuanl. In I,,,' Zimlil/i, In Ita. .lil.lllr ( |;1 |."l' 1;, inllL' ) . , Tliracllv 

Ainilln r nli.iarlr tn thisi'Mi ti.inn.' frnin Ihr iiy nf Kriiiri' in lirr Srm trainhiaii pnivinrr. 

Hint insiirnrlinn." Tiir Trail. vaal. with in- ; iliirini: liir la.l liiimlnil yrar. . has linally 

I'n'.'isr.l imlrprnilrni-r liail ail.iptril Ihr litlrnf i n.llllril ill a rnlisiiirralllr rx |,an.inll nf llrr ti m 

Siiuth Afrirai'i Urpiililic, "/.ulii'-lanil, liavincln.i tnry, . , , I lir I' nnili liavr r.iaiiiisiini a liaini 

Its iniirprnili'ucr, was partitiuucd : 11 Uiinl of lis | n- r llir roimtry iutrrvruing lirtwcrn mir linld 


ArmcA. I8M 

<'oii»l ("iiliiny riml Mlxrln A iiinrv |>ri'4 Im' ilr ! (li'.-niiiny wllhlii ilii- <!> riiiiiii riiaxtnl »iiiii' nni 

liniii;ili'iii "t llii' friiiillir l»l«iiii Sli rri l,i 

ivi r till' Ishiii'l of MmIIii KIiiiiIIv iUi. Ilir l>liiiii| 

'I l.|l»ilii n "iiliiil friiiii ihr iri.iili « »li;ii)''l iil lif lli liu'iliii'l, in (In Nnrili Sii' «(i« mini lijr 
vliiiMlhi' llllM.f Ncm ihl« r. I-*-"? Ill IMHH llrlliilii i'> <i<'riii>iii\ llv ii In iilv r..iii liiiliil In 

M.inriivliiiiillii' llllM.f Ncm ihl« r. I-*-"? I 
I'.rriiiKiil wllhilriw nil rli'lii'..i\ c r liiln im- 
|{miiiII\, u h'riiii Ii »|iIii rr of Inlliiihn li;in U 

liiiM. Ix'.M, 111 Inn 11 liri 111 llrlliiiii iiml I'lirliiu'iil. 

iif till- Siihiirih rri;liih'< 



Iniiiliili'il <iM r till' ulio 
iN'Uvt-i'ii AIl'i rlit mil) Si i 

(iiiiiH urrr i'\rli]iiii;t'i| i'lilt Aiii.'(i-<l l^lfil) Im'Iw. . .. 
|l''r;iiH'i' iinil liPiil liritiilnl uiili lln fuMimliii.' 
ri -iili^ h'riiiii liiriiiiii' ;i iiiiiMriliiii.' |iiirl\ In tin 
Aii;:l.i (iiTiiiiiii 1 niiniiiliini.f Ki ,luli IMiti c' ) 
• irril llriliiiri n miiiil-'il a Knin li Hiilurr uf In 
lliii iTinM r M:iihi;,M.«i :ir Ainl i:i) I in ill Itrll 

mil r. I iiirni-i'il III*' ^plitrr nf inlliii-iiri-iif Knini t- In 
llii «iiiili nf III r Mriliii rninrmi im'.M'i.iliini, up In 
ii Hill' fnmi Siiy mi llir Ml'i r In llurniii mi l.iikf 
T^iil. ilr.n^ n In im li u iiiiiiim r ut In rmntiriir In i 
lln >.|ili. n' "f luil.m nf tlir llrili li NU'ir Cniii 
|i.iiiy :ill iliiil fuirlv iH'liira'x In ilir kint'i' ni of 
S.iUiilii ■' Till- Aniilii (irriniin ('uiiMiillmi nf 
.lulv, INIMI, ulnviilv nfirnil In, i'»liilili«liii| \<y IN 
niMin |iM\i-iniH till- fnllimini; ililiiillimn nf !• r 
rilnn , Till' Aiiu'ln (liriniin fnmiirr In r.:i-l 
Aliiia, Hliirli, liy tin- <'nnviniimi nf [xnii , nili.l 

Hi .1 |injnt nn lln- ('ll^t(TII Mllnri- nf tlii> \iil.iriil 

N\ :iM/ii vv:iM riinlinuril iiTi ihc itiinii' latihiili' ill rnM<« 

till' lilkl'liillll'Inllllni'Hnf Illl'Cnnv'n Inilrllliull lit 
Sliilr; lull, nil llll' «rs|iril »iilr nf llli' l.lkr, tlllt ! 
'liilllii r Will. If llirr»» "-y. In lir ilrlli'i'tiil In t|ii> 

Miiiili.liiiinlrrlnini'liiili' Mniinl Mfiiniliim » iililn 
111.' llrilMi Mplirnv , 'rn'iilii s ill lliiii lii-iriri 

»i n- niiiili' nn lirliulf nf llir Itrili-li Kii-I Atrlii 

I' |iiinv liv Mr. Siiinli'V. mi lih ninrii (Mnv 

1""<!I| fn.m llic nlirf nf 'Knilii l'ii»liii . rj'i 

'I'lir MMiihirti liniinihiry nf ilif liiTiiiiiii >plii'ri nf 
inlliiiiHT in Kiist Afriiii »in n'tnirnixril ii- ;liiii , 
nri^'iniillv ilriiwn Inn |inint nn tlii' riisii rn slinri' 
nf Liiki* N'yiissii, wlii'iirr It n:is rntitinniil liy thr 
ii»lirn, iinrllirin, innl Mr-iirii slinn-H nf ilii'lakr 
In llll' iinrilirni liitnk nf till' inniilli nf llll' llivir : 
SniiiiwiV Frniii iliiH |ininl ilir Aii'.-ln (J. riiiiin 
fmniiir «ii^ inntininil In l.iiki' 'riinijiiriikii, in 

^ II Ii u niiinllrr lls In liiivi' llir Slrvi'll^nii liiiiiil 
ujlhin thr Ulili-ll spliiH' i:).) 'Ill' Nmlli'l-ll 
frmiiiir nf llriii^li Kii-t Afrliii wiis ili liin .1 in 
ilir .lull liivrriinil till' riintrriiiiiinu'< Imuniliiry nf 
llll' liiiliiin i.|iliin' nf iiilliii llll' in tiiillii liiml 'anil I 
Aliys^iniii up In llll' iniiiini's nf Ki:vpl ; in llif 

"1-1. Ii.\ llll' (11111:1 M iinil llll' V. .11-1. Nili' 

rt iti r-lii'.l. ill (i,riiiiiny wiiliiln'«. in liivmnf 
lihiiiiii. Iiir rrnii'iinriili'i'ivi r Vim iiinl In r liiiins 
In iill li rrilorii'i nn till' iiiiiinliiiiil In lln- iinrili nf 
llir HivirTana. !l^. aUn nvir tlir i>liiiiiU nf I'liiiii 
iiii.l Mimila. ill In Sniitli-Wi'^t Afiiiii. Ilif , 
Aii.'ln (iirnian frnniiii'. miiriiiiilly liM il up In ■.'■.' 
.^'iiitli liililuili'. was inntirincil.' hut fi.'iii ihi^ 1 
p"iii! llii'linuiMliiry Mill' Hiiiilriiwii ill -ui h 1 in an | 
Hit 1 ;i>i\\:irii jiiiii iinrlliuiiril IIS In irivi' lirrnianv i 
In I' iini's, to till' Zillnlii /i liy tin' Clmlii' jlniT ! 
(li I Till' Aniiln-Ci rniiin fmi'iliir lulwnn 'I'm;!! ' 

illl'l (inlil ('nil,! ( 'ninny Will lixill, ilM.I lllill 111- | 

iwirn Ihi' Caniiinins iii'ul tin- lirilisli Ml-i r Trr 

rilnrii's wiis pmv i-imiiilly ailjusliil. i7.) 'I'lii' ' 

l-Vri-lriilr /mil', ill lini'il 'liy ili,' Ait nf liirlin I 

(I"'''''! «ii» ri'inirnisi'il as applinililr In tlir pri'scnt 1 

arr:iiii.'inii'nl lii'twi'in Itritiiin luul IJi rniiinv. (H. | \ 

A liriii-li I'mti Tlnrati' was n'ciiL'iiiM'il n\i r llir ' 

iloniiiiiniis nf llll' Sulliin nf Zan/iliiir wiiliin llii' , 

Hrilisli iiiiiNiiil zniii' anil nvrr the islanih nf Zmi I 

ziltiir anil I'linlia. liritaiii, linwcvir. iimlirlnnk i 

til iiw> lii'r inftuenrc !•! s'.'riiri' {wliiit liavi' sinri' ■ 

lioeu acquired) torrcsponcliufr uilvantagos fur , 


• in. It llrlliiin 

nf in 

fur Hi 

pilnil 11 liniinl n iilnil >plii re 

1 tpan>lnll nf llir pimm •«inn« 

III Si. llll Afrira imrllivtiinl In ainl In ymiil th(< 
ZiiiiiIh /I. aliMm' II palli hIiIi Ii pni>liliK fur llir im 
inli rrupii'il pa^'Miu'i- nf )>ihi<1-i nml llrllUli 
inlirpii'M'. lip In llll' iniiiinii nf llll' ( mii,'n In 
ili'piinlrnl Slati' ami (iirinan Ka-I Afririi 
l*nrtiii.'al. nil llll K;i«l (nait Miiinij tin Inwir 
/ainlM'/i In. Ill /iiinlin, iinil tin l.nvMr Shin'' fmiii 
Mil' Itun I'milliii nil', llll' iiiiln' lllnli rliiinl nf 
Mn'.aiiililipii up '11 l.iiki .\va«»ii ami tin lliiiiir 
lamlnf Snfiilii III llll- intiiln.'»i.f 'hi' Small Afrlnin 
Itipiililir anil Ihr Malain h' kiiii,'i|nni iiii ilix 
Wi -t tniiBi. rnrtiu'al nnivi'il ilii'.niln lllnirr 
liiinl U'liinil 111 r pniviiinH in l.ii»rr (iiilnra. up 

In llll' inllllnrs nf llll' ( nllL'n'|H'llllilll Slati', 

anil llir iipprr rmirv nf till, /anil yI. (In 

.Miiy '.'"itli |N|ii 11 (niiMnlimi vrnn mt'iiiil at I.Ih 
Ik HI. uhii h hiiH put an rinl In thiillopiiti' iHtnnn 
rnrlUi/iil iiinl Ihr Cmicii linlrpi'mlrnl Stall' us to 
Ihr pim»i's<i,,iinf l.iiinlii liniiirlily "prakintr. lln- 

rnlllllry Will r.plitlly ilithli .1 IhImii 11 till' llinpll. 

tiinli l.nni Sallil.iiry. In liU iii'L'iillatliiini 

with iMTiiiiinyanil rnrlui.'iil, m rv uisrly uplirlil 
Ihr |.riiii ipl.' nf fnr wliiili'\vu» liilil ilnuii 
liy Ihr All nf III rlin, I-n.-,. in n'i.'anl In thr fri'i- 

ttiinnit nf chikIh lliniu;;|i Irrnlnrii's in whil Ii I Mil 

nr iimrr pimrrs nrr iniliiriiiy iiiii'ii'-.ii il ' 

"'rilU-., liy Ihr Alljlln lirriimll l..lllpMII. Ihr inn 

triirlinu' pn\M rn uKirvi il fnr lliiir n»piiti\i' 

Mllljrl'H a 'rii;!!! nf «il\.' sn III vpriik, iilmi:; 

llir main rliiiiim K nr inuir, i,| 1 mniniinii aiimi 
riirnii-li thr applii.iiimi nf Ihr Mini, prim iplr 

in Ihr nillll .\lli;ln l'nrlu;;ui'-.i' «nl,Mlllinli, 

I'liriui/iil nhliiiiis in.l niily a ' richi ni way 
ill rn-... thr Hrili»li Zniiilr-'i /.,,ui-. Imt iiNo liir 
pri\ili -■rnf imivirui tiiii; railM iiysiiml li li'L'rapli-. 
shr iliiri'liy -11 iM'i -i Ini iiiiil u'liiiilrrnipiiil 11.11 
iii.ii.'n liiUMin hrr p.,svi s«ii,ii, m, ii,,. Kii-i 

• ' 'Ull ..11 Ihr Wi'sl (niisl ,\ »iniil.,r 

I 'I'll -si' :i N iiiirli' I :: lii, in 11,1. Ziiiiilii^i 
l.i.-iii. "illiin llll l'i.rlU|.'ui'M' spill ir. Kiiially. 
llll Ziiiiiliisi itsilfhiis hiiii iliiliir.'il I'pr 111 tliii 
IIiL'snf all iiiiiii'iis Uriiiiin ha- siipuiutiil for 
Ihr ri^rlil nf pnuiiptimi in ihr im m nf |'„i' 

lui:ill wishillL' In llispn-i III liriilnrils M.lllll (if 

Ihr ZainlMsi"- A S \\ iiiii , ,■/„ Ji, . ,/,,/. „„,. I 

.1 .U,n'.i .,,'..„./,,/ , ,,, . IMI'.'.-Mr. iil-n, >.,,1 III 

.\i nil \. iiiiil I 1. tM>A 

A. D. 1884-1895.- Chronology of European 
Exploration. Missionary Settlement, Coloni- 
zation and Occupation. 

1884-1885.- 'I'll.' Ill iliii( ..iiliriiiri i.f I'l'Mi rs. 
Ill 111 In ill 11 rniiiii Ihr liniiisni ii nilnrs 1 mn 1 iluj 

I.. Ihr Inl. inali.'iiiil (mi-.. A iiiii.ii. inrsinh 

li-h fniiimn nf liiiil. wiihin ilmi I. iiiim\, im,) 
I" fnriiiiiliilr riili's fnr n viiliiliiii; in fiiliiVr ihr 
ill nuisilii'Ti nf .\fririin tiriiinry 

1884-1885. .Inimiiy I.f Mr Wiiltir M, Ki rr 
fi.ln (iipr ('..!. ,iiy. iiir.ivs ih, Ziiii.lii si, i.i l.iikr 

Nviissii. liliil il.iwii Ihr shir. liiMTln llir rniisl 

1884-1885.- Travi Is nf .Mr K I,. .lanii s „n,i 
p.irtv in Ihr Si'liiiili ( .iiiiiln 

1884-1887.- Kxploratini'i l.y Dr. Si hin/ nl ilni 
iiiwly ai'iiiiinil Ci riiiiin ti irilnrirs in .\friiii 

1885.— Transfrr nf thr rii;lits nf Ihr Sm ii ty 
■■( (JtrRiiin ('ii!mi'/iif'ii!i 1.. :',,.. c.ri...,., y..:, 
Alrira C'liiupany, and I'.Mrnsiun nf imprrial 

AKIUl'A, 18M5. 

AFRICA. l»»t»-IStfo 

protrrtinn ti> tlic Irrrilc.rics ilaiinccl hy the Com 
puny (tirin:!!) aci|iiiHili(iii of Witii, niirlli of 

1885. — Atrn-cninit iM-twccii (irrinany nnd 
Fniruc, (IcrMiini; tlicir ri'spiM'tivc sphcri's of in- 
fliii'iirc on the Iti^'lit of liiafra. 011 ilir slavi' 
coast ami in Scii' LMinliia. 

1885.— Transf'.rinalion of liic Coiiiro Associa- 
tion into tlic ln(|.-|icn(irnl Slate of tlic l'oni;o, 
witli Kini; I.('o|mi1iI of lti'li,'iiiin as its sover- 

1885.— Briiisli I'roleetoratc cxtcncii'il to tlie 
ZaTnIie>i. over tlie eotintry west of tlie l*ortii 
;:nese province of Sofala, to tiie 20tlt deijree (tf 
east Inimitnile. 

1885. — Urilisli I'rotecldrate cxteii<leil over tlie 
reniaiinier of iteeliuanaiand. 

1885. — Italian oc<-ii|iation of Mussowa. on tlie 
He.1 Sea. 

1885.— Mission of Mr. .Ios( ph Thomson, for 
III!' Niilional .\fri<'an Company, up the NiL'er. to 
SoKot . ami tJantin. seeiirini: treaties with tlie 
snitariH iiniter whicli tlie company aci|iiire(l para- 
mount riirhts. 

1885-1888. — Mission of M. B..ielli to the 
Idnciiom of Shoa (Soiitlieru Kthiopiaiand sonth 
■f It. 

1385-1889. — Winn, after tin' fall of Khar 
loiini anil the ilealli of (ieiieral (ioriloii, in iss."), 
the Siiiian was ali.iniloniil to the Maliili anfl the 
fiinalieal Mohaniine'iaiis of the interior, l>r. Kil- 
w;irtl Sehnit/er, better known as Kmi* Pasha, 
who hail lieeii in command. ntnler(torilon, of the 
province of the Kqu.-itor, extendini; up t(t I.;ike 
Alherl, was cut off for six years from communi 
cation with the civilize<l world. In Ws; im ex- 
pedition to ii sriie hini and h's command was 
i^ent out untler Henry .\I. Stanley. It < iiiered 
the continent from the west, in;id<' its way up 
IheC^'iiL'oand tie- .\rnwinii to Vamhnya; thenci- llii- reL'ion to Lake .Mhert 
Nyan/.a and into enmnninicalion with Kniin 
I'asl.a, then retiirniiii;- to Vamlnr.a fnrtlii' rear- 
^u,ud \vlii(li hail In ell lift there; auaiu Inivers 
ini; the s,-ivai.'e land Oi Lake .Mhert. and passini; 
fri'in there, with I.inin and his comiianions. by 
way of Lake .Mill rl IMward Nyaii/a (then 
asri rt.iiiiril to he lhi< nltimale resir\tiir of the 
Nile ^\^iinii around the snulliern i Ainiiiity of 
till- \irtiiiia Nvan/a, to /,in/iliar, vnIiIiIi was 

l-eai lull al tile end of Issi,! 

1886. SeliliniiTit lietui. n <ireat Ihil.iin and 
(iirni.iny of the mast terriliir\ to In- h fl iinih-r 
the -lOi ri i^nl\ of the Millaii of Zaii/iliar. and 
of Ille "spill n sot illtlui nee " to III- .ipin'i iprialed 
respeeliveiy liy tin ni>eivi -., liitween the lakes 

anil the eastf rn coast, ni.rlli of the I'otI ui:uese 


1886. .\uT-ermeril lii-;wiin l-'riine and I'orlii 
^';il ili-lhiin-.: liniiis of Ieiriii>r\ in .siriiii:;niiliia and 
al llir mil III till- I >>irM 

1886, - 'Iransfnl i,. II, ,11 he Naliiilial ,\friean 

Ciiiii|iati\ iiilollii ihlUsh lei\:il Ni.:ir t ompan.x , 
with a 1 iiarler ;;ii ill:: p.nMis ,,1 adniinisl ration 
over a tar::'- li'ili lain on tin- i'i\ i r Nii^i-i. 

1886. - .Mission sl.ilii.ii I., undid hy .\lr Arnot 
al liinike\a. in the southeasli rn pall of tlie 
Con-o M.iv 

1886-1887. — .liiiirm-y of l.iiuti nam Wisaiiann 
a< Tiiss lie- eonliiant, irntii LiilualuirL'. a slalioil 
of llii- ('niiL'o .\ssoeialioii. ill Ille diiininion of 
Mii.iia Vaiivo. to .Nyanirwc. on thi- Liialaha. 
and till lice til Zaii/lliar. 

1886-1889.— Expeditions of I)r ZintgrnfT in 
the Cameroons interior anil to tin' Hcnue. for the 
lirinL'iii!; of the country under (icrinnn intlucnce. 

1887.— .Vnnexation of Ziilulanil. piirlly to the 
Transvaal, or .South Africiin Itepiililic. imd the 
ri'maindcr to the Hritish possessions. 

1887.— French minhouts hiiincheil on the I'p- 
per Niu'ir. iiiakinj,' 11 recuniioissancu nearly to 

1887.— Inih'ntily of the Wellc Kiver with the 
Mhaniii or riianni pstiihlishcd by Cuptain Van 
(tele and LieiitemLiit Lienurt. 

1887. — First ascent of Kiliniiiiijaro by Dr. 
Hans Sleyer. 

1887-1889.— Kxploratioti by Captain Bin^rer 
of the rcirioii bi'tween the t;"'"' bend of the 
Nisxer and the countries of the (lohl Coast. 

1887-1890.— Expedition of Count Telekl 
throiitrh Masailand. havini; for its most impor- 
tant result the discovery of the Basso-Xitrok. or 
Black Laki'. to which the discoverer ^ave the 
name of Lake liudolf, and Lake Stofanie 

1888.— Charterini; of the Imjierial British 
Fast Africa Company, under concessions unmted 
by the sultan of Zanzibar and by native chiefs, 
with powers of administration over a reiiinu de- 
fined ultimately as cxtiiidini; from the river 
linba nortliward to the river .Iiib, and inland to 
and across Lake Victoria near its middle to the 
eastern boundary of the Con^o Free Stale. 

1888. — liritisli supremacy over .Malabelcland 
secured by tre.ity uilh its Kii.i; LolH-n^ula. 

1888. — British I'rotectorate extemkd over 

1888.— .\scent of Mt, Kilimanjaro by Mr. 
I Ehliis and Dr. Abbott, also liv Dr. Hans 
M, yi r. 

1888. — Travels of .losepli Thomson in the At- 
las and southern Morocco. 

1889. — Uoyal charier i;ranted to the British 
South .\lriea Ciunpan,\ , with rij^hts and powers 
in the ri'tfion called Zamliesia iinrlh of British 
Bechiianalaiid and the South .Vfriean I{e|mblic, 
and between the I'orl iiifiiese territory on the east 
and the (Ji-nuan tirritorv on the west. 

1889. -Will of Kim; Leopold, makitii; Bel- 
iriiim hi ir to the sovereisj;n ri|:lits of ihe Congo 

Free SI, lie. 

1889, Protectorate of Italy over Abyssinia 
aikiiowli'diri d livtlie Nei;us, 

1889. - I'ortuiiuesc lioinan Catholic Mission 
established on the south shore of Lake Nva-ssa, 
1*1 It 111 jiii-se ex plural ion under Serpa Pinto in the 
Lake Nvassa n-uiiiii, with iicsiLrns of occupancy 
frustrated by the Brilish. 

1889. — .louriii y of .M Craniiiel from the 
Ol'iivc to ihe I.ikiiala tributary of the Congo, 
and return direeilv westward to the coast 

l889.-~l)r. Wiilf'sexpli.ration of the southeast 
NJLir basin, where be mil his death 

1889. -Major Macdiinal'I's exploialii'ii of the 
li'imi , s'.ineiiines calh d the Teliadd.i 11 branch 
of the Niu'eri. and of its tributarv the Kebbi. 

1889, -.liiirnev of Mr H. II '.lohnslun north 
of Lake .Ny.issaand to Lake I.i opold. 

1889.— .lourney of -.r. Sliarpe tliroiiuh the 
eiiiiiiir\ Iviiii; between the Shire and Loani^w-a 

1889. -.Mr Piiiott's journey 11 the Ipper 
Tana, ill the ser\iee of tlie Imperial British Last 
,\friea ( "iiipany. 

1889-1890.— British I'rotectorate deehircd o' 
\yassalanil and the Shire ll'Khtands 



AFHICA, 1889-1890. 

1889-1890.— Italian Protcrtonito cstaMished 
ovpr territory on tlic imsicrn (iiccanii) Soni ili 
coiwt. from tlic Gulf of Adin to Ihc Jul) Kivcr. 
1889-1890.— Iniptrial Urilish Kast Africa Com- 
pany's I'Xpiilition, uiiilcr Jatksoii and (icdjie, for 
tlic ixplorinjr of a new road to the Victoria N'j ■■ 
aii/.a and Uganda. 

i889-i890.~('aptain Lupard's exploration of 
th( liver .Sal)al<hi for the Imperial British East 
Africa Company. 

1889-1890. — Journey of Lieutenant Mnrp( t 
from the CamenKins, on llie .vestem coast to tli 

1889-1890.— French cxplorntions in Mada 
pas<iir liy Dr. Catat and .M.\I. Maislrc am. 

Ifqo. — Anjjlo- German Ccmvention, defining 
1). oi.laries of the territories and "spheres of iii- 
tluence " respectively claimed liy the two powers ; 
Germany withdrawinit from V'ilu. and from all 
the eastern mainland coast rortli of the river 
Tana, and conceding a Hritish Protectorate over 
Zanzihar. in exchange for the island of Ileli^'o- 
land in the N()rth Sea. 

1890.— French "sphere of inlluen<'c " extend- 
ingover the Sahara and the Siid.ui, from Algeria 
to l.aki' Tcliiiil imd to Say on the Niger, recog- 
nized hy (treat Britain. 

1890. — Kxploralion of the river Sangha, an 
important northern trilmtary of the Congo, by 

M. C .|, ' 

1890.— Exploring journey of M. llodisi, r. 
agent of the I'pper Congo" Comiiaiiy, up the 
Loiii:imi river and acrosi country to" the I,ua- 
latia. at Nyangwe. 

1890.— .lourriey of Mr. Garrett in the intcii-.r 
of Sierra Leone to the upper waters of tlm 

1890.— .Journey of Dr. Fleck from tin- west- 
ern ciKi-it a(ro^s the ICidihiiri to Lake N'L'ami 

1890-1891.— Lallan possessions in the Bed .Sea 
united in the (..lony of Kritrea, 

1890-1891.— .Mission i,f Captain I.uirurd to 
l\'.mcla and signature of a Ireatv liv iis kini; 
ackiiowli.lgirig the supremacv df the liritisl; 
Lavt .Vfrica Companv. 

1890-1891.— K\|.|oration hy M I'aul Cramiiel 
of till- eiiiinil re^iiin helweie tin- French ter- 
ril,,iirson ihe Coi,L-o and Tcliad. ending 
ill tlie niunlir of .M. Crampc I ami s.-ver.-d of 
his ciimpanions. 

1890-1891. -.hiiiriiev of Mr. Sharpe from 
M:oii|:il:i. in the Shire I jiirh hinds, to (^iic;iu'aii/r. 

'I iiipire foiiiidiil hv ;iM .\rrir,-in a.lveiiiunr. in llie Kalan-a copp.r country, li. 
ro Mild the l.uiiptilii rivi r on 
11 the \M -I 
Lieulciiant Mizon 

Iwiiii Lake .Mi 
tlie I MSI, Mild llie 

I Ihe .Niger l( 

and lh( 
Lilalalia o 
uiney of 
the Colli;. 

'apl.iiii I'll cker fn 
norili iioiiliw.-^l 

1890-1891. - .lourney of C 
Viiiiiliuva, on ilir Annvimi, 
llie \V,H,-. 

1890-1892.— llaliin explorations in il,,. So- 
iiiMli r,,iiniri,-s hy Siu'Mor liohccciii. Li, iii,ii;iiit 
iiiili ,li V.sine. Prill. -c liii.-poli. aii.l Ciiplaiiis 
l'>""i-i;o anil (iriv.iiii, 

1890-1893.- Kxi.i'.liiii.n of Dr. Siulilniaiiii 
"iMi Lniiu I'.i^lni. ri.ini l'>aL'aiii..vo. via III.- 
\ II loiia Nyanza aii.l the Allien Kii»;ii-,| t.. Ih.. 
|||;n.Mii wiM ,,f il„. Alhirt .Nvanza, Fmiii Ihis 
pi'iiii l>r SiulilniMiiii ritiirni'.l. while Liiiin pur- 
su.-.lliH way, inlenilini.' it is sai.l, t.i ii.i.h Kili 
oiiL'e, on the right hank of the ( oiil-o. souili 

AFKICA, 189I-1M92. 

! of Stanley Fail.i. lie was murdered at KInena, 
l.VI miles northeast of Kilionge, by the order 
of an Arab chieL 

1891.— Extension of the British Protectorate 
of Lagos over the neighboring dislricis of Addo, 

: Ighcssa. and llaro. which f..rm the western 
lioiindary of Yorulia. 

1891.— Treaty between Great Britain and 

j Portugal detining their : con.eding to 

I Ih.' ■: i,>er an interior extension of lier South 
.'.'>■ .1 :;..iiii lion up to the southern lioundary 
it Ihe C .'i.;.- Vr, State, and seciirii,' to the 
l;ili.-i- d tin. I ier- .-ies on the Lower /.imbesi, 
'I- i.ower Sli.'n'-, ed the Nyassa, as well as the 
!; . :. II! vk "f I, • possessions on the western 

e. .:i-r 

"91.- - onve-ition brtween Portugal and the 
Congo Free o; .te for the <livlsion of the dis- 
; puled district of Liinda. 

1891. — Convention of the Congo Free State 

with the Katanga Company, an internathmal 

ayndieate. giving tlie Company preferential 

rights over reputed mines in Katanga and I'riiii. 

j with a third of the public domain, provided it 

I established an ellective oi ciipatiim within three 

I years, 

1891.— French annexation of the Gold Coast 
j between Liberia ami the (iraiid Hassam. 

1891. — Opening of the Boval Trans African 
I J{ailway. in West Africa, from Loanda to Am- 
I liaca. 1 III miles. 

1891.— Siirviy of a railway route from Ihe 
eastern coast |.> Viil.iria Ijike by the Imperial 
British Ea-t .\rric;i Company, 
; 1891. — Kxplorati.Mi of the Jul) Biver. in the 
I Somali country, by Cominan.ler Diindas, 
I 1891.— Exploration by Captain Diinilns, from 
j the eastern coast, ii|i tiie river Tuna to Mount 
I Kenia. 

I 1891.— Mr Bint's exploration ..f tli.- ruined 
! cilii'sof MM>lional.iii.|. 

1891. -.I.mrnevof M. Maistre from the Congo 
to 111.- Shaii. 

1O91. -.loiirneys of Captain Gallwev in the 
B.niii count rv, \\'e-it .\frica. 

1891.— Mis,- i. Ill esiablishe.l by the Berlin Jlis 
sioiiiiry Society in llie Komle" couiitr\ . al the 
n.irrhi rn eii.l if L;ik.- Ny.issa. 

1891-1892.— liicorp..ialioii i.f ih,. Afri.'an 
Lak.s Company wilh the Urilish South ,\frica 
Company. ( IrL'nniz.ition of Ih.- iiilministralion 
of N.irlli.'ni Zambe-ii an. I N va>sal,-in.|. 

1891-1892,— K.yp.-.lili.. 11 ' .-f ||„- Kalanga 
Ciiipaiiy, iin.l.r Capliiiii Siairs, fr.iiii Bngaiiiovo 
111 Lake raiiL'anyik.i. Ihenc- ihroiiL'h Ih.- conn 
try :ii llie Ilea. I ..f 111.' most .souilnrn allliients 
of III,- CoM^,,, the aii.l the Liiapiila. 

1891-1892. - l!.-k'i.-iii i-xpi-.iiti..iis iinil, r Cap 
lain Ilia au.l olh. rs lo evplon- tin- s.nillienslern 
|i..rli..ii of 111,- C.iiij;,, liii-in, on b,.|ii,|r ,,f the 
KiitaiiLr.! C'lnpany, re-iiliin- in thi .iel. riniiia- 
lion of ihi- (iii-t thai Ihe Liikiiira Itiver is an 
oiiil.'t r Lak.- Taiiiranyika. 

1891-1392.— .I..iiriiey ,.t Dr .I,-iiiies ,liiliiision 
aer.Ks III.- (.iiitinent, fmni li.iiu'in la t.. the 
in.. mil ..t Ihe Zaiiilioi, ilir..ii:.'h l!ih.-, (iannm-hi 
Ii;, Ih.- Kaiihari Desert. Masli..n:il:in,l' 
Maui. -a, (;or..iigoza,, an. I ili. Shin' llii;h 

1891-1892.— Expi-.lilion ..f Mr, .I.iseph Tl 1 

S..I1, for 111.- British .Siniih Africa C.iiiip.uiv. rr..m 
KiliniMiie or tjiiillimane on the eastern coast to 

l.ilk.. I{,in!.'We,j!.j. 


AFRICA, 1891-1893. 


1891-1892.— .Tmiriii'V iif Ciiptiiin Mnntcil fmrn 
the NiL'i r in l.ilkc- 'I'c ii'iiil and 1.1 Tripnli. 

1891-1892.— Kxplnnitiun \<y l.ii iilinanl (liiil- 
tin nl UiiiiMT l.nlii. ami ilii- (oiiiilrv lictwnii 
llir Arinviiiii mid tin- W i IK .Makim liivrrs. in llii' 
l',.ni;'> Mat.-, 

1891-1893.— .Ic'iiniiy i'{ I)r. dsciir Hamiiaiiii 
friilM 'raliL'a, I'll til' laslcrli casl; |ia^-ilijr ti> lli>' 
soulli I'f Kiliniaiijaic'. iIIm ..Mriiii: two laki s In- 
twii 11 that lUiiuiiiaili and llir Vii tiiria Nuiii/ll 

1891-1894.- I-Apcclitidli iiiidir ll.cri'inliiillidiif 
('a|iiaiii \aii Ki rcklinvcii and M di la Kriliirllr 
di- l;\ hoM'. titird mil l.y tin- loii;:.i Fn i' Slat, . 
for till- siilijiiL'atioii c.f till- Aral's, tin' snpprc s»ii.ii 
(.fill.' sla\i' iradi-. and the csplniati'in of tlir 
countrv. tlirc'K^'lioiil tlic ri'L'iuii "I the Wi-Ur or 
I'lianir'i I'l'lk' and !.■ tlir Nilr. 

1892.- Di'ci-iiin "f till' lin)«rial liritUli Kast 
Africa Cniiipaiiy til willidraw fr..iii I'L'andii. 

1892. — I'nutiial ciiinnu'st <if DiilKHncy by the 

1852.— .Ii'iirncy of M Mi'ry in tlic Saluira to 
till' siiuUi of Warirla. nsiiltiin; in n ri port fiivtir- 
ahlc to till' inn^triiitioii of a railway to tap tlic 
Ci'tiiral Sudan. 

1892.— Kriiii li ( \|iidition under Captain liin- 
p'rioi-Npliin' till- Miiiiliirn Sudan, audio ait ion 
i'lintlv with liriiisli iilticiaN in di'tirinininc tin- 
It'iundarv iM'iwcrn Krfncli and Kniilisli pos>i'> 

1892.. — loiirnoy nf Mr. Sliarpo frnni iho Shire 
Itiv. 1 I'l !.aki' .Miiero and the Ipper l.u:ipidn. 

1892-1893.— (iinstrtietion of n line of telc- 
prapli. liy the Hritish South Afrioiin Coiupany, 
frotn Cape Colony, through Masiionitlaiid. to 
Flirt Salishury. with projected extension aerosa 
the Zaiiiliesi and liy the side of Lakes Nyiissii 
ami Taniranyikii to I'canda, — and ultimately 
down the valley of the Nile. 

1892-1893. — f'reneh scientific mission, under 
M. I>i*ele, from Cape Town to the sources of the 

1892-1893. — Italian explorations, under Chap- 
lain Bottego and I'rince Kuspoli. in the upper 
basin of the Kiver .lub. 

1893. — Itrussils Antislavery Conference, rati- 
fied in its action by the Powers. 

1893. — Olticial mission of Sir Gerald I'lirterto 
t'caniia, sent liy the Hritish (Joverntnent to re- 
p.irt as to th(i expediency of tin: withdrawal of 
liritisli authority from that country. 

1893.— Scieiit'itic ex|iedition of "Mr. Scott-El- 
liot to L'^inda. 

1893. — Scientific expedition of Dr. Orccnry. of 
the Hritish Miisium. from .Mombassa, on tl ast- 
ern coast, throiiLrh Masailand to .Mount Kenia. 

1893. —.Ion nicy of .Mr. Hent to Aksum.iu Aby» 
sinia. the aniieni capital and sacred city of the 

1893-1894. (liTMriii scii-niilic survey of 
Mi'Uin Kiliin inj 110, under lli-~ l.i nt iiml Volkeiis 

1893-1894.— Expedition of .Mr. Astor Chanler 
and l.iinliiiant von lliilinel from Witii. on the 
eastern mast, to the .loiiiliini Kange and among 
the Ki'iidili-. 

1893-1894. — Explorations of Hamn von Vech- 
trilz aii'l Dr. I'assarire on the Heniiiv 

1893-1894. — .lourney of H.-irou von Scheie 
from the east(-rn coast to i,;ike Nyassa, and 
thenie by a direct route to Kili-a. 

1893-1894.— .lourney of Ciunt von OiHzen 
across the continent, from I>ar es-Salaam, on the 
r:i'-:crn ciLls-t tot!-.;- i.o-.vrr CotleO 

1894.— Treaty between Great Britain and the 
Coni;o Free State, securing to the former a strip 
of land on the west side of the Nile lietween 
the Alliert Nyanza and lO'' north latitude, and to 
till! latter the large Hahr-el Ohazel region, west 
ward. This convention pave offense to France, 
and that country immediately exacted from the 
Congo Free State a treaty stipulating that the 
latter shall not occupy or exercise political Intltl- 
ence in a region which covers most of the terri- 
tory assiguetl to it by the treaty with Great 

1894.— Franco-German Treaty.determining the 
boundary line of the Caiiieroons, or Kamerun. 

1894. — Treaty concluded by Captain Liigard, 
Novenilter 10, at NIkki, In Borgu. confirming 
the rights claimed liy the Iloyal Niger Company 
over Borgu. and placing tliat country under 
British protection. 

1894.— Agreement between the British South 
Africa C'ompan\ and the Government of Great 
Britain, signed November 24, 1894. transferring 
to tile direct administration of the Company the 
Protectorate of Nyassaland, tiiereby extendini; 
its domain to the south end of Lake Tangan- 

1894. — Kenewed war of France with tha 
Hovas of Madagascar. 

1894. — Expedition of |)r, Donaldson Smith 
from the Soniiili cna-t, stopped and turned back 
by the .Miy.ssinians. in itcccmbt-r. 

1894. — Coni|ilited <-oni|iiest of Dahomey by 
the Kreiich ; caplure of the dejioM-d kini:. .Janu- 
ary v-"i. and his deportation to exile in .Martin- 
ii|iie. Decree of the French (lovernmetit. .lutie 
'.'•>', direetini; the administrative nrL'-aiiizatiou of 
the ■-colony of Dahomey and I>epelidencics." 

1894.— liecupation of Timbuctoo bv a French 

1894.— .lourney of ( ount von (ii'itzen across 
the coniiiient, fr • llie eastern coast, tliroiiudi 
Uiianda and the ' 1 al Forest to and aloni: the 
I,o\va. an ca^li-rn iiilnitary of the Cmiiro. 

1894. — Exploration of the ipper Congo and 
ihi- l.iikuga by .Mr. li. Dmscy M.ilmn, Aiiieri(-an 
.\Lri-nt on the Chiil'o, and Dr.' liiiide. 

1894. — Scientilic ex|M'dition of .Mr. Coryndon 
from the Cape to the Zanroesi and Lake 'I'an 

1894-1895. — War of till' Italians in their 
(olony of Eritrea with both the .\liy-.vinians and 
the Mahdisis. Italian ucciiivition of Kasxila. 

i895.^Fraiico liriljsli a-ricnii'iit. si;:ned .lan- 
iiary ','1, isii,",, ri'vpi-diii;;- the " lliiili riaiid " of 

Sierra 1 m-, w hich si ciiii-s to Frani-c the t'ppi-r 

Ni.i-'er ba«in. 

1895. — Ciiinentioii Itetwieu Heli:iiiiu and 
Fraiici sii;iied Fi-liruary "1. rei iL'iiiziiiL' a ri^'ht of 
pi-i-iimptioii on the part of tin- laliiT, with ri- 
gard to Ilii- CoiiL'" >laic. in ca^e IJilL^Jum should 
at any tiiiie i-eii"iinci' ilic so\ireiirnty wliich 
King Leopold desires to tiaiislir to it. 

AGADE. Si, llMiviiiNtA: TiiK E.\ki.y 

iCll.M.liK.KN) MoN.Mll UV. 

AGAS. See >i r.i.iMi; I'liiiTi-:. 
AGATHOCLES, The tyranny of. Sec 
SvH.M ish : li. C :lir-v!si'.l. 

iVc '^ee SrilM-. .\i'l. 

AGELA. AGELATAS.— Th,' voiilbs and 
via:;:;; nan of anci- ill Crete were puhlii !v 





tr (iTiriland iliflcipliiit'il in <livisii)n.<i or (-oniimiiicH, 
i';n it of wliicli WH!i (-iilti'd an Aijrla. and i\H 
Iiail<-r or ilircclnr the Auflutas. — (i, Srlii.mann. 
Ai.iii/. .>f (Irui; : Tin-,; /.l. ;i, ,■//. ',' 

AGEMA, The.— The royal isiorl o .Vl<x- 
andiT till' Great. 
AGEN, Origin of. ISic Ni iiniiiiioKs 

ACER PUBLICUS. — ■■ Uoiw was always 
III Mil.' frcsli ai'i|Ui>ilionii of tirriinry in licr 
cany liistory. . . . l.arjic trarts of lountry l>c- 
i-aiiio lionian land, tlii' propiTty of tiif Uoiiiaii 
state', or imlilii' domain (afri-r iiulilicii.s), as tlic 
Itoiuaim lallcd it. Tlie condition of this land, 
tin* ns(,' to which it was applicil, and the dis- 
putes which it can*-cd between the two orders at 
Uonie, are anion;: the most curious and perplex- 
ing (jiiestions in iionian history. , , . That part 
of ne\vlyaequir<'d territory which was neither 
8old nor giM'ii remained ptililic pioprrty. and it 
was occupied, according' to the Kiaiiaii term, liy 
pri\atu persons, in wliose hands it was a l*!is- 
sessio. Myiriniis and Siciilus Klaecus represent 
this occupation as bein.i; made without any 
order. Every Hoiiian took what he could, and 
more than iie could tisc profitably. . , . We 
should le more inclined to believe that this 
public land was occupied under some reirula- 
tioii.s, in order to prevent disputes; but if such 
regulations existed we know nothing about 
them. There was no survey made of the public 
laiiil whi(-h was from time to time acijuircd, but 
Ihire were certainly general boundaries lixc-d bir 
the purpose of determining what had become 
publico property. The lands which were soM 
and iriven vereof necessity surveyed and tixed 
by boundaries. , . . There is no ilirect evidence 
that any payments to the state were oriiriiially 
made by tlie I'o.ssessors. It is certain, however, 
that at some early time such payments were 
maih', or, at least, were due to tin- st.ite." — G. 
Long, Ih i-li III' iif till- Wiiniiii lliimhUr, ,■/,. 11. 

AGGER. Se Casthv, 

AGGRAVIADOS, The. See A, 1) 

Persia, A, I), 17»r.-1797. 

TA.N (oNgcKsT .XND KMriiii-;; A. I> 71.">-7,Vi. 

AGHRIM, OR AUGHRIM, Battle of lA. 
D. i6qi). See liiKl.ANii: A. D. |iiN',( l<i!)l. 

AGILULPHUS, King of the Lombards. 
A, 0. ,-|9()-(ill). 

AGINCOURT, Battle of (14151. Sc- 
Fk.xxcf.: a. I). lll,"i. 

AGINNUM.— Modern Agen. See Nnio- 

AGNADEL, Battle of (15091. See VtMi 1:; 
A. I). MOM^i.'iiiy. 

AGNATI,- AGNATIC. SccCkns, I!,>mas. 

AGNIERS, The. Sic AMt;i;i( AN Ai,oiai;i- 

NES: .\0MKI1S. 

AGOGE, The.— The public disciidine en- 
forecil in ancient Sparta; llie ordinances attri- 
buted to I.ycurgus. for tin' training of the young 
and for the regulating of the lives of citizens.— 
<; Schilmann, Aiitiij. ofiii-ui-i-: Thf Slut,. /.^ :i, 
r/i 1. 

AGORA, The.— The market -pi ue of an ancient 
(irefk city was, also, the centre of its political 
life. " l.ike til'' gymnasium, and even e:irlier 
ir*;in thi,s, it grev\ into urchileclurttl apiuitiuur 

with the increasing culture of the (Jrei ks. In 
iii.irilimi' cities it gcnerilly lay near the sea; in 
inland places at the foot (d' the hill whieli carried 
the old feudal castle. Hcirig thi' olde-.t part of 
the city, it naturally became the focus not onl/ 
of cominercir.l, but also of religious and poliiiial 
life. Here evi'U in llomer's time the citizens'inbled in consultation, for which purpose it 
was supidied with Beats; hire were the oldest 
sanctuaries; here were 1 1 Icliraled thi- tirsl fes- 
tive games; here centred tlie roads on which the 
intcrconimuniiation, both reliL'iousand commer- 
cial, with neighbouring cities and st.itcs was car- 
ried on; from here Htarti'd the processions which 
<'oiilinually passed between holy places of kin- 
ilred origin, though locally separated. Althoug!' 
originally all public transactions were carried on 
in these market-places, special local arrani.'e- 
nieiits for contracting |iublic business soon 
became ncci'ssary in birgciities. At Athens, for 
instance, the gcntiv rising ground of the I'hilo- 
jiappos hill, calli'd I'nyx, tiaiching the Agora, 
was used for political consultations, \vhile iiinst 
iikcly. about the time id' the I'isistratiiles, tlu 
market of Keranieikos, tin' oldest seat of Attic 
industry (lying between the foot of the Akropo- 
lis, the Areopagos and tint hill of Tlieseii,s>, 
beianie the ngora proper, i. e., the centre of 
Athenian eomnierce, . , , The descriiition by 
Vitruvius of an agom evidently rtdVrs to the 
splendid structures of post-.Mexandrine times. 
,\eeording to him it was i|uailrangular in size 
[■; shapi'l and surroimih d by wide double colon- 
ades. The numerous columns <*arried architraves 
of common stoT>e or of marble, and on the roofs of 
the portii'oc' re galh ri-^ tor walking purposes. 
This, of col.. ., does ' apply to all market- 
places, even of Later dai. . but, upon the whole, 
the remaining specimens agree with the descrip- 
tion of Vitrinius." — K. (Juhl and \V. Koncr, 
J. if, i.flh,' (h;,i:- iiiiil l;,,iii,n,.<. tr. by Ilu(ff,r, j,t. 
1, ■■<"■/. 'JO. — In the llomerio lime, the general 
as.scmbly of freemen was callcil the Agora. — G. 
Cirote, lli:-r. ,,f ii,;.r,, j,t. 1, ,■/,. Jil. 
AGRiEI, The. Si f .Vkaiinamvns 
AGRARIAN LAWS, Roman.— (Jreat mis- 
takes formerly prevailed on the n,-iture of the 
lioman laws familiarly teriiicd Agrarian. It 
was supposed by these laws all land was 
lieclari'd coinmnii pr"pirty, and that at certain 
intervals of tiuii- the state resumed possessiou 
and made a frish disiribution to all litizcns, 
rich and pimr. It is needless to make any 
remarks on the nature .ind consciiueines of such 
a Law ; sullii ii 111 it will be to say, what is now 
known to all, that at Honic such laws never 
existed, iieMT Wile thought of. The lands 
which wile to be ilisiributed by Agiarian laws 
were not pri\.ite property, but the propirly of 
the state. They were, origiiMily, those public 
Lands w liich bad been the domain ol the kings, 
and which were increased win never any city 
or people was conquered by the lioiiians; 
it \vas an Italian practice to cotitiscatc the lands 
of the conipiered. in wlnile or in part." — II. O, 
I.i.ldell, ///,i/, of ll-ii,,. hh. i. eh. S.— See HiiMlC: 
n, |- :i7ii. .ind'H, C. i:!:;-UM. 

AGRI DECUMATES, The.— • Hctwem the 
Uliine and the I'pper Manube there intervenes a 
triangular tract of land, the ajiex of which 
touches the confines of Switzerland :; Hasel; 
thus separating, as with an enormous wedge, 
liie provinces of (iaul and Vindeiieia, ulid pre- UtCL .MATt-S. 

Aix i,.viii.vri;i.i,i:. 

denlinp at ila lias, im iiatiinil line of (Icfciiio 
fr»uii one river tn tin' nilicr. Tliis tract was, 
li(u\c\( r, (x'ciipiril, for tin- lud^t part, hv fcrfst.^. 
nnd if it limkr tlir line ■ 1 tlic Ittniian lii fiiirc'^. it 
mi^'lil at li-ast lie rmisiili nil iiiipna'trahli- to an 
enemy. AliaiMlmacl liy tlie »arlil;e ainl jireda- 
t(iry IriiH'S I'f (lerintiiiy. it was .^ei/iilby wainler- 
inir iiiiniiuraiils fnmi (laii], ni my oi tliein lloiiian 
ail\ 'iitiinTs. itefure wlioin tlie uriL'irial iiili;ihit- 
nnts. tlie Mareoiiianiii. or men of the frontier, 
W'em to li!i\c retreated eastwari! lieyond the 
llerevnian forest The iritnnlers elainied or 
Bolieiled Koman |iroteetion. and otl'erc'd in return 
a trilinte from llie prodine of iln' soil, whiiiee 
the di.striet itself <:oae to he know il hy the title 
(if the Alt! Deeniii iic-s, orTilhed I..aiid. 
not, !io\ve\er, oltieially eonneeled with any 
provinie of the Knipire, nor was any atteniiit 
made to provide for its iierniiimnt sec iirity, till 
a jieriod niueh later than onuhiehweure 
now enLMized [the jieriod of Autrnslus]." — ('. 
Merhale, Ilhl. ./ r/<. I!u„„ii,.i. ,■'■ :t(i. _•■ \V,ir- 
temleir;;. Haden and I'oheri/ollern eoirieide 
with the Alt! Keciiinatesof the lioman writers." 
— R. «}. Latham, /•.>///.<-/."/,'/ ';'' E'lrop,-, ,-,',. S._ 
Bee. also, Ai.kmanm, and Si i;vi 

TAIN. Se linn ain: A l>, Ts s | 

AGRIGENTUM.— A. 1 iL-is, or A-ri-eniiim. 
one of the voiinu'st ol lie (incU e 'loiiies in 

Sicily, loiiniled ai t H. C. .>'.! hy the older col- 

on,v of iJela, heeaine one of the l.o ■:.'i ^t anil most 
spiuidid cities of the aL'e. in the lilih ci iitiiry 
H. ('., .IS is testilied hy its ruins to this day. 
It was the .~. ene of the notorious tyranny of 
I'hal.iris, as well as that of 'i'heroii. " Aeriiren- 
tiiiii destroyed liy the CarthaL'enians. I!. ('. 
4n."(. and relniilt iiy Tinioleon. but neser reco\ered 
its tormi r iinportaiice and grandeur. — I^ Ctir- 
tius. Hist, vf l.rr,.;. I.I:. 4, /'A. ;!. — See, also, 
I'li-M.Miis, liii.vzi N l!t 1.1. III--. — .\irriL'en'iiiii was 
de^lroveil hv the ( 'arihaL'eni.uis in Vn; 1!. C. 
See Sf( ii.T :' r>, ('. 4ii'.'-.|il.">.— lieliuili hy Tinio- 
leon. it was the SI ene of a LTi il dill it of the 
(.'urtha;rrnians hy the Hiin.iiis, in '.'lij 1! ('. See 
I'f.xK W.Mi. 'rii'i: l'iii~r. 


8ei i;oMi . A. |) tr .M. Mild .'ii-ci. 

AHMED KHEL, Battle of >i88oi. S.e 

Aki.ii \m-i \n: a. h. l--i;'i I'-M 

AIGINA. See .V.,.\s\ 

AIGOSPOTAMOI, Battle of. S.e (iui i ci,: 
B (■ (o.-i 

AIGUILLON, Siege of, - .\ noi,,hle sii.-e in 
the •■lliii.ili.d' War." \, I), liili;. An 
Kin^li^ii Lii.iri^on iiieler tiie famous kiiiL.dit. >i'" 
Wall, r .Mann.'. 1.. M ih.' ltciiI l'..rtress of AiLMii!- 
liin, near the ( ..iiilui me of the (iaroiineand the 
Lot. airain^t a !"i n.i.l ilil.- I'ri ni !i ariuv. — ,1. 
Froi--.,arl. '■/,,■ v,',,, . 1. /./-. I .,■//. p.'o. 

AIX, Origin of. Si . s m \ ks. 

AtX-LA-CHAPELLE: The Capital of 
Cha.lfauagne. — Till r.i'.nriie ri-i.leiin ami mir 

of tie MMi I :l]iilals 111' ( li:i.|. ni.lL'll.' « ,|.- I hi. ei! V 

whi.h the lii rm.iiis e.ill Aa. hi ii ami ih.- I'n m h 
have nam.d .Vixd.i-( li i|.. lli . ■ Ih- l:n ih.- 
rums of the ancient \M>ii.i o. r. -I'.re ihi' moiiii- 
menlal arts. A niov H.'iii.' arose in the depths 
of '111- forests of -\ustra-ia — pai.iii s. ^'ati s, 
liriilL'es, hatlis. i.'allerii s, theaires. churi his._for 
the enaction of which the mosaics mid martiles of 
Italv were laid under triluite. and \\orkmen siini. 

noned troin all parts of Kiiropt 

1 1 \vas there 

that an extensive llhrary was galhend. there 
that the school of the palace was made penna- 
neiit, there that foreii.'n envoys were pompously 
weleonied, th.Te that the pionarch perfected liis 
plans t.>r the intr'..iucIion of Koman letters and 
the improvenuait it nui-ic." — P. i^Awin, Hist. 
I'f Fr.niri : Aiiririfl (i,n/l. bk. i.rfi. 17. 
" AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, Treaty of (A. D. 
8031. See VlMil:; A O, OIIT-HKl. 

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, Treaty of (A. D. 
i668>. See Nktiikiu.amis (Hoi. i, ami): A. 1>, 

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, The Congress and 
Treaty which ended the War of the Austrian 
Succession (1748).— The 'War of the Austrian 
Succession, whit h raged in Knrope, and on the 
ocean, and in India and America, from 1710 to 
lTI-< iMC Ai'siiciA: A. n. ITI-^-nHS. 1740- 
1711, and aflcr), was lirciii(.'ht to an end in the 
lattirycarby a Coim'ress of all the lie lliiierents 
which met at Ai.\ la 1 hapelle, in April, and 
V, hiih concluded its on the IStli of Octo- 
hi r following. "The inlluence of Knfjland arj 
Holland . . . forced the peace upon A u.stria and 
Sardinia, though holh wire bitterly airiirieved by 
its conditions. Fnoi. e airrecd to restore every 
concpiest ahe had made during the war, to ahan- 
don the causes of the Stuarts, and expc 1 the Pre- 
tender from her soil; to demolish, in acrordanoe 
wilh earlier treaties, tin. fortilications of Dunkirk 
on the siih' of the sea, while retaining those! on 
the si. le of the land, and to retire from the con- 
ijuest without aci|uiring any fresh territory or 
any pecuniary coinpcn.-alion. Euglaial in like 
manner restore.! the few coinpiesls she had ma.Ie, 
and s-,il>tniUecl t.i the somewhat humili.ating con- 
dition of seiidiiej: lioslaL'es to I'aris as a sc iirity 
for till, resloralion ofCipi'liMon. . . , Thedfs- lioundary hetweiii Cuiada and Xova 
Sciilia, w liii h had liei n a smirc e of constant dilll- 
enity Willi France, was Ic-ft altogether undeliiicd. 
The .•\ssiiiiio treaty for trade with the S]iaiiisU 
I. .lollies was eoiilirinid for the four y.ars it had 
siiU to run; hut no r.-.d coiiipi iisaiion was 
olilaiiied for a war e\p. mlilure u hi- h is said to 
lia\c' sixty-tour niilli.'iis. ami which 
ha I rai-e.l the funded and iinfunilid debt to 
rm.rc th.i ' seveiitv-ei.dit niillions. Of the other 
I'.. WITS, 11.. Hall. I,' (iilioa, and '.lie lillle state of 
.>|oiIeiia rel.ained their t. rriii.ry as In lore the war. 
and (hill. a r.niaiiiid liii-lriss of the Duiliy of 
Final. •, which had liecn ci.l.d to tlie kiiu; of 
Sardinia by Ih.' 'I'realy of Worms, and wliii h it 
hail I.eiai a main obj. ( I of his later poli> . to 
SI cure. Austria obtained a r.c..^ oI the 
1 1 ■. lion of th.' Finp. r..r, a 1:1 neral guarantee of 
li.e Prairnialie S,iiicii..n, aii-l the ri of 
cMruhiiiL' she had lost in the Nelhirlands, hut 
she gained 1,0 additional territory. She was 
e.iiiipi lied to coniiria the ce--ioii of Silesia and 
tilal/ to Prussia, to her Italian con- 
ijlli sts, :tml e\i 11 to (..-de a considerable J. art c.f 
her former llaii.ui doniiiiioiis. 'I'o iIh- bitter 
iii.liL'nati.iii of .Maria 'i'lniesa, the Dnchiis of 
P.irma, Phm-ntia and Uuasiella passed to Don 
I'hilip of Spain, to reviil, however, to Hair 
loriiii r possessors if Di.ii Philip moiiuled the 
Spanish throne, or dii-d w iilioul iiiah' is-iie. The 
King of Sardinia also obtained from -\nstria 'he 
territorial cessions 1 aunieraled in tin- Treaty 
of Worms (sie Itm.v: A. I). 174:il. with the 

iniportallt exeenlinlis of Plaeentiii, which passi'.i 

to Don Philip, and of Finale, which remained 








ttitli the <tf'ii(M"^p. r'or t!if* los8 of tlit'st' lie 
p'll.iiipil nil cciTrpiii^iiliuii. Knili rick phc (in f 
' 1 l'nis.siaj iilil.iirii il u lii-ihtmI ■ f.n lui' 
|..i^-rssiiin of his Mi-w \y a* (|uiii d It rniofv , iukI h 
I'll-' li.t (if <ilil tri'Miii'S wms fonii:illy ciinlirriiiil. 
' siiiull were tlic rli.'in^.'s ctTi rti-il in Kui'it}i(- 
I niiicli Iilnii.j-luit an<l tri-ai iicry. liy marly 
\ I ;trs (if \va^t( ful and (1( xilaliiii; w .(r. 'I'lic 
I'f tin- (lisnicinlii rnicnt (-f Austria Ijad 
■il, lull no v(\c(l (]ijc>ri(iris had lui n set al 
. Of all 1 he uniliilidiis prnjccis tliiii had 
iii\id diiriii:; the war, Ihat (if I'rcdcrii k 

al »a-i Mlli^tautiallv rcali/id." — W. Iv II. 

I.c.l.y, ili>t., //■:„■/. 1H^7, (Vni',,>/,r/i.:i.—-TU\iH 
(iidid Ihi: War (if the Austrian ^ll(■(■(■^^i(ln. In 
i'- nri:in nnd il!4 iiKilivcH (me nf tla; nici>t wi( kcd 
(if all tjie many ('(intiicl.s whii h undiilidii and 
[KTlidy have prN\()ked in Knrdpc. it iai iics a 
IKcnIiarly nidurnfiil interest liy the ^rn-s in- 
( iiuality in the rewards and penaliii^ which fur- 
lune us-i:rne(l t(i the hading a(i"rs. I'rn^ia. 
Spain and Sardinia were all enildwcil ont vt Ihe 
estates (if the hduse (if llapshnr;;. Utit the 
tlectoril house of Havaria, tne must sincere and 
Ihe nid-t (leservini; of all the elainnints Pi that 
vast inheritance, not only recei\('d iiii increjtseiif 
territory, hut even nearly lost its own jialri- 
inonial possessions. . . . 'I'he most tryini? pruli- 
1cm is still that ottered by the niisfdrtiiiies of the 
Ijaein of llunpiry [..laria Theresa]. . . . The 
verdict of history, as expressed liy the pnlilie 
opinion, and hy tiie vast majority of writers, in 
every eountry except Prussia, iiphdids the 
justice of the ([Ueen's cause and cundenuis the 
coalition that was forini>(l a^rainst her." — II. 
Tuttle, IfiW. ofPrnm.i, 1 745-1 T.jli, ,-li. 3. 

Also IN W. Hussell. IlUt. af Mill, ni K»n.i„, 
pt. a. !.tt,r'M.—\V. Coxe, Z/wV. of t/i,- II;',,,- ,.f 
.•li(.<rn.(. ch. IIW (r. 3).— See, also, N'kw Kxo- 
I.ANI): A. D. 1T4J-1T4M. 

AIZNADIN, Battle of (A. D. 634). See 

M.MIOMKT.VN COMJI F.ST : A. 1). fl.Vi-d.'M. 


Akarnanian Lea.ijue, formed liy one of the least 
inipiirtant, hut at the same time one of Ihe most 
istimalile jieoples in Greece . . our knowl- 
edu'e is only fra.mnentary. The Ixiuiid.ines of 
.Vkarnania fluctuated, but we always tind the 
pKiple spoken of as a polili(al whole. . . . 
Thueydiiles speaks, by iinplicalinn at least, of 
the Akarniinian League as an institution of (ild in his time. The Akarnaniaiis li.-id. in 
early times, occupied the hill of Olpai as a place 
for judicial pnM'cedings common to the wh"le i 
nation. ^ Thus the supreme court of the Akar- [ 
nariian I'nion held its sittings, not in a lown, liul : 
in a mountain fortress. Hut in Thinydiiic^' 
own time Stratos had attained its position" as the J 
.irnatest oily of Akarnania. and im.lialily the ! 
federal a.ssemblies were alreadv held there." ... 
I >f the con.stitution of the League we know but 
little. Amlias.sjid(irs were .sent by the fedi ral i 
liddy. and probably, just as in' the Achaian 
I.eai;ne. it would have been held to be a lireach I 
(if the federal tie if any single city had entered j 
on diplomatic intercourse with other powers. As I 
in Achaia, too, there .stood at the head of the j 
J.eaiiue a General with high authonly. . . . | 
The existence of coins l>earing the nan.e df the i 
whole Akarnanian nati(m shows that there was i 
unity enough to Rdmit of a federal eoiii.iue. ! 
ttiough coins of particular cities also occur."— i 

i:. .\. Freeman. //.V. ./ Fu/, r„l <!„rt., eh \ 
(.. ■'. I. 

AKARNANIANS ( Acarnanians ), — The 
Akarnaniaiis loniK d "a '.ink of Iraii-ition" 
iieluiin the aiM il 111 (iricks and their barlianius 
iir null Ilelleiiic niiL.'liliiinrs in Ihe Kpiiiis and 
liiyiiiid. "Thiy oicupied the lerrilnry lielwcen 
lie- ri\ir Aeheliius, Ihe Idiiiaii .sea' and Ihe 
.Vml.rakian i:ulf- Iley were Greeks and 
aiiniilleil as such Id ciinl(''iiil at the I'an llelleiiio 
g.iiiKs, yet they wire alsii clusely ciinnected 
with Ihe Aniphilochi and, who were ndt 
lineks. In iiianners. seiitinii iiis and inlelli- 
geiiee, they were half II. Ileiiic and half Kpiidiic. 
— like Ihe .Lldliaiis and th(' (Iziiliau Lukrians. 
Km n (liiwn III Ihe time of Thueydiiles. these 
natiiins were suhiiivided inio iiumernus petty 
cdiiiuiunilies, li\id in uiifiaiiii, ,| vill.iges, were 
Ir. (lueiilly in the habit (it pluinh rin:: each (illier, 
and never permilte.l Ihcnivi his in Ik nnarined. 
. . . Ndtwiihstanding this .sl.ali: of disunidii and 
irseeuritv, huMiver. the Akarnaniaiis main- 
tained a loose political league aiiiong Ihem.selves. 
. . . The .\karnanians appear to have produced 
many prophds. They tr.iced u|i their mythical 
ancestry, as well as that of their neighbo'urs the 
Aniphilochians. to the most renowned prophetic 
family among Ihe Greci.aii heroes, — Amphiaraus. 
with his sons .Vlkinaon and Ampilochus; Akar-, the eponymous hero of the nation, and 
oiher eponymous heroes of the sejiarate towns, 
were suppo.sed lobe the sons of Alkm.ei'm. They 
are spoken of, together with th(' -Ktolians, as 
mere rude shephenls. by the lyric poet Alknian, 
and .so they seem to have continued with little 
alleration uiilil the bi ginning of the I'elopon- 
ncsi.iu war, when we hear of them, for the first 
lime, as allies of Athens and as bitter enemies 
of the (orinthian colonies on their coast. The 
cimtact of those colonies, however, and the large 
spread of .\kariianian accessible coast, could not 
fail to produce some elTect in socializing and im- 
l.roving the people. And it is probable that this 
ctTect wduld have been more sensibly felt, had 
iHit the Akarnaniaiis been kept back by the 
fatal nciirhliourlioodof the /Ktolians, with whom 
Ihey were in per|ietual feud, — a people the most 
unprincipled and unimprovable of all who bore 
the Hellenic name, and whose habitual faithless- 
ness stood in marked contrast with the rectitude 
and steadfastniss of the Akarnanian character." 
— G, Grille, //iV. ../' ;,'/v,,r, fit. 2. ch. 24. 

AKBAR (called The Great), Moghul 
Emperor or Padischah of India, A. D. looS- 

AKHALZIKH, Siege and capture of (1828), 
Si.- Triiiis: A. 1>. lS<2tl-182!). 

AKKAD.— AKKADIANS. See Hmivloma, 
PjiiMrnvi:; also. Skmitks. 

AKKARON. See I'imlistinks. 

See KoiiKvm. 

ALABAMA : The Aboriginal Inhabitants. 
See Amkhkax .ViioiiKiiMs: Ai'.\i..\( iiks; 
Ml sKii(i(;i.K Kamit.v; CiiKiioKi i s. 

A. D, 1539-1542.— Traversed by Hernando 
de Soto. SeeFioiiiin: A D. 1 o2x - ! .-,4-..' 

A. D. 1629. — Embraced in the Carolina 
grant tr. Sir Robert Heath. See Amkuka: 
A. I). 1(i29. 

A. D. 1663.— Embraced in the Carolina 
erant to Monk. Shaftesbury, and others. See 
South Cahoi.ina: A D. 10«:i-l«Ti) 




A. D. 1702-1711. ' French occupation and 
first settlement. -The founding of Mobile. 
Src 1,(11 imana; .\ 1> lil',H-171-' 

A. D. 1732.— Mostly embraced in the new 
province of Georgia. Sictii.iiiu.iA: .\. I> 17:i.'- 

A. D. 1763.— Cession and delivery to Great 
Britam.— Partly embraced in West Florida. 
Sec N Vkaii^' Wak; iiiul Ki.otmha : A.^l>. 
171',;!; ;iiiil N iiiiinMsT ■ri.iiuiriiKv: .\. 1>- lTtl:l. 

A. D. 1779-1781.— Reconquest of West 
Florida by the Spaniards. Sir r],iiitii>\: .\ 1> 

A. D. 1783.— Mostly covered by the English 
cession to the United States. Sic lMrKi> 
HlATI.?' OK ,\M. : A. 1). I7«t (SkithmiikuV 

A D. 1783-1787.— Partly in dispute with 
Spain. S,(. Froimu: A. I>. 17'<:M7m7. 

A. D. 1798-1804 -All but the West Florida 
District embraced in Mississippi Territory. 
S, .• .Mi>M-siiTi; A. 1). 17iis-|viit. 

A. D. 1803.— Portion acquired by the Louis- 
iana purchase. .Sdl.oi imvna: a. n. 17IIS iw.i. 

A. D. 1813.— Possession of Mobile and 
West Florida taken from the Spaniards. Sic 
KumiMv: A. D. IMH-l-^i;!. 

A D. 1813-1814.— The Creek War. Sic 
IsiTi.K Suns „K Am : A D. 1x13-1^14 ' 
(.Vna ST— AriMi.V < 

A. D. 1817-1819.— Organized as a Tenitory. 
—Constituted a State, and admitted to the 
Union,— ■' llv aiiNiii'li .iiiLTr-s ilut. il M;inli 1. 
'1.. ,Mi"i^~iVl'i'l'ii'''ii"''^' \. isilivi'li.l. -Viinilii r 
Hit. ii.-;iiiiiL; ilinliii' Mii'li :',, th.i.:iliir, or-aii- : 
i/.ci'l thi- wi'^tiiii |Vinslirn| (i.Tiinii intu :i 'Irrri- 
t.n-y, til '»• known ns Al:il':iui;i. iinl willi tin- 
l)i.rin.l:irics ;is tlicv ii"W i\i 1. , . . l!v :■.■; Mil 
approviil .M.iirli ■,'.' l^lll. riini.n~s ai;ilinri/i ■! Ilii' 
inli..1iitMiils i.f till- 'I'lniliiry nl' .VIiiIkuii.i In form 
n ^i.iii' ioii-tiii;iion, •ami tint sai.l 'I'l rriiorv, 
■.vi-ri fonni',1 -nln a Stat.', sli.i'l In' ailrnillnl into 
iln' I'liioii upon tlio >aMic fooiiim as tin- ori'jinal 
Stall's.' . . . Till' joint risolniion of ion'.;i-rss 
ailniittini; Alaliama into tin' I'nioM was apiiroviil 
l.y I'r.-iilinl Monro,'. 1 tii, ml" r II. '.--lit,'- W. 
liri'uir, .\'.r:n„.'. ,;',. ."1. 

A. D. 1861 ijaiiuaryi.- Secession from the 
Union. Sii' I Mil i> St\Ti.>i'K.\M. : .V. 1). I'^lil 
(J i.M vliV — l-'l.nin m:i 1. 

A. D. 1862.- General Mitchell's Expedition. 
Sic I Mti.i.SiAti,-.oL- Am. : A. 1>. I-^'IJ lAriiii. 
- Mav .\M M 

A. D. 1864 lAugusti.— The Battle of Mobile 
Bay. -Capture of Confederate forts and fleet. 

Sir rsin.DSTATKSlil -VM. : .\. 1). l-^l'illAl 111 ST: 
.\l A11\M \), 

A. D. 1865 iMarch— April.— The Fall of 
Mobile.— Wilson's Raid.— End of ''le Rebel- 
lion. Sri' I'snil) SlMls UK .\M.: -v. I), l^ti.'i 
I.Vrnil— .Mavi. 

A. D. 1865-1868. — Reconstruction. Sic 
I'Mii.ii Si\ii.~ i.K Am : .\. 1>. ISiM (.Mav— 

Jll.l), to ISIIS-IS711, 

ALABAMA CLAIMS, The: A. D. 1861- 
1862. In their Origin. The Earlier Con- 
federate cruisers. - Precursors of the Ala- 
bama. -Till' 1 oniniis^ioiiini; ol priva rs, ami 

of moll' ollii iaily i ominanili'il rnii-.rrs. in tho 
Aimriiaii ii\il war. by tlic frovi-rniiii'iit of tho 
Soiiliii'ni Coiili ill raiy. \va> liiarun 1 arly in llir 

I>roi:rt'ss nt lill* llio\rllli-.M oi li'Oi illi'H. pill- 

fuuiit to u iiriii'laniation i.ssui'tl by .Iillci'sou 

Iltivis im the 17th iif April, IMil '• Before the 
cloM' of .Iiilv. IKlil. morr tliiiii 20 of tliosf dcprc- 
ilators wiTi" alloal, iiml liail laptiiriil inillions 
of proiirrlv lii'ioni;im; to Anii'riraiieitizcns. The 
most fonn'iilabli' ami noiorioiis of llii' sca-piiii); 
ships of this ili.irartir. wirrtlir Nashvillf, Cap- 
lain U. It. I'l L'rain. ik Viririnian, «lii> hiul uban- 
iloniil his llai;. anil thf Siiniti'r [11 ri-i.'iilarly 
I'oiniiiissioni'il war vi'sscl]. Captain Itiiph.Vfl 
Si ninii's. Till' forinir was 11 niili'-« liicl stciinicr, 
carrii'il u iriw- of i'i;;hty miii. ami was urmcd 
Willi two loiiL' \~ poiini'liT rillril canniin. llcl 
rani'i- was short, lint ipiii' siirci'ssfiil. She was 
linally ili sirovi'il liv tin- .Montiiiik. Captain Wor- 
ill 11. "in Ihi- 6f;i<'i'iii'i' Hivir Tin' raricrof the 
Siinitir, whiili hail bun 11 Niw Orlians nnil 
Havana parkcl stiamrr iiaincii .Manpiis ilo Ilu- 
bana, was also short, but iiinih niorr mlivi; ;ii'i| 
ili'stnii'tivi'. She hail 11 ricw ot siMy llv<> men 
anil twi'iit\ -tivr niariiu's. ami washiavily iirimil. 
Sill' ran Ilio blmkaili- at tin- month of tlii' .Missis- 
sippi Uivir on tlii'liillli of .liinc. ami was piir- 
sni'il sonii' distaiHi' by the lii'ooklyn. She ran 
iiniom; tlii' Wist Inilia'islamlsumloii llif Spanish 
.Main, ami soon inailc prizis of many vcssi'la 
bcarin;; the .VmiTiran llaix. Slir was cviTV- 
wliiTi- riTcivcil in lirilisli Colimial ports with 
!.'ri'at favor, iiiiil was ulVoniiil every facility for 
liir |iiratical operations. She became tlic terror 
of the Ameriian n, 'reliant service, ami eviry- 
wlicre elnili'il .N.ilional vessels of war sent out 
in iHirsnit of Inr. \l Icnirth she ciossnl the 

ocean, ami at lliecl of Iwil was coiiipelliil In 

sieUshilii I'uiiil, r lirilisli ^ruiis at (, where 
she was waliliiil by the Tiiscarora. Kaily iu 
till' viar fsi;,' slie was soM, anil thus emleil her 
piraiiial can i r. Kmoiiiau'cil by the [iractical 
hii Milship of the lhi;i~li evineeil for these cor- 
sairs, ami the sub-i,inlial ai'l lliey wire n,,ivin:; 
fi-oin lirili-li siibji 1 N in various ways, especially 
lliron:.'li blockaile runners, the conspirators ile- 
ti rinineil to ]iioi'urc from those friemls some 
liouerfiil pir.'iiii al craft, ami iiiaile arraiiL'i'ineiits 

for the purchase ami 1 siruclioii of vessels for 

llial purpose. .Mr. l.airil. a ship buililer al Livcr- 
pM.ilaiiil iiii'inberiif the lirilisli Parliament, was 
till' lai-i ~t coiiiraclor ill the business, and, in ile- 
liaiice of evi rv obsiaele. suiiii ili'il ill p'tlini; 
pirate .^hipslo sea. The lil'sl of thisi: .ships tiiat 
went to SI a was the OriTo, osieiisihly limit for a 
house in I'ali rnio, Sicily. .Mr. .\ilaiiis, the 
,\iii' riian minisiir in I.oinlon. was so well sati.s- 
(ii'il from iuformalion r.ri ivnl thai she was ile- 
si^'uel for the I' rales, thai he ealleil the 
alleiilion of Ihe lirilisli r-ovi riimenl to tlie nialtcr 
\ so carlv as the iNih of February, fi)-:. liut 
' notliiiiL' ilTeclive was done, ami she was coni- 
pli li il ami allowi il to depart from lirilisli waters. 
^hl' went tir-t to .Na-saii, anil on the 4tli of Sep- 
li nilier suililmlv appiari il oil Mobile harbor, 
j 11, iie; the lirili-ii lla'.: ami pcniianis. 'I'lie block- 
' ai'limr siiu.nlroii there was iu eliarL'e of Com- 
canilirCeorLTc II. I'reble. who Imil been specially 
insirni'Icil iiol to t'ive olTinse to foriiL'n nations 
while iiiloreiiu.' llie lilockaile. Me , . iievcil the 
On lo lo be a lirilisli ve^s, 1, aii'l while ili'liberat- 
iii_' a few mimili s as to w hat he should ilo, she 
Iiassi il out of r.inu'P of his t:uiis, ami 1 iitercil the 
harbor with a rich frei-lil. For liis sceniini.' 
11 ini-siicss ConinianiliT I'n lile was BUinniarily 
ilismisseil from the service without u hear- 
ing —nu ail wiiiiii sii'tis, .jucni cTi :;!s Mi-ua-,! 
to show was criii 1 injustice. Late in Deicmbet 









tlip Oroto esciipiil from Mnhilc fully nrnn'(l for 
a iiitnticiil iTiiiM', iiiKlcr tin* cnininiitiil nl' .lulin 
Niwliiiid Miillit. . . . Tli<> naniiMil' tlicOn In was 
(■lian!.'<'il I" tlii't of Flciridii. "— 1), J. Los.'.iri).', 
hyrlil ll">k of Hie Ciril Wiir, r. i ,-h. ''1. — Tlie 
fiitc (if till' Fliirida k rchiliil IhIhw— A. I). 1H«.J- 
IHrtr). — It. Scnimcs, Mimiiiri nf S nice Afloat, 
ch. !l-,'(i. 

Ai.M» IN J. Oavis, Him' tffid FiiH if the Con- 
feilti-iiti' (ii'i; riiiiK lit. eh. \VWA\ (r. 'Ji. 

A. D. 1863-1864.— The Alabama, her career 
and her fate. — " Thr .Malianui |llir siiinid 
cruiM r liuilt in KiiKlaiid for tin- Cnnfidc tat. .| 
... is tlius dcsrrilM-d liy Sfitiiius, In r inm- 
mnndrr: ' Slie was of al")iit IMiii tons luirpliii. 
2;iO fict ill Icnirtli, Wi fc<t in lircadlli, > 1 fi ct in 
(Icplli. and drew, win n jirovisionid and (ciaitd 
fcir cruiM'. 1.") fi'it of wat<T. Micwas liaikcii- 
liiic riL'L'id, willi loni; lower nia<is. wliiili 
cnahlrd )ht t<) carry lar^c fore and alt Wiils, as 
iilis and iry-sdls. , . . llcr c iL'ini' was of lino 
liors<-!iow<r. and she liad ullaclail an a|i|iaratus 
for innili nsinc from the vapor of scii-walir nil 
the fri'-li wal.T that liiT cri'W nii>;lit riiiuiro. 
. .. Ill rarnuinu'ntconsi>lcd of ciirht ;rtnis.' . . . 
The .\lahania was Iniilt and. froiu the outsi't. 
■»us 'inliiidid for a Confidcral.' vismI of war.' 
The conirni't for her <'on-.tru< lion was 'siu'nid 
by Captain Bnllocl; on llic one part and Misers. 
Laird on llii- otlar.'. . . On llir l.'iih of .May 
[IHKJ slu' was lanni!liri| under tlic name of tin- 
l.'Uil. llcr olUci-rs wcri' in KiiLrLind nwaitiiiL.' 1m r 
I' and witc paid lliiir sd.iii'S 
'inonilily, ;'.l:ont thelirst of the monlli, at Kra>i'r, 
TriMiliolin A; Co.'s oltici' in LiviTimol.' The pur- 
poses lor wiiidi this vcssid was bi-iui; ronstructei! 
was notorious in Livt-rpool. Itt.lorc she was 
Jauiula d she bccainc an object of suspicion with 
the ( on^ul i4 llie liuted States at that port, and 
^llc was the subject of cott'^lani correspondi Ilee 
on his part with his (ioverntncnt and with .^lr. 
.\danis. . . . Karly in the history of thiscrni~er 
the [loint was taken by the liritish autli.irities — 
a point maintained lhrou;;hout the stniiiL'le — 
that they would orii:iMatt' nothing tlicinstlvcs 
for tlie maintenance and p( rforinaiKe of tin ir 
international duties, and Miat they would listen 
to no uprcsentations from the otliciais of the 
L'ni'ed staies w ideh did not furnish technical 
evidence lor a criininal prosecution uinlc r the 

I'oriiL'n I'.nli^tmiTit Aei \t last .Mr. Dud 

hy Ithe Consul of the I'niled Slates at I.i\er- 
poolj suceci-ded in linilin;,' tliedesin d proof. On 
the'JIst day of July, he tdd it in tlie birin of 
allidavits before the Colli'ctor at Liverpool in 
I'iiniilianie with the intiuiations which .Mr. 
Adams had n ecived froniLail Kiisscll. These 
:iil!da\ils were on tile same (lav transmitted bv 
tlie Cell, (tor toihe lioardof Cirstonisat l.oudoii. 
Willi a iTi|ue>t for instructions by t.leKiaph, as 
the ship appeared to be ready for sea and iiiis;lit 
l.avealiy hour. . . . It . . .'s that not 
•■\ ilii^lan.iiiii; this ollicial ini'oruialion from thi' 
C the papers were not e.insi.lercd by the 
l.nv advisers until the -Nth, and thc'case 
appear. (1 to tlieni to lie so clear that tli.y >ra\ e 
III' ir lehiic upon it that eviniii;;. I'nder these 
. inuiiistaiices, the delay of < iirlit days after the 
-1st ill tlie order for llie ddcntionoV tin' vess.l 
was, in the opinion of the Tnilcd Slates, );ross 
n. ; iirence on the part of Her .Majeslv's Oovern- 
:i:iTi! (1,, the W!h the ^••.Teiaiy M ••..•(■■••:,- 
Kiission of the Cuatoins received a teleirrani from 

Liverpool nayiiif; that 'the vessel ^W) caiiH' (iiil 
of (hick last iiiKhl, iiiid left the port this morn 
Ini;. ' , , . After l.-avini; the diK-k she 'pro- 
ceeded Hlowly down th(! Mersey.' Both the 
Lairds W( re on board, and also Iliilloek. . . . 
The i!iM) »lo»ly Kleamcd on In .M.Klfni Ihiv, on 
the coast of .Vimlesey, where she remiiined 'all 
that nii.'ht, all the iieM day, and the iiexl nii;ht.' 
No elTort was made to seize h(r. . . . When the 
Alnbami) left Moelfni Il.iy her crew nninbereil 
about DO men. She ran part way down ihe Irish 
Cliannel, then round the iiort h coiLst of Iieluiid, 
only stoppiiifj near the (Jianl's Causeway. She 
then made for Terceira, one of the Azores, 
•vhieli she reached on Ihc lOtli of Au^'usi. On 
l^lh of August, while she was at Terteira, a 
sail was oliserved inakinc for the iiiiehoraije. It 
proveil In 1m> the 'Agrippina of London, Cap- 
iiiin Met^iieen, having on lioard six guns, with 
ammunition, coals, st.ires t&e., for the Alabama.' 
I'reparatioiis were inimediabdy made to transfer 
lids important ear;;o. On the afternoon of the 
iiith, whihs einidoyed (llsrlmrginK the bi.rk. the 
§crew-steainer liahania. Captain Tes,sier (the 
same that hud taken the iirmameiit to the Florida, 
wiiose insurircnt ownershiit and character were 
well known in Liverpool), arrived, ■ liavinu on 
board Coniinan.ler Kapliai I Semnies and olllcers 
of Ihe Confederate States steamer Sunuer." 
There were also taken from Ihis steamer two 32- 
poun.lers and some stores, which occupied all 
the remainder of that day and a part of the next. 
The -"-M and -lid of August v\ere taken up in 
transbTriiig (oal from the Au'ripjiiiia to the 
Alabama. It was not until Sunday (the 24th) 
that the insurgents' ting was hoisted. liulliK'k 
ati'l those who wen? not goinir in the 2fHi went 
ba. k t.i the liahania, ami the .Mabania. now tir8t 
known un.ler that name, went oil with " 211 olll- 
cers and S."! men.' " — 77..- ' 'niu I'f thr I'nitnl St'ites 
I; hue the '/'li'iiiiiiil i,f Arhilnith'ii at liiium (42(/ 
r-/..'/., id S.i.i., S„,ile J->. Jh«\. ^^,l. 31, /,/). 
llli-rn.— The Alaliama "arrived at I'orto 
rriiya on the lUth August. Shortly th.reaftcr 
Cajil. Ka]diael ^einnies asstimi'd conimand. 
lloi.stir;.' tlie Coidederale Hag. she cruised and 
(aptured several vcs.s is in the vicinity of Flores. 
Cruising to the westward, and making several 
captures, she approached within '21)0 miles of 
New Virk; thence going southward, arrived, on 
the IMh November, at ''it K.iyal, .Maitiiii.iiie. 
On the iiiglit of tha ICili le escaped from the 
harbour and the Fcderui steamer San .lacitito, 
,111(1 on Ihe '2uth November was at Hhin(|Uilla. 
Oil the Till Diceinber she captured the steamer 
.\ii(l ill the jiassai^c between Cuba and St. 
D.iiiiin.'o. On January 11th, lSfi;i, she sunk the 
I'ederiil gunboat llaitenis olf (.ialveston, and on 
the lioili arrived at Jamaica. Cruisini; t" the 
eastward, and malsing many captures, she 
arrived .ai the lUth Aiiril. at Feriian.lo de 
Noronlia, and on the lltli May at lialiia, where, 
on the null, slio was joined li\ thi' C.mfederate 
st.'ani.T (leorgia. Cruising n.'.ir the line, thence 
southward towards the Cape of <_iood Il.ipe, 
iiunierous captures were made. On the '2i)th 
, I Illy slie ancliored iu Saldaiilia Hay, South 
.\friia. and near there on the ."illi August, was 
joined by the Confederate liark Tuscaloosa, Com- 
nian.ler Low. In September, lM(i;{, she was at 
St. Simon's Bay, a;..i in (tctobir was in Ihe 
S'vd'- .-f SiHvl'i, and iip to JiiHetry '.'i*, !'"-''4, 
cruised iu the Bay of lieugal and viciuity, visit; 

• il 



Iiiif SifiLriipnrc. iitxl iriiiLini; a iiuiiiIht nf vrry 
v;ilii:ilili' (apliiri'S. iru IimIIii.: liir IliirhlntittiT, 

S'i||i.l:i. lie Kmill tlil-i pMlIll yylu iTIliM'il I'll In r 

lii'iiH\Mini irtck \ i.i t'.-itu- m|' (i'MHl llii|ii', (jp 
turnit' tlif l»;iik T>«'>"ii iiml >hip lt<M UinLrlmin. 
and arrived at rhiTlK.urL'. Kratu -■, in .luiir, \'^*\\. 
whtri- -ln' n pairiil, A iMtiiial >'lr;iiiuT. tli*' 
Ki ar ^aru't'. was Iviiii; nit thr liarli-mr. <'apt. 
S< tnni" s iniLrht f I'^ily ha\f r\ ad* d thin < m< my ; 
Xliv Ini-siiH ss nf hi'. vr^^I was tlial >•{' a jiri\attrr; 
mill liiT \aliii' !'• i!m- <"nMrrd' rai \ \\a i I'Ut id" all 
CDinparisiiii wiili a sjtijli- ms-.!! nf tlir riuitiy. 
. . . Hut Capl >riii)iM s had hi i n t\\ illi •• n ith 
the liiuili- uf 'piralf.' aini In- wan ra-ily pi r 
fiiiadrd to atti nipt an t'l lat Tt th*- ^nuthiTu 
('iitifi-dtTiu y hy a na\;il IiL'ht within .siL-^liT id the 
Frf'Tirh riM".t, whirh tntitrst. it was calrulatrd. 
winild prove \\u- Alahainiiu It irilirnatf war vi s- 
fttl, and L:i\f su'h an txhiliilinn uf C.infrdiratr 
t(IIii;trcrit y as ims^-ihly to nvivc thf (pu-linn 
of ' rfri'i;niiinn in Paris and l.nndnti. Thi -*c 
wen- the M-cnt nmiivis of thi- iiratnitmis fi;;ht 
with whiih ("apt, Stiinni-M itlillu'i-d ihi* enemy 
olT tht' pnrt of Cherhnuri.'. The Alahania car- 
ried one 7 iinh Itlaki ly ritleii i;un, one H inch 
snionth bore lhui, and six ;{','-poiindt rs. 
snionth Itore. in hroaiKide, the Kearsar:xe earried 
four hrojid>ide ii,' pounders, two 1 1 iiieli and one 
SHpDund rille. Tlie two vessels were thus 
ahout eipial in match and armament ; and tlieir 
tonnau'e was about the same." — K. A. Pollard, 
'ffit' /."Kt ('•t'l.v. (>. 511*. — 1 aptain Winslow, cuiu- 
inandini; the I'liiled States St-anier KearsarL'e, 
in a report to iho Secretary id the Navy 
written on tlio afternoon of the day of his battle 
with the Alabama, June H*. lH(it. "said: " I Iiave 
the honor to inb'rni the <ii partinent that the day 
hubsripniit to the arrival of the Kcarsurire otT 
this pnrt. on the '^Mth Itlth] instai.I. 1 received 
a noti' from Captain Semnies, beu'irini; that the 
KearsarL'e wuuld not depart, as lie intended to 
ft^'ht her. and would delay Inr but a day or 
two. A<<i>rdini: to this iiniice, the Alabama 
left the pnrt of < ln'rbouri: this morning at about 
half pa>t nine n'el.M-k. At twenty minutes past 
ten A. .M.. we di^overed her steerini: towards 
us. Fearini; the ipiestion of jurisdiction nii,L'lit 
ari-e. we steamed to sea until ji distance of six 
or si'veii mil-s was attained from the Cherbourg' 
breakwater, whiii we rounded to anii com 
nHiiicd sliainiii;jj ft>r the Alabama. As we 
approached her, within about l.JOO yards, slie 
wptuttl liie. we reeei\inj5 two or three broad- 
sides bet'nre u slmi was returned. The action 
continued, the n^peciive .steanu rs makiui^ a cir- 
cle round and noind at a di>tance of abnut 1*00 
yards from eac h other. At the ex])iration of an 
hour the Alabama struck, ^'oini; down in about 
twenty minutes aflerwanl, carryin;; many per- 
sons with her " In a nport two days later. 
Captain Winslow _i:ave the followin;; partieulais: 
"Toward Ihf (lose of the atlioii bilwcen the 
Alaliania ami thi'. ve-^.-l. all availalJe sail was 
made on the former for the purpo-e of a,L'ain reach - 
in;: Cherbourir. When the obj< et was apparent, 
the Kearsar;;e was steered across the Itow of the 
AI;il>ama for a rakini: tire; but before r-'achin:^ 
tiiis point the Alabama stritek. Cncertain 
whether Captain Semtnes was not usini; some 
ruse, the KearsariTe was stopped. It was seen, 
shortly afterward, thai the Alaliama was lower- 
in>; til r ho.u-s, and an oriir. r 4.ini, a:oi.i.-.>ide ia 
one of tliem l<» say that they had surrendered, 

and were fast sinking', beLTijin;: lliat boati 
Would be ile'tpatelied imini diaiely for Ma\ in^' 
lilV The two boats not dis;ibled were at once 
lowend. ami as it was apparent the Alabama 
wa-* seiiliiiL^, ihis itllleer was permitted to have 
in his boat to airord assi^taiici'. An Kn^'lish 
\aeht, the MeThouinl. had approaehed near the 
KearsarL'^e at this time, wlien 1 hailed and 
beL^ued the eonuiiander to run down to the 
Alabama, as .she was fast sinkiiiL'. and we lad 
I Mil two boats, ami assist in piekin^r up the m«*n. 
lie answered allirmaiively, and hteained toward 
the Alabama, but the latter sank almost 
inunedialely. Tin- Meerhound. howeviT, sent 
b'T boats and was actively eni:ai;cd. aided by 
several (tillers which hail come from shore. 
These boats were busy in brini.Mn}^' the wounded 
and otln rs to the KearHjirtre; whom we wero 
tryinir to make as comfortable as possilile. when 
it was reported to me that the I>eerbound was 
movini; niT. I could not believe that the com- 
inamler of that vessel eould be guilty of so dis- 
^rraceful an aet, as taking our pristmers olT, and 
therefore ttwik no means to prevent it. but <'on- 
tinued to keep our twiats at work reseuini; the 
men iu the water. I am sorrv to suv that I was 
mistaken. The Deerhounil inatfe off with 
Captain Semmes and others, and also the very 
ollicer who had come on board to KurreiuhT." — 
In a still later report Captain Winsluw (rave the 
foHowinjij facts: "The lire (»f the Alabama, 
although it is stated she disehari^ed 370 or more 
shell and shot, was not ()f serious damat:*' b) the 
Kearsarm'. Some \\\ or H of these had taken 
elTcet in and alxmt the hull, and 10 or 17 alHiut 
the masts and ri^r-rini^. The casualties were 
small, oidy three persons liavinff been wounded. 
. . . The tire <)f the Kcarsari;e, although only 
173 prujeetih'3 had been discharged, according 
to the prisoners* accounts, was territic. One 
shot alone had killed and wounded IH men. and 
dis;ibled a gun. Another had entered the coal- 
bunkers, expl(Hling. and completely blocking up 
tin; engine room; and Captain Semmes states 
that shot and .shell liad taken eflect in the sidea 
of his vessel, tearing large holes by explosion, 
and his men were everywhere knfwked down." — 
lieMUon liicord, v. 9. pp. 221-22o. 

Also in J. It. Soley. The IV>Hiule and ths 
('rnintrs {'Hie yory in the Ciril Wur, r. 1). ch. 7. 
—J. U. Soley, J Mel. Kell and J. M. Urowue. 
Tfie i'onfhfrnife CruiMfrti {iitittlm titut /^'tth-rs, 
t. 3). — K. Senimes, MuHoirit of S niiv Afltnit, 
rh. 29-55.—,!. I). Hull»K-k. .^i'nt S rrice of the 
Ctiuftdt nttr St,i(,.i in F.uro}H\ r. 1, eh. 5. 

A. D. 1862-1865.— Other Confederate cruis- 
ers,— "A score of other Confederate cruisers 
roanuMl the seas, to prey upon Cnited Slates 
comnicrce. but none of tliem became (juite so 
famous us t!ie Sumterand the Alabama. They i 1- 
elufh'd the Shenandi ah. wliii h made IJSeaptun'S. 
the Klorida. whici, made :m, the Tallaliass<'e. 
w hi<n made 'J7. the Ta( i>ny, which mad(^ 15, and 
the (Jeorgia, w hi( h made ll>. The Fhirida was 
captured in the harbor of Raiiia, Hra/il, in 
October, isfil, by a Cnited States man of- war 
(the Wacliusftt. commander Collins), in violation 
of the neuirality of the p(trt, Kor this the 
Cnited States fJovernment apologized to Hrazil 
and ordered the restonition of the Florida to the 
harbor where she was captured. Hut in llamn- 

toli Hoads .she IU< t wilii all act ideliluild NUik. U 

was generally believed that the apparent acci- 






ilrnt rtiis (Kntriviil wiili ilic 
l.v .lirrrt r. (.f ihi' ii,i 

II ,l..iin-"n, s/,..r( 11,./ 

"tiiiivaniT, If rml 
M.M ..f 

1 rr l.iiill ill jliitKh >lii|i\,ir K." — 

iriiJIicSI niliKil 


!■ Si;l 

liimrs .,| Anil ririri 
l.»:i-lil lilili-.| II |i:,|it 

Kin;:- -hiiil! |..r ihi. |(,,Mili: 

iriilr, liiit piiriliavil |p\ \\w ( '..nli il. ,;,i,. mi;i iii, 
( 'i;iiii I!iilli"k. iriiiil with ^.iv l'iui.. unilriiin. 

ni - il .Mrli.lpir. l-'iM) uiwliT II. r ii.w lumir. 

In .luiir. iHiiri. till' ShiiianilMiili, :i|ti r ii vm.i-i. 

1" A'l-lr:ili;l. ill tlliT..lir„M,f ttliii'li sliril.'^tn.\ril 

iiilii'rii 111! rrliiint Nlii|i-, iiiMilr In r ;i]i|ii Mninri- in 
III!' NMrilirrii Sill, iii'iir 111 hrini; ."<iruil, \\ In ri' 

-hi' l.ll in Mjtll till' .New lliilliTil Hiniliii'i; 11,. I. 

"Ill llii' r..iir-a' i.f nnr Wi'ik. Ihr '.'Ni i<, 
'ill- '.'"III, iHiiity llvi' Hli;ilir-i will' iiipiiii-. ,|. iif 
wlii. Il lour wi ri' riiii>..iii. .1. an.l ihr r. mninini.' 

'.'1 W. rr lilininl. Till' liivH 1.11 tills.. •.>] Hllillils 

wiisistini.ii. .1 at ii|iH.irilsi.f ijiM.inmi.ikki, nn.l , ..n-'rinL' tliat it iMrurnil . , . ti\.i iin.nilis nil. r 
till, ('..iifiilirary liml virlimlly [.assnl i.m ,,f |.\. 
istinii'. it may In' cliararlrri/.il a-, tin. in,.si us.- 
li'ss ail i.f hiwtiliey that on iirr.-.| ilurini; lln' | 
vvliolr war." Till' <a|ilain of tlir Sli.naii.l..ali ! 
ha.l niwi on tlii' •,':i.| of tlir fall of l!ii|ini,.M,| ; ! 
vitiiflir that linir hr ili'sir.iviil l."i v.-vU, i)i,' 
hii way .M.iiiliwanl lir rcrVivnl iiir..niialii.n i 
Aiu'iist 2.1. of till' liiial lollapsi. of tin. Con 
(■■.liTucy. Itf thi'n .saili'il for l.ivi T11..0I, ami I 
Mirr. nilcri'il liis vi'smI totlir Uritisli (JoviTniiniit, i 
wliirli ijilivrri'il liiT to the I'niliil Stati <.—.!. I!. 
.''..l.v. Till- l'n,if,,l,r,ili Ci-'i,., m i/i,ittl.s iihil I 
/..".'. '•«, '■. 4). ! 

A.D. 1862-1860.— Definition ofthe indemnity 
claims of the United States against Great 
Britain.— First stages of the Negotiation. 1 
The rejected Johnson-Clarendon Treaty. I 
-■ A r.'Vi.w of thi' history of ilii. iii:r,.iiaii.ins i 

li.iw.'.ii till' two (iovi-n -nts prior I., ih. 1 ..rn - ; 

M Ii'inr lii'twrenSirf-MwarilTlioniloii aii.l .Mr ( 

I'l-h, will show . . . what was In- till s,. 
w.'r.U, 'CI iirriially known a.s tlir Alal.aini I 
• ■liiMis,' iisi.l ,.11 lai-hsiili'inthatrorivspoii.iinr.'. , 
lii.i.iriispoii.linri' liotwi'i'n tli.' 1 w.. Cov.riinnl'* ' 
":is..p,n..lliy Mr. A.lanison tin- -'nili ol Nn. in I 
I.. r.lsr.J il.'ss tlianf.iiirin..Tiilis,-ir(i rth.'is.Mpri.r j 
111.' Alal.ama). in a 11. ,i,- 1., K.irl liiiss. 1|. wriii. n | 
uii.l.T iiisiniiii,.iis fr.,ni llir (iov, rniii.iit if il„. I 
lmi,,l Slat.s. In this iiotr Mr. A. lams -. ' I 
mm..|ivi.hni'i'i.r tlioaitsof thi- Alihama. 
-'.t.'l: 'Ihavr tlii' hoiiort., inf..rin V.,iir l...r.; 
^Iiip ..f thi' ilir.-. li..ns wliiih I havi- r..,iM.i I 
'iniii my (o.i. rnintnt to solii it l.,r Ihi' j 
i;i'i..iialaii.|privati'in|iirli's thus siistaim-.l ' ' 

I'l I!ii~mII mi-t this ii..tic 1 thi' liiili of 

""iinli.r. isi;-.', l,y „ ,i,.,|j.,| „f „|,^. |i.,i,i|j,v ,•,„. I 
^.:iy iiijiirus irr.iwiii^' out of tho ait's of ih.'.Ma ' 
<'<i'u. ... As iii'w lossis tinii' p, lii..; ' 
"iv s'llTi r.-.l l.y indivi.liials .liiriiiL' II." .lar 
ili'v w.ivl.r,,,,^-!,, tothrii.,ii.-.-,,r HirMaj.str.; 
'■"^ ami wi'ri' lo.l-,.| with thr national ! 
■'■■«\ in-liMilm.l ilainis alnailv pnlVrn.l- l.iit 
':-'mn. iiialiv,. ilisrussion on n',,. issii.-s inv..h,.| 
» ■- l.y roniim.ii i.,nsi lit il.lVriv.l Tli,. 

•^'«t ihat tin. tiisl 1 laini prilVnv.l -nw out of 
1. .i.!s ..f tl„. Alal.ama ivplains li,,w il was 
'I;" .ill III.' ilam..^ tioHin- out of tin. 
I' :ill til.' v,-s,ls lanii- h, 1,,- -Kimriiallv 
^■i'.«nas_th,- Alahaiiia claims' On tl„. Tth .if 
■M;ril. IslM, ||„. war l„iii- viri lallv ovir Mr 
.1.1 inis riMi-wi-.l th.. .H-.-.i- i... ;(. ,, .,^,,',:,. . 

n.imlMT iiml t.. 
I rri.l t.i thr II 

i.f A 

inrriran vcsmIs Iran 

li.l: ■■|-|... 1 

rilish tiai; .liiriiit' tin 

\anisliiiiL; I 

nili.l Sial. 


rom Ihi' fail' of tl 

iniiiii rrr is nipi.lly 
I. iin.l thai of 

'■".■'', "'■.'l''"! i'' mnlliplyiiiir in 1 .arly ili 



II. lion .if llriti- 

Is priH'I'ss IS i;iHn; 

..n li 

I iiiissani' 

of tin' in 

•iii.jii'is ill 

y of the 
.|iiraiion with 


r.arl II an olliiial 

ri'p..rt Ml. 


— Ills, who hav.' siipplii',, Ihi' p..rls,.f ll.r Ma j. sly 's Kin-iloin all lh« 
III ii. rials, siii'h as ms.Is. armami hi, siipplii-H, 
•lii.l nil II, imiispi'iisiilih' to thr I'lIVitivi' prosiiu. 
Ii..ii of this risiilt on tin- 01 1,111. ' . . , He siatcj 
that hi' 'was iiml, r thi- painful ni'iissity of 
aiinoiini'inir that his i;..\. riiimnl raniiot iivoiil 
I mailiiii; iip..n Ilir i;..m niiin lit of (irrat Hrilain 
till' ri'spoiisil.ilin |',,r iiiis ilaniui-,..' I,,,ri| ]Ut» 
, sill . .s,ii,| in ri'ply. 'I.-an nmr ailinit Hint 
llii' iluiii's of ( llriiain lowaril thi' Initi'il 
Si.iti's ari' to 1h' nii'asiir.'.l hv thi' lossi s whiili 
till' Ira.h' anil comiinr, r of "thi' I'liitiil .Slat,-., 
havi' siisiaiin.l. . . . Il.f.rriiii: to ihi' olfiT of 

■'il'il™' inaili'i.nth.'-.'lithilavofOi'tolH'r. IHtlll 

I...11I Itiissi'll, in ihi' sanir'not,'. Kii.l: 'Id'r 
.Majisty's (ioviriiini'iil must ihi lini' .iiinr to 
niaki' nparalioii ami roiiipi nsjiti..ii r.,r thi' rap- 
Inris inaili' liy thi' Alaliania. or to rifir Ilic 
iliiisii.,11 to any f..ri'ii.'n .spiti'.' This tirmiiiali'ii 
Ihi' lirst sta-.' of till- iii'^..iiali.,iis liiiwiin the 
twoCiovnnnnnis, . , . In Ilir siiinmcrof IMHI 11 
rlian,i;i' ..I .Ministry t.N.k plan' in Kmilaml, anil .■slanliy l.irami' Si iri'tarv of .Stato for For 
iii:n AlVairs in ih,- plan, of l.or.l (lar.'mhiii, 
111- to.ik an larly o|ip.'rliinilv to ^'ivr an intinm- 

ti..ii III Ihi' lloiisi' ,,f c.imn s thai, slionlil the 

r 'j.rlnl I'laims hi' ri'vinil, ihr niw- Cal.ini't wiia 
not piipaivil lo say what answi r iniiiht lio irivi'n 
Ilnni; ,11 othir w..r.|s, that, an oppor- 
I unity In oirin.l, l.,.r.l l!iiss,'ir, ntiisal iiiiirlit 
possiliiy |„. r.. ..iisi.l, ml. .Mr Siwinl nut [U,.^. 
n. rhin s l.y iiisirin till:,' Mr .\.|ams. ,,n thi' 2Tlh 
.'I Aii;;iist, psiiii, 't.,n,|l I.,.r.l Stanlrvs attiniiun 
ilia n'spniiul i.iii oarnist nianiiir,'' to 'a sum- 
mary ..f il aims of . iii/. ns of ih,. Cnii.'.l .s;iat,.s 
I'.r il.inia-is uiro siill. n.l hv tlii'm 
.liirim; Ih.- prri...! of tin. lisil wif,' ,.,,,,1 
t.i say that the (i..virnmiiit of tho fniliil 
>:at.s. whil.' it thus insists upon thisi' par- 
ti, rl.iinis, is miilnr ihsinnis nor willinir 
lo assiiiiH' an aiiiiu.l. iinkinil ami iiiii'.iii- 
lilialoiy tow.'ir.l I lirii.iin. . . . I.,,,-,! ."itan- 
I. y lint this on riiir.' l.y a n.niniiinii'ali..n 1.. Sir 
l''r.'.li'rirk lirii..', in whi. h In' .l.ninl tin. lialiility 
.'f Dr.Ml Ih'ii.iiii. ami ass. ni. ,| to a ii'linnci' 
•pro\i.ini that a liiiim;' .\rl.iiral..rr in 1.0 fonmll 
ami that an a-i'ii'inint .an l.r i'.,mi' t.. as p. the 
p..iiils to w hiili Ih.. arl.iltali..n shall apply ' 
As Ih,. tirsi i.'siili of ihi's,. 11. -.,ii,.,ti,ais"a lon- 
M'nli..nkm,wiiasih, .S|;i„l,.v .l.>lin.s.,ni'..iui'nlion 
w.'is siMiinl ,.it l.oml.m on thi' lOih of Noviiiihir 
I'-iw. It provnl 1.1 111' unai'i'i'plalih' to iho (;..v' 
niiiiii'iil of ihi' I'liitnl stall's. Ni'irotiaiioiis 
wi'i'.' at oini' ri'siininl. ami risiilti.,! ..n ili,. pHh 
.r .lan.iar.\, IMIII, in Ilii' Tnaty kn..wn as the 
.l..lins..ii ( lari'inl..!! convi'nli'.ir (havinii- Imu 
ii.j..tiai..l hy .Mr, Ih'vinly .I..hiis..n. win. hail . .'.I.-.I Mr .\.lams as I'nitnl siah s Minisiir 

to liiiat l!ril,'iin|. This latiir 1 viiiii..ii pro 

\ i.l. .1 lor 111.' ..r:.','iiiization of a mixnl >'..niiiiissi..n 
with jiiris.lii li.m ,,n.r ■ all ilaims on the part of 
rili/.iiis of tin. rnitnl stall's upon the (Jovirn- 
"""',,"'! '.''."". "''"''11,"!.'' .Majisly, ini liiilini,' the 

.i.iis .,11 the 
iji sty upon 

•:i Al 

..I ..Ij . 

pall of Miliji'i'ts of llir liriiannii M 








(he Oovrriirnint nf llir Inlliil Sl;ili« «lil<li niiiy 
Imvi- Uiii pn-'iiii'l I" cMlur l'"M riiiiii piI Tt 
ii-. iiiicT|i.'-ili"ri Willi il" "ihir ~iii( !■ ilir ,'iiili 
.Iiilv, l"<Vi, iii'l «liirli Ml ri iiiiiiii iih-jltliil 
Tlir .l"liii».iii I'lm iiiliiii'triMtv. » Inii siilnniiiiil 
to till' Si iiiiii'. »us rrjcclcil liv lliiil ""il>, ill 
April, •■|«(;iii-<-. iilllicmrli it umh- |iro\ i-ioii f.^r 

till' iiurt iif 111!' AI;ilMiii;i iluiiii" wliirli i' I'-l 

i.f i-iuliiiH fur iii'livii|ii:il !..»«.-, till- pr.ivi'.iiiii f"r 
the iiiciri' I'Miii-ivi' iiiiiiiihiil liis'a-. «;!■. nut Kili* 
fiirliirv I'l Ihi' SfwMr -^l/n An/fiimnt •>/ II" 

I'liil,',!,, .l,lir,,r,l !■• th, rnl"li:>l .•! .\rl,i 

triili"U III '.'."<'■•'. -I'l'if l"i. 1"*"-. /''■'■'/■"I i:i, 

A. D. 1869-1871. — Renewed Negotiation!. 
— Appointment and meeting of the Joint 
High Commiiiion. -Tli.' iiciimi "f th.- Suit.' 
ill Tijii tiiiL' till' .l.'liii-'ii I'l.innilnM trniiy ";is 
lakiii in Ajiril. l^H'.l, a liw wnks ufli r I'ri -i- 
ilint (iniiit inlrnil iipmi lii- nlllcr. At this tiinr 
••Ilii'icinililioiinf r.iiri'|"'«:i^ suili hill' iniliicr till' 
iirilish Miiii-tiTi !.■ I:iki' iiiM^i'li ratiim tin- 
f.iri'lirn ri'lati.nii "f llrrat llriliiin; iiml. in l."nl 
(irinvilli', Cii' Itriii^li .Miiii<Iiriif Knriii.'n AlIiiirH. 
lias liiinsi-ir slaliil in tile IIouh'mI' I-nnN, lln'V 
*m- iaii«i' t.i lc'"k «illi wilii iliulr "ti tlir iiiiia-y 
nlalions nf tin' Ilriliili (i> viriiiiuiit «illi II"' 
I'niliil Slati-^. ami tlii' ltiii>nviiiii'nn' tliiriof in 
lax'of |i.i-.^ilili' riinipliialiun-* ill Kiiri)|«'. Thus 
inipi'lli'ii. till' (iiivirnininl (li-|ialiliril to Wash- 
ini;tiiii a iri'iilli'inaii "h" injnvcil the (■■nitlclcnri- 
of li'itli CaliiniN, Sir .loliii Uom'. to asc-rrtaiii 
wiifllirr nviriiiri-9 for nopi ninir iiriroliatioiis 
would 111' nriiviil liy tlir I'ri siilrnt In spirit an. I 
tirni^anrptalili' to ('iriat llrilain. . . . Sir .loliii 
Uosi- foiiiiil Ihi' I'niliil Stairs ilispoRCil to ii" ' I 

Willi pi rliri lorri-i ili mi' of >..:.«'.-wil! tlii' ml- 

vanci s of till' lirili-li (iiivi rniiii'ii. V lonliiiL'ly. i 
oil till' -.'litli of .lanuiiry. 1><7I. !■. ',rili-li (i"V- j 
frniiiiiit, throiiL'li sir 'iMwanl Tliornlon. finally | 
prop.Kiil toihi- \iMirii in (iovrrniiiint tlu' ap- | 
piiinliniiit of a j> ill! lli.'li ('oiiiiiii-sion to lioM iis j 
SI s-iolis at Wa-ihiiiL'loll. ami llliTi' iliA i~i' im ans , 
111 villi' ilii' various pniiliiiL' ipn siion^ lulu . 1 n 
till' two (io\i riMuiiit^ alTictiiiir tlii' liriii-li pos- ; 
M'..-ioiis ill N'orlli Aimrira. To this I'Vrri'iri Mr. 
"•"isli npliiil llial till' I' lit woulil "iili 
pliasuri' appoiiil, as iiivitr.l, ('oniiiii^i'ini- on 
till- part of till' lililiil Statis, proviiliil tin' 
ill lilii raiions of tin- ( 'oiiiinissionii's sliouM lie 
I' to otiii r ililTi-n nil s. — that i~ to say, 
ti. ini liiili ilu'.lilTiri iiirsL'riiwin;.'outof iiK iilinls 
of till' laii' fivil War. . . . Till' Iirilish (Juv- 
(Tiiiiiriit proiupllv ancptnl this proposal for 
iiil,ir;.'iii^' till- sjihi ri' of Ih.' m -oli.iiion." Tlii' 1 
joint lliL'h Colilini— ion wa^ spi i,|ily .oli^litllti'l. j 
:„ propo~ii|. I'V appoiiiliiii III ••( till- iwo '.'ovi rn- ' 
nil Ills, ami ihi' ]in.iiiptil mli' of pruri'i iliiitr "as 
sil'll llial thi' liriii-li iiiMinii~-ionrr- lamlnl al 
Niw York iiit»riit.\ ~im 11. lay ~ at in Sir IMwinl 
Thoriitoir- siiL"-'.^ti"ii I if .1. Hillary 'Jiiih «as iiiailr. 
Thiy sailiil uiilioiil i\aiiiiiL' lor tin ir loiiiiiii- 
sions, whirh HI re f'lrwarilril to tluin liyspn-ial 
niissin;;! r Tlic lliL'li ( oiniiii— ii.n was niruli' 
up as f.illows: " I In thr p. 01 I'f tin' I'liilnl 
Slali-swi-ri'livc pirsons, _ llaiiiilioii I'i-h. KoIm ri 
<'. Sihiiiik, S.imiiil .\il-.oii. f.lii ni-/ir li'irkwooil 
lloar. ami (o'T^r II. W illi mis. — 1 luiiii'iilly lil 
n'pri'sintaiivi s lit ihr iliploiiiar\ . tin hiiii h. till- 
har. ami lln' li-L-i-laliir.' of llii' I iiiO'l Slali-s: on 
thf part of Cnat llriiaiii, Karl H'' liny ,iml 

Iji.,,,., !'•■, -.iii.-nt of IhL' (Jiii'iii's <■ nil; Sir 

StalVonl Nortliioii'. KvMini^tiraml aiiual Mini 


1- House of ( oiiiiiioiis. Sir Kilwiinl 
till- imiMrsally ri-piinil Uriiish Min 

l»'r of III 

Thoriiloii. - - 

i«ii r at \V,isliinL-loii. sir .loliii | .\ | Manloiiiilil. 

ihi' alili' anil r|oi(iii 111 I'riiiiirr of tin- I'linailiiiii 

Doiiiiiiioii, mill, inrrximlof tin- ^imhI oM linii'. 

mIiim liarniiiu' «iis 1 ipial to any oilier lille of 

pilhlie II ', till- I liiversilies in tile |m rsoh lif 

I'rolVssor Moiil.iL'ue lli rnanl. ... In llie fm-e 
of iimnv ilillh ullies, llii ( oiiiinissioiiers, on tlie 
Kill of \la\, 1H71. eoniiili'teil alriiity (known in 
Ihi Triiifi of \Vasliinirloii|, wliii li neeiveil the 
proinpl approval of llnir rispntiu- (icivirn 
,i„.|in ■_('. fiishinii, yVi.;/ '■/ W'.i'liing 
!■■„. I'l: ix-'.'d, ili„l ll-l;l 

Also IN A. Laiur, I'l' 1,1', i". tiifl l>i<ini» 
..fSir Sl,,ir,.r,t A. //.'"/. , I'ii'i Kill ..f l,UI,i-l,i<ili. 
rh \'i^r il— A. ilaileaii, 'i/.i'.NK l',,i,;.,-li.iT\. 

A. D. i87i.-The Treaty of Waihington.— 
The irialv siiini'il al WasliiiiL'loii mi llie «lli iliiv 
of .May, 'l'«;i. anil lln rat ilieal Ions of which 

wen- e'vehaiiL-eil at l.omloi llie ITlh il.iyofthe 

folluwiiii,' .lune. »<t forth ils pnneipul auTeement 
in the first t«o iirliili'K as follows; "WlieO'iis 
ililTireiiees lia\i' iiris. n In l«ieii the Covirnnieiit 
of the I llileil Slates anil Ihe (ioverniueiit of Her 
lirillanie .Majesiy, ami still exist, t;rowiiiK out of 
the lilts loinniilleil liv tin' several vesselii which 
have niven rUe to tli'e i laims j;i iierically known 
as Ihe '.Maliaiiia Claims;' nml wliena.H Her 
Itrilaiinic .Majesty hasuiifliorizc il Her Hii;li Com- 
inissioners ami T'lenipoteiitiaries to express in a 
frii nillv spirit, Ihe rcL-n I felt liy Hir .Majesty's 
Coveriinieiit for the escape, umler whatever cir- 
cunislances, of the Alaliaiiia ami other vessi'l.s 
from Iirilish ports, ami lor the ilepreilationsconi 
niilliil hv lli"-e vis„ls: Now. in onler to 
ri'iiioM' aliil ail|n-t all eoiiiplaints anil claims on 
the part of Ihe Iniliil Slates ami to proviile for 
the spicily sellliiiii'iit of sueli chiiiiis which are 
not ii.lniirieil hv Hit Hrilaniiic Majcsty'.s <5iiv- 
eniimnt, till liiL'h coiitractiiii.' parties au'rec that 
all tin saiil claims, trowiiiir out of acts cuiii- 
iiiilliil hv Ihe afori vi-si Is, ami (jemrieally 
known 11'^ the ■ .\laliaiiia(!.iims,' shall lie rcfcrrcil 
lo a triliunal of ariiitratioii t' he coiiilioseil of 
live Arhilnilors, to lie appointeil in the followinu' 
iiMiniii r. Ihal is to s.iv: One shall he n;iiiii'il hv 
Ilie I'resiileiil of the 'lliitcil Sl.ili s; one shall iH' 
ii.umil hv llir l!rii;iiiiiic .Maji-t.v; His .Majesty 
the KiiiL'of Hah shnll he reipie-li il to iianieoiie; 
Ihe I'resiiliiil o'f Ihe Su iss ( oiiti ill nition Hhall 
he rii|Uesteil lo lianieone; allil His M;ljesty till 
Ijnperor of lin/il shall he rii|Ui sleil to iiaim 

I lie. . . . The Arliiiralors shall mcel at llenc\;i. 
in Swiuerl iini. at the earliest conveiiii iit ilay 
alii r tin V shall li:i\e Imn iiamcil. ami shall pro 
leeil iiii|'i;irli.illv ,iinl c;irifully to c\aniine ami 
ill ciile all iplistions Ihal slnill he hiiil hefore tlielii 
on Ih.' p.irt of till' (ioMrnmeiils of the riiileil 
Stalls ami Her lirilaimic .Majesty n -pectively 
.\ll i|,n -lioiiH coii-iili rnl hy Ihe trihun:il, im'linl 
iiiL' ;lie iin;il a« anl, shall In' ili ciil. il hy a iiiajorily 
of all the .\rliiiralor>. Kacli of the hi^'h con 
trailing' parlies shall also name one person to 
atliinl Ihe trihuiial as ils .\l'i ill to 'eprisenl it 
L'lnitallv in all iii;itli rs coiiini li il willi the arhi 

II alii HI.'' Aniili s:i. -I ami ■"i of the treaty specily 
Ihe nioile ill which e;ii h parly shall suhmit il- 
e;iM-. Arliclcll ilechires that, "In ileciilin.i; tin 
iiciliers Mihniilti'il to till' Arhitrators, they f\\:y'i 
he /loM riieil hv the follow in:.' three riili s, wliii 
are aL'rceil upon hy the IiIl'Ii coiuractimi parlii 
as rules to lie lakell as appiieaiiie lo llie case, .0. . 




h) such priiM ipli si.f iiitiriiiiliniiul luw im>i Immi 
htiili III IhiTtwilli H>i till- ArliilMinri «liiill di ti r 
mini III liiivi Ik'I'Ii ii|i|>lii hIiIi- |i> i|i,. ,,,,,. \ 
ihiiImI Unvinillirlit in liuilliil — Kifxl, In liw iliii- 
ililiiri iirr I" priii'iit llir liiiiiiL' mil, iiriniiii;, it 
•■i|lll|i|iilli:. »illlill illl IlirlMlirlliiii. i,f Hln \i«i I 
Wlliili it IliW ri-II'MtliHlltr LTIIIlllll III tH'lic\i' in 

lull iiili'il til rriiiKi .ir tn mrn on «iir iiuMiii^l 
11 I'l.wir Hitli Hliiih it Ix III luiiic, iiiiiliilwitM 
iiM' liki- iliiipiirc I., (ircvi 111 Ihr iliiiiirtiiii- trmii 
lt!> jiiri^lirtiiill iif aliv vi-mkI ihliinli'il In i rilisr 
nr riirrv mi \Mir ti-* iilmvi', siii li vcs>fl liiiviiii; 
Imii xjiiiiiilly iiil:i|itii|. ill wlii.ji- nr In purl. 
Hitlilii mull jiirisilidiiiii, tn n;iiliki' ll^u^ Sir' 
iiMilly, 111 It |n|MriiiiI nr Kiiiri r rillii r lll■Mi^•l nut In 
iiiiiki- ii.M' nf IH pnrtu nr Willi rt iiH the Imiw nt 
ninul iiiM'nilliiiis iiitaliwl tlir niln r. nr fur tlir 
piii|inM' nf 111!' riniwal nr iiiiiriiii iiiiiinii nf mill' 
;iirv Hiipjilicsnr Bniis. nr ilir n i riiiiiiii nt nf mm. 
Tliinlly ti) ixcrclsc diir ilillpiirr In its uhii 
jinru iinil wiiicrs. iiml. us in nil jursniiH wiiliiii 
in jiirisilirtinn, tn privi in iiiiy vinhiijnii nf ilic 
furik'niiii,' nliliiratiniis iimi ilulii's. IIit Itrilannir 
Miijisly hiiH rniiiiimnileil liir llii;li ( niiiniis- 
sinmrs uiiil I'linlpntrnliariis to iliiliire that Hit 
MajistyHliiivirniiiiiit i-aiinnt itssont In the fnrr. 
(.'nini,' HH H slali-nicnt nf prim ipli's nf inlir- 
imlinniil luw wliiih wire in fnrir ut tlii' tiini> 
wliin till' cluiins iiii'iitinniil in Artii Ir 1 anw, 
hilt lliiil Hit Majesty's (invi rniiinil. in nnlrr li'i 
<•^iMlr itsilisirr of slrrmrlliriiim; ilir frirmlly 
nialiniis hiuvrrn till' twn rniintrirs nml lif 
niakiiii; saiisfirlnrv prnvisinii fi.r Ihr fiiiiirr, 
ai-'riis that in ilrrlilini; Ihr i|iirsiiniis Iniwrin 
Ihr twn rniinlrirs arisini; nut nf tlmsr rlaiiim. Ihr slmiilil assiinir that Hit .Majrslv's 
tinvrrnniiiit hail uniliitakrn In lut iiiin'n Ihr 
principles sit fnrth in tlusr rules. And Ilir 
liinh innlniciini; parlirs UL,'ric> tn nlisrrvr tlu^r 
nilis as hriwrrn tlirni-ihrs in fiiniru. uml In 
lintii; Ihrni In tlir knmvli cl;.'r nf nilur inuriliiiir 
pnHirs. anil in invilr thrin In iirccilr in thrm," 
.Uticli'S 7 In IT. inrlii^ivr. rrlatrtnlhr pmc-rilurr 
nf till' lriliiin,il nf urliitralinn. and pmvidu fnr 
Ilir ilrlcrniinalinn nf claims, liv ussr.ssnrs and 
rniiimissinnirs, in rasr Ihr Arliilralnrs shniilil 
liMil any liability mi ihr part nf (Jrrat Hrilain 
anil shmilil rmt award ii Mini in ijrnss tn lir paiil 
in Mitliniint tliirinf, Arlirirs 1m in J.-i nlitr tn 
tlir |-|~liiTiis. Hy Ariiilr |m it i^ a-r.i d that in 
uiMitimi tn thr lilurtv srciirrii In Amirican lish- 
rnii. ,1 liy III,, rmivriitinn cif |s|h, ■•nf lukino-, 
||irnn: and drying' lisii mi i, rtain (nasi, ,,f H,,' 
lirili-li Nnrih Aiiicrii an inlnnirs thrniii ilrlim d 
Ilir mliahiiants nf i|,r ("nitrd stairs shall h.iv, ' 
in cn„,,i„,n ,(iih Ihr siil.jriis nf Hit lirilamiir 
Maj.Mv, Ihr lihrrty Inr |a piTiml ,,f i,,, vrars 
and iKn yrars liirlhir afirr imiirr ^rjv,",, i;\ 
I uh. r party nf iis wi,li tn lirminalr Ihr arraii".'- 
ni'iill . . . In take lish nf rvrrv kind, r.xrrpt 
sii II li-li. mi Ihr sra-iciasts and 'slmris and in 
'hr li.iys, harhnurs and cTrrks, nf ih,. prn\ ini i s 
"1 <,iu.l.. r, Nnva .s, ntia and Nrw llnniswirl^ 
and Ihr , ninny i,f I'linrr IMwards Island, and 
'■1 Ihr srviral islands thrrciinln adjaci nl, with 
'■'1' hiiiiu' n>trirtrd In anv diManir fmni th. 
'Ii"!-'.. with prrniissimi m land upmi thr said 
rr-i-is and slinr, s and i~laiids. and aKn iiimn ihr 
Ma.'dalrn I,,l;,„ds. fnr thr pnrpnsr nf drvii,.' 
II" ir nils and ciinnir tliiir ii>h; prnvidrd ili.t 
nf ~,' ','.'""'-■ ""■>■ ''" '"'t iidiTfrre will, thr ri-IlN 

'' !|rn;!t,. pn.p.r'y, ••. ,,:iii i>riTJ,ii li,!,,,,, 

Ill .li' piarr: hir ii,,o cif uny part nf thr said , 

cna-is III ihiir iKiiipHniy fnr thr unic piirpnic 
11 Is iinilrrsliiiHl that tliralin\r im iillnniil liU'rlv 
a|>plir( Hnli ly l,i |hr sfa llshrrv, mid that Ihr 
saliimnmiil shad lishrrirs, iiid all 'the r llshrrim 
in ri\irs and thr iiiniit|,s ni ri.rrs uru IiitiIi\ 
ri'servcd rxi l.isivi ly fnr !lriii»h lUhi riiu'ii ■ 
Artie Ir IK Ki'ieiri's In Itrllisli siihjirts th,' uTre 
spniielini; ritthls nf ilshinif. Ae- . em the' e usiern 
se a cnasis and slinres nf the- fnii.d Siat.s imrth 
nf the'Hillh paralli I nf nnrili laliliid .\rii, I.- '.'ll 
irsirvrs friiiii Ihis,. stipiihiiiniis 11, i' pjae is ilmt 
Hrir n serviil frnm ih,. i'nnini,>n n-lit nf lishlntf 
niidir Ihr llrsi nrliiU. nf the' trraly nf .limr .'i 
lN.Vt Ariiilr ;;i prnvidrs fnr Ihv r.i IpriKni 
adniissinii nf llsh and llsli oil into rni h rmintrv 
frnni thr ntliiT. free, eif eliity lixteptlni.' Huh .^f 
Ihr inlund lakrs ami tisli in 
.Arliilr 'J'J prnvidrs that. " Iniisniiirh a.s il i» 
asserlrel liy the' (iine'rninrnt nf Her liriulDiiie' 
.Majisly that Ihr privile'Ke's aei nrdeil In the' 
eili/riis nf t!ic I uited Slules iindrr Artie Ir 
XVIU eif thiH trt'uty lire nf cnalrr viilur than 
till*' iKdireh'd hy Arth les XI.X ami XXI of this 
I tniity tn the' Miilijrrtsof Hir Itrilaniiii' ,Majrslv 
uml Ihis assrrlimi is imt adinillril hv Ihr (inv. 
rriiinint nf thr Iniird Stairs, it '!« fiirtiirr 
iitfrird that CnniniissinnrrH shall lir appninlrd 
: tn ilrterniinr , , thr ainniinl nf anv inniprnsa- 
; linn whii'li in the Ir npiiiimi, mmht |i'> Ih. pui,| |,y 

. the- (invirnini'Ilt nf Ihi lliileel Slairs tn Ihr (inv- 

I erniiii III nf llrr Urilaiinir .MaJisiy," Artidi'SS 

' innvhlrs fnr till' appninlniini nf'siirh Cmnniis 

siniirrs, mir hy thr I'n sidenl nf ih,' ( nileil 

I Stut,'s, iii.e- hy Her Hitannle Majrsiv and llii- 

, third hy th,' I'rrsi.lenI and Ilir ,\Ia'|rsiv rnn- 

i jninlly; or, failiii;; of airrrrinent wiihin" tlin't- 

' mniiihs, tlirlhiril ( nniniissimu r In he naiiiril liy 

Ihr Aii~lriaii .Minisirrai Lmiilnn Thr ( ■miiiiil,s. 

-iniiers lei iiiei't at Hulilax. and ihrir prmnlure 

In hras lu-esiriliril and rr^iilali d hv Artiiirs 24 

and •,'."i. Anil Irs '.'lit,, 111 ihij,,,. ,-, ,'iuin reiipro- 

lal pri\il,';:,s arrnrdnl liv eaili (.'in.rnnirnt tn 

thi'siilije'.is nf Ih,' ,,ii„r. ineliidiiii.' Hie' naviija- 

tmnnt ihi'Si. I.awrriiii'. Yiiknn. rnriiipin,. uml 

Siikinr Kivirs. l.akr .\|ie liiiran. and Ihr Uril.imi 

■*'I- l.awn'i and St, (lair Flats, anals and ilie' 

lrans|,nrtalinn nf i;nn,|s in hmal thrniinh th,' 
tirrilnry nf e.iii' (nimirv inin ih,' ,,th, r wiilmut 
paymriit nf eliitii s. Ariii li' :!',' e'Vrnds ihi. pre>- 
Mslniisnf Artie Irs IS le, ■.>,-, e.flh,' Ire'alv tei Xe'W- 
Iniiiidlaiid if all pariiis eniiierni'il f.nait thr 
iiriv^^aiy laws, lint nnt ntliirAlM', Artii'l,. lilt 
liniiis Ihr diiialinii nf Arlirl.s IS I., ',',-, ,',nd Arti- 
Hr :iii, In 1, 11 y,';irs frnni thr lial,' nf Ihi ir Jninir 
intni', and '■fiirlhir iinlil th,. ,Apiraiinii of 
two yrais aliir liilirmf thr twn hi;.'li r.ailrurt- 
iiii; pariirs -.hall have' j;ivrn nntire' tei th,' either 
nl lis wish I,, trniiinali'lhi'sjinir," The' ninain. 
iiiLrartieiisof th,' triaiv prnvidr fnr suliiniliiiiL,' 
In till' arl.itraiinn nf ||,r Kinprmr nf (irrniany 
Ihr Nnrlhwrsirrn watrr liniimlarv i|iii'siinn (in 

''"' !''■" ' 'ii'wiin Vaiirniivrrs'lslanel .'ind tlie< 

iniitini nil — In rniiiplete'tlir.sellle'inriil of Nnrth- 
wi'^tern liniindary ilispiiU's, — 7>r,;^V.', ,in,/ Cm- 
r, "ti"iial.,l,r,,ii th,: f. s. oiiil vllicr J',„r, m I,;/ of 
lss:ii. ,,;,. 4T-MII;!. •' IX C. I'lishilif:, r/ie Tir.itu <■/ ll',,./,!,,;,. 

t„n. „j,,,. 

A. D. l87i-i872.-The Tribunal of Arbi- 
tration at Geneva, and its Award.— • Thr ap- 

P'iinlnirnt of ArMtralnrs i,i,,k plar,. in dn- 

<niirs,'. ami wiiii ili, rradv ir I » ill nf ihr three 

neutral ^'nvi rnniints. fhi' I'niir 




Al.MMM \ ( I, AIM-* 


..|„i,,| Mr i'l.;irl.- 



.ml. .1 

.1 I . 


Tri ilv 

III. .'II k 

Th. TrllM 

ikllii; UM' ii( III!' 

I.I l'i..|. 

. |,.|.i. 

ill. I'r. M.I. ..I .1 III. ■'i>i<- < ..III.. I. I 111 .11 Mr 

.1 .i..!! M 1 Mi|itli :ili.l llii' I.II1I-. I..r ..| lln/ll lln 

11.11 1 iMjiilifi Mr .1 r ll.iii. r..ii Mim- « i- 

:l|.|.. I!|i..| Ak'llll l.f 'Im I I Mill' iii.l l.'.r.l 

Trill. 1.1. II ..MiPlI Itllllll. I'll, riiliiiinil «M» 

i.r^ iiii/i .1 |. r ihr r.i I |.ii"ii "I il" ' i-' •■' ' " li 
|iiri\ .111.1 h. |.| In lir.i . n m . {.il i;. mi.i. 
S»ii/i rl.iii.ll ..11 ilii I'llli .tl I'MiiiilHr. I»;i. ■ 

Cillllt >il..|.l-. I.rilll,' ill. .-Ill I" | "Ihr 

liriiiliil r.i... I.I ilii- liiiiii! Mull-.. Willi 1 II 

I'uiiMiii: il.K mill ni», »ii» lih'l 111 Mr linn i..|i 

l>;ni. iiii.l llii |.riiiiMl Cii I liii.ii llriiiiui 

Willi il.iiiimriiN, liv Liiril 'rriili nl. n Tin' 
'rriliiiiiil in.i.ii' iiniiliili.iii fi.r iln- lllini.' ..I llif 

ri*|Mrtiv|. ( .I'llili-r I ■;l-.|..« III! or lul.-li Ihr Tilh 

lln ..f .\pril 111 \l • ii.<iiiiit'. -i^ ri.|iiiii.| In llir 
'I'll lU . mill Mil- I .iiniiiiiiL' i.f :i "[m ill iiu 1 1 
llli.' iif llii. rilliilli:il. if iiir;l..i.iil 1.I1..11I1I rr.|lMri . 
ami lliin. nl iisid.n.l 1111 rliiii:. I'li ilu' nrxl il;iv, 
tlii'V iiiliiiiirnril until tln' I'llli ..I .liim- m xl iii-u 

lllL'' -lllijl'll til il prinr l;ill hv llir SilTrhirv . if 

111. I.. ^Ii..ii|.l 111 iHi;i-iiiii ■ 'l'hi-M"l..ii'..t till- 
Triiiiimil w.rr ristiiiii'il i.ti ihr l.'iili nl .liiiir. 
I'<7'.'. mi iiriliiii: In ilii' inljuiiriiini iii. iiml »irr 
r..iiliiiiiiil milil I 111' 1 lllii.f S. [Ill lulu r l..|l.i«iiiL'. 
uImm iIii- itirl-i.'it mill ituitril wiTi liiinimiK nl. 
.111.1 Kin. siu'iiiil l.\ nil Ihr Arliiiriit..r.t i \ii.|il 
Ihi- ltiiii>li rr|iri M rii.ilivr. Sir Al. \ iiwli r Cmk- 
liiirii, "III. ili«-i mill, Il WMs liiijiiil hy tlir 
Triliiiiiil Hull llii' llriii>li (i.ivi Minn iil li:i.| 
' fiili.l III nsr iliii' ililiui II I' ill till' |ii rl'.iriniiiii I' 
l.f iN nriiinl iililiLMii'iii- "iili rr^iiiii t" tin- 
rrui-ir. Alali.ini.i iitnl I'l.iiilii, ;iiiil tin' wvi nl 

I. iiiliri iif tli.i>.. M'mI,, ,111,1 iiK.i Hiih ris|t.ii 
III th.. .""Ill naii.l.i.ih iilii r li. r .li|.,irmri. fmni M. I 
h. 11111. , r. Il, |i, l-i'i'i, lull 111 Inn- thill lllltiv 
Wiih i..| 1.1 Ihr (..i.rL'ii. till' SiiniliT. tin' 
Nii-li\ili. till T illiihii--. iiiii.l Ihr riiiikiiniiiii.-ii, 
ii Uii- 111. iiii.lini: ..f II..' Tril.iiniil Ihiil lii.iii 
liriiiii'i II i.j 11. 1 liiili il I. |i. rf.'riii lln iliitir< ..f it 

II. il'ril |...\\.r >.. f il UN 11 lillrs 1.1 lilr Vi'N'. U 

I lii. .1 Iil. ,-:ii;i.' III.' .1. Ilrr^.m, thr Mii-1. . 
llii 1; .'irii. iii.l tl,. \'. II .|.n, it u,,- 111,' .1,. i 
-i.'i, ,1 Ihr 'riil,,,!! il II, il th. \ ...i :lil t.. 1,,' 
i'\,!,:.lrtl II. Ill f.U'itl. r i!i..ii f..r \\iiiii ..f i\i 
,1, I,, ,' ■• ^ . I,,r iis r. I ,'. N 1. 1 I 111. piriii'iilir- l.f 
III.' in. I. I 111, ilv , hiiln, .1 l,\ Ihr rililr.l .■>! ,Ii'<. Ihr 
I....'- .'f |..i''-iiil 1.) ('..iifi .h Tiilr rnii>i r^ ■ iirr 
.1. . I ,1. .1 1.. I,,; ■' ii'.t. ill Ihr jiiil-iT,. ill iif III,' 
'I'l il.illi .!, |.r, .p. r!\' ,ii -I in ; iii-'hii'.l. ti. ,111 1 1,.- 'ji 11 
rriil i'\p. 11-. > ,.1 Ihr ^^ 11' I'iirri,,! 1.11 l,> Ihi' 

riliirll VIil.s' i,!l.| "tl:.I'|. iii h.. L'r..llll'l l"r 

:i\\ ,,i'.liii'j t'.il,,' I ;,i;..l > ,1. > iiiiy s'lin !.\ \\ lv 
,.t■ in.!. i,ii:i' . 111..I, I' ilii> 11. ill" A -iiiii! ir il. ri- 
-i..!i p'l! i,-ii,. Il, ' w h' I" I .'i,~i.|i t'iili'.n ..f rl .iiiis 
I' .r " pi -|.. ' ' i\ , 1 in iML.'^, " Til! lily, Ihr iiw inl 
\Vii.i r. il'!. r.l in ili.' f.ll.iw ini: liiii.'ijiii^r: 
"Winn,-, ill t.i iiiii-.r nl nn i'i|,iitiilil,' 
I'liiiprn- iiii.n 1 r Hi,' li iii, . ,:i -i wlii. h liiiM' hi ill 
Ml ■ ii;;. I, il U In,. .>iU . l.i Ml u!l il.illlilr 
llli,,, IT Ih,' -.,,1:,.' I"'---., illrl nil rliilllN 
■_l',-,. il. i^hl-, s, . I.u'ii-lh. y i'\. ri 'I'll. I 11, ijliN.' 
iin.l uh.i. 1- il i> pi-i ill,, I ii'ii-.iiiililr 1.1 .ili'.w 
iuirrr^I ill il I', ii-.iiiiil,'.' r,.;. ; iin.l win n ;-, in iir. 
('. irii.inir w iiti 'III' -pi lit nii.! i. i'. r ul Ihr Tn iiiv 
uf \Vil-hil,, it il pn h r iMr to Ih'r 
f.imiiil ,.| il -'.ill ill iil'.'--, riihir 
tii'ili t.i I. !.r Ihr sulij. ,1 l.f I I. nip, 11-. ill, ,11 l..r 
f.;,.. I,,,.- i;-,,....i,.., .,,j.r,i.,!ii.. r.ii 'i. !.. ,1 li'.i.r.! "f 
A--I r-, us pr..\i,lc.l hy AiM'l.- X ..f Ih,. sniil 

1.1 I II ill! I.v 

III. rrr I ,ip.,n 11 l.y Ann Ir VII ..f llm 

i|.irliy iif l.iiir mh 

:[, I., lln I l.lliil Miilislhr »lllll iif llltri'll 
niil' ll\i hiinillnl lli.iii-.inil Iti.ll.irH in ci'lil 
,is Ihr huh iniiily |.i Ih' pii.| hy (iriiil llht.iin In 
Ihr 1 nil., I ^iiiis |..r Ihr siiUfiirtiiin l.f ill till' 
1 1,11111- ril.r.r.l l.i Ihr i..ii-ii|. riiii Ml III llif I'rl 
liiinil iiinhirni ihl\ In ihi pr.Ai-mnK r,,iiiiiini.i| 
ill Aril. Il VII nj Ihr iifiiii'-iiiil I'riiiiv It 
v|i..ii|.| I.I. ■.i.iIkI lint till' Miiiilliil " hiillri It 

1 1,11111- '.,f lili I Illlril Mlltl'i, fur 1 i.lliM Ipli lltilll 

I..-M s iiiil il.iiiiii-i'-, L'rimiin; mil "f ihn I'ln'Hir 
iii-i iiii'ii' l.f ihr >..iiihi rii UiIm Hi, hi. 111! prnli'iiL' 
iitliiii III Ihr «.ir, iVi . wrrr ilriippiil tnnn i.,n 

•.iili'i'iiiiiiii ul II iit«ri 111 ihi' M iif till' Tri 

liiiiiiil. Ill .liiiir. till' Arhilriil.irn iiu'rnini: tin 11 In 
il -liilriin III l.f .ipiiii..ii I,, lln 1 ITi'i t thill "ilii'M> 
iliinis .1.1 in. I 1 -iiiiilr, npi.ii llic p'iiK l|'l< "* "' 

illlrrililltiillitl liiw iipplli ilhlr III Kill h lilM'M. K'i*i<l 

riiiiniliili.i ill! imnt'il iif i'.iin|» hhhiIhii nr 
iiiinpiilaiiiitiiif iliiiiiimi"< hi'lvMi'ii Miitii.n- " TIiIh 
lln liinitlnii nils am ptnl hy Ihi' liiiti'il Stiili h ai 
ilrii.iM' iif Ihr ipii-.tiiin, 1111,1 till liiitrliiL' prii 
I'l'i'ili'il iiiiiinlintrh — <'. Ciisliiiit;. 'I'>i< Trfiln -'f 

II .(,,/,/, r,^./,, 

Ai-K IS K Wliiirtiill. llniiHt -f Ihr Inlrrrut- 

I. .ii.ll l,i,r ..}• thr r S . <h ■•] {,- :ti 

ALACAB, OR TOLOSO, Battle of (laia). 

Si'c AiMi.iniii- iiii.l M'Ms: .\ l> 1IMI-|-.':W, 

ALADSHA. B«ttlet of ( 18771. Sir rriiKi* 

.\ Il i-<:t-i«;> 

ALAMANCI flattie of 1 1771 1. Sec Nimrii 
('•iiuiiNVi .\, I iTiiii ITTI, 
ALAMANNl s.iAiimwm 
ALAMO, The massacre of the 1 18361. Sn- 

I'rw- A. I> l"".'! l-::i'i 

of. - Tin';li..l.l rl Ihr iM.I Mm i.f thn 
M.,iiiil.iin. nr .•»ln il.h nf ihr iiriihlr iir.l, r ..f Ihi' 
.\— I— iiii. ill niirih.rii I'lr-iii, iNiiiinn; slu'nilli-s 
"Ihr r.ii'..'li' n in'-l."nr "Ihi' Villi un -in'st." .Sre 

ALANS, OR ALANI, The. ' Ih,' Alitil 
am hr-l nnniinii. .1 hy IM-iny -iii- Ihr jjr. .^Tiiphi't 
lit C, :iii liiiwlni j..'iiis ilir'ni Miih Ihr Ilii, I anil 

till' Tili'ti. iinil iumIii pllirrs tin 111 hilui.n tlif! 

l.itirr iiml Ihr Aiiiillnr-i .\ -iniilnr [i..-iii..n lin 
Ihr M.nili nl Uu--i,i ill I.iir,.],r, liir iiin-lim 
I kriiiiiri is ii--ii;in'i| In tin in hy I'liny anil 
.l.i-rphiis. Sriii'i a pi 11 , -till 111 fiirtlnr \v. -1 11 p. m 
thr Istir. ri.'Iiiny hii- 1\\ n li...lii s nf Akiiii. mii' 
ill ihr p..Mii..n ul'i.iM' iI'Mrih. .1. thr nih. r in 
>. sihii within till' [niitiis. iinMh iinil parily rii-l 

nl ihi' I l-pi 111. Il nm-t IlilM' hrrll irnlll tlnsl' 

1 ,-i, lii.' -11. 11 ssnrs. jin.l. arr.'r.iiiiir In M.inr. the 
i|. ...inliiiiis l.f Ihr am i. Ill .Mil— :i>;i'lii', tint the 
.Mini 1 iinr whn ill 1.11 kill I'lii'. .nis niiil 'ririilitrs 
|in ,M,,lii ami Ann. iiiii. A. Il, 7"i|. . . . Thr 
rrsiili s, . Ills In hu\r liri'ii thill thr iiiMiiiiTS. allrr 
niiiLiin^' iiml Imrrx iii'_' M, ,li;i ami Arinmiii al 
thrir plra-iirt', liirii, .1 nlf n \iist iiiinih. r nf 
pri-'.m rs ami an i'ii..riiinus l„..iiy iiihi tin ir n«n 
r.'unl r\ ," — I i, lliiw iin- .11. >/i','i fi >'it ly.'i. '..'.// 
!/..„.,,■./../. .'.'/, IT,— !: II, r.unl.iirv, //,,•■'. ../' 

.1 .,',. , t I,, •/., ,',',, li. I ,', II.—' I hr lirst nl Illis 
I ihr 'I'iirliirj liti r knnwil In tli.' ItnllliUlS w, rr 

Ihr .Mini, 111 llli' h.urlli iriilury liny pil, linl 
iJii'ir 1. Ills III thr c.iiinlry hi twrrii thr V..!:,'! iiml 
Ihf 1*111111-. at nil ili-liiiii'r frnni lln' IJlark 
>. ,i,.l il.r Ciisir'.ii ■- .1 CI, sismiinill y.dl 

vjihr i;:N.,in r.mpu'.. .■'/. :t. 






A. D. 376.— Conquent bjr th» Hunt. >. <■ 

iiiiiFi- (\ iii-i A II .i;ii 

A. O 406-409. l-inti liiTaiioii of Caul. 

N. (ill I A |l |l»i 1(111 

A. O 409-4M' S«ttl«iiipnl in Spain, ni 

Mils A l> l"ll II I. 

A. D. iiq. With 111 VanJal. in Africa. 

-. . \ vM'vi - A i» r.'ii I i'l 

A. U 451. At thr Battle of Chalont. >> > 
III \- .\ II til 

ALARCOS, Battlr of A. O. 11951. ^"' 

Al ""M >IM - 


.V !l ■''■•': l'»l I'll 111. I II. ill' \ II |n^ lln 

CHIANS. ■I'll.. AI;ir.H|i:,ri^ ..I II, t,«l..iiH Willi till- ^i|.iiit.< III. iilm,...! ,11 

i.iiiilv III! Iiili.iliiiiiiiu I if A mil III I. \tli. ..,. ><.|iiiii,. 
11:11111'. wuH Irnril.i. nr .Viiml ■ Aiirml.' m.l.i.l. 
i« i lilrli- Miriuiit fi.ilii i.f ■ \r.itii.|.' 111,. 1 iiii.l 1 
l.iiiii.' iiiiili^iim,'ui,li ilili. Ill ilii'i;|<| I'c r-i'in iiu,! 
Aiiiiu.r - rvn ill I. iiiiiiKii, Iv iiir.iiiiii.i liii. 

\lltlt lif >■ ll|l|l|Il. Willi 111,. I 111,1,1, IT I lllllll 

■ ■f llii' InHrriptiHiis , . . 'I'll, hiiii,.,! \iiiii 1, 

■ . ■.■! nil!'. 11-. .1 III >. lipiiii... I.. II ,:h\,n , |., ,1,. 

■ ' '. 1 ' ' I'.'i • I III,. 1- il 1 |. nil. ..1 ,1 I I 

I 11.' ,..1111. Vi.ll ..I I I 1,1 , .1111, 

111,. I!iii.\l,inl..iii nil f.MJ, 111 i,|.i.,w.| Il 111,. 

i|.| II. 111. ,11 ill llii- ill-. ii|,lii.ii, ,.r tl,,. I Hum, iim,. 
..f l',-,ii,.ir . 1 |.. til.. .\iiii,.iii III ;,i,rr . , I...' 

III. 1, i- ii.,i|iiiu' I,, |,r.,vi- IS III 111, !■ Ill,, liiitliui ,.i 

\l>i. Ill llf II lll\ |..||il| ll, Slllllllll ill ;l MH I, III,,',. 

:i-.- lllllll l!ii mini in I Ii.lii/,. Ilii. |,l i;ii.i. 

.1 Mliiiliii- 111,. 1 1 ii,li:iiis .\, I, |.,.ii, r, 1 -..| 1 1 1:,.| 

r I ilriliil ll,illll..l:i|.,l l,y Il„. 1:1;, ,\ 11, : j„,.,i, I 

,1 111,. >i.|iii!,- Till, lllllll, r ~ii|i|,..,iii..,| ||.. .. 
i>.r. i< l:i.~l ill iMiifiiriiiilv «!:li -•. 1 i|,l.ii. , 
i'..| in, i'l, iii-.llv uiili till. 1(11. ir,, I 111. 11,-. ii|,' 
'i .11- lie l!:niliii-.,ii, //,,/ ,./■ //, , ,,., • , 
'■'■ '. .'/,. '-'i -Tiir lir,,.i.| iiuil li, h \ ill, i ,,i 
III K ir, uliiili (■,,iTi.~ji,,i..U r|,,v,l\- niih'll,.. 
Ill 'I' 111 li'i- I III pri.\ iiii |. 1,1 (I, ,.r^i I, 11 ,, 

I 1 "'^ I ^11 lli,.ii,iv-,...i..i|,,f., ,,,.,,,,1,. , ,11, , I 1,, 

II. r...!..lii, >;iv|„ II,., ,,r >,i|„ i. Hi , n,. iii.iv 

1.1. i'ily Willi ilii. Ill, liiiii, i,r 1, ruiiiii, A.i 

'liii;; ii|i,.ii 111, 111 t,,uMi-,i.. 111,. 

mill. r.- 11,1,, I 

iliil ilii. 1 1 siliin Ih 'fri, ' mil iiriiml,|.ri.| tiy 

uin ri.iTMiiii.ii^. prKil, c . fiiimliU.,. i.Tiiiii,, 

,.| |„„^(.v«l,,||,. I.y iiliv li..„,t'i,lti ,| I ,inil,;|lij, H 

"11. ihir ,,,r|iiimi.. nr' Im ,>i|„.riil, . ,,f 
iiiv iiilur I uii iliivn lilir nil nil. Hi r wn 

n liiriii-.|, ^iiiiihi/ iliiil III. iiiiiii.iir IkIIi'SiiI him 
«, II lllllll,. rl/i, I 1,1 .11, i|,i 111, V, I, III,, i),| III,. 
"."•'Ill mill iii-iriii ii,,ii, M,ri- rii.n.l l,\ miil, 

lliilll >il I'll, I ..I, HI.. Oil III, ..III,, ,|„v ,, II, ,1,. 

«.!« aililri ,1.1,1 lij III,, iiiiiii.ii.r |., il,,- ., , r, i,ir\ ,,f 

»l.ll|.. illfl.llllillL' llilll llllll III,. |,;ll ,,,|,„,|,,| n, 

lln- 11. .1.111 ,.f l(ii-. 1,111 Am, li, 11 f.r ilii .ii|.ii 
Ittliil .11111 ,,| ..,:, .,'1111 (Mill in (.,,1,1 _\i t,,ii|. 

Ii'l l,.rk 111, lirM m,.llllli,j llii 111 ,iu A,,. ,1 .||, ,| l,y 

III.. i«ii |.:iiiii . ulil„,iii lurilii r |.iir,i-,. ,.r m -,,ii 
Miiiiii II, Mu\ III, ir,iii\ »,!< ruin,, I. iiml ,,ii 
.Inn, .'II \-i\; 111- n-'iil |,i,., Iam,li,,ii wMs i..ii,,| 
l|\ III,. [Ill -1,1, 111 I III, I nil,., I si„i, , ,,,i il„. 
l-ili,,|n i,.l.. r l-ii;, i|ii. f,,riii al ir,iii-ri r iif th,. 
iirrii,,ri «,i. mi.i, ui -.iik:! ( lli'ii-.., ui 

'•kill.' I", i,.ii ill 111., llllll,. i,f III,. (;,,!, 1,1 

nil 111 nt 111, I lllllll Mull. II II IIiiiKi,,!! 
/,,.r . I I),, /•'■■'!>■■ ,^^l^., , ■>, ,;, :•. 
.\\\ II hill, ,i.'...<. I ./,../, 1, /.■,.„,,,,,.. 

r' ■-■ ■'.'' ■-' l'..r -..nil r ,,,iiiit ,,f Hi,- ,il,..rLinil 
iiiii, nils, HI- Ami nil >s .\ 1.. nin.iM - 1... 
i-iM 11 IN 1 mil II.. I \ 1 11 Ml., 1 .. \\-u- . 

ALATOONA, Battle of. -• . I m 1 1 ,-i,ii. 
"I VM \ 11 1-1. 1 1^1 I'll "11 1: 1 I, i,,i,i I, 

ALBA. Alban Mount. --"( mi,, m 

li 11 II'L' 111. ir |. nil. /I, UK ill ...111,. .■|,,|| |„,|,! „|„i 
in. i'l'lin-; :i , , II nil iiniiili, 1 ..| , I ,i.,||||,. 1 ,,,„ 

'il' l"i i^'. |!i,,il illii:i, .'ii ul,i, I, Il iiiui 

l,i-i,,rv l„ ,\! uli.ii {., i|,„| ,ii,( 1,. 11 1, ,1 

'M. nl. '.in 11, 11, 1,. I, .1111, I HI I. itiiiiii. 

1 inn.. I il, i|, 1 11, ,1 11 in, |,|., , i-i,„, . ,,,- I, Il , 

ni .1'. r 1. 1 -j.i . i ,1 I11-I..11, il ml. 1. -1 'I |„. 

I ■" 111 .1 \!l 111 r iiiL',., Ill ,1 I,, ,1,11 ,1 -11,11 ■..||., 1,1 
"i l.alliini. ulii.h ,.ir, r,,| t., .,!.!, 1, ll,, m,,.i 

II li.l' -"111., .ill-, ll„ In .1,, -I .[.inij. iin.l lln- 
ni..-l -, , 111,. |„..ili..ii, u,,>i|,l ,|,.il,il, .. |„, iir.t 
M'i. 'I I'l 111' i.'M 1 "li, 1- II, 1, ,1. , ,.r.| 

ini^Iy, :l|."l- 111.. IMII.r.l |:l,il. 1:1 ,-,l..,v,. I', I,.,/ 
/■'■'i 1. I" '«" 11 lln- .Mliiii l.iki- ll, ,_.., ili ( ,1-1. Il,,| 
iiinl llir All, 111 III.. mil iM,.i,i, i ,1,,, iaIiii,1,,| 

III.' l.l.WI ,,| ,\ll,,| 11 1,1, I, 11,1. iiiiji, r.iiiiy 

111 I!,,' r...inlry iili,,iit laii'in. anil ... in lli,. 

ii'i-'lil rliiHiil .if Al iral. imi,. ll,,. .\1 ir.. li in., 

ii!i. 1. n. 11111. liiil.I 1.1. |.,,iiii,., i,,| 1 111, 111, It 1. 1 III,', 
fi, ,! ni,,iiiii,iiii, I III ilie nihrr .i,|,. ,.| In, 
■^ip-'iriin |.,,iinlry, in ilm trails ii,,iv kii,..,>ii a. 
^ll!| iilii ami Iniiiilia. ri.:;i,.|is ,,r a u ,,n,l. 1 1 ul 
I" ini.i- 1111,1 f.iiiliiy. VMTi' III,. C,.!,!,;,,,. ,1, 
|.. ;, i. Ill-, lull 111. I ,"\a, ilv siilij,., M, ,,| r, i-ia, . 
1: 1:, iliii-,.ii. /•'.,, i,,;.,t .I/,,,,,,,.,./,/,,; /;,„,, 


|,l llnllli 1 

lat ,.| lln 



^1." k, aii.l III,. 111..1I1, ri ilv ,,| l!,.ni,' :is 11, U an 
llf all III.,. r (i|,| |„iiin 1 ..inmiinili, , llili., 
I'll'. '11 III. -l"ii. . lii.v lln- M-r.i am i.iii l.iiin 
1 .iiin.ii . ' nil. . .,f l.aiiiniiiiii. Alii la, ami Tii. 
1 iiiiiiii, .Ml 111' . I- rani,, II. win ill ],iimiiiv,' 

tini, . |„,liii, illy .,,i,ri mil llllll , 1, h ,,f 111, m 

«a- _',,i,rii,,| liy il. prilii r » il li llir |.,ra 

In, II ,,r 111,. (,,1111, ll ,,f ,1,1, I. ami ih,. ,,.„ i,|y ,,f 
I'.anii.r. .Ni.urili, ll .. ilii. l,,Iiii- ,,| , 'niH. 
.Iiiji IliviI ,,ri r,,iiiiiiiiiiiiy i,f i|,.,,i.i 11,1 ,,r 
l,iii;ii.i.,. ii.ii Lilly pirvaili'il till- u! ,,1,. ,,f ilinn. 
liil 111 inil,. till iLrli ill an iiii|i,,i. mi , |ii;i,,iis 
ami |i,,lili. ill in.liliiliiiii ~ till' |iii|iiliial lia^illr 
, . , I , , . - - ,, ■ "I till' i.illiiiii.. I.alin lalili'ii.. Tin. nri .1,1, m.v 

-i'li.' ^^''^-'^'y %:■""■ I '" tin- III" r, I!.,. I„ l.„i,-,-,| „,i.,i,iallv. a, i-nnlin:: f tlm miii, i-al 

11 • "1",^' ,'■'"■.'■ ■"'"I 'lull, iilly 11. ,!. I, 11,11,1,-. iiiiliin »li.,„. l,„i„i,|, lav III,. iii..,.|i„L. |,la,.,' „f 
111 » " , il'i.l 111,, nil, r,. -Is (...iiii.-, 1, .1 nitl: ihr .I. 1 ■■-■ : ., ■ ■ ., I 

•i-li'in. anil the fur 1 r,,,li, in ih,. ii.,i,i, u, ,1 

ALASKA: A. D. 1867. -Purchase by the 

United States. — As earli a. l^-,",',! ii,, r,. u, 1,. iin 

"ll • I li ' iiiiiniii. ili.iii. lii-l'.i, . 11 111,' liii — i 111 ,in,| 
.\ii,. 1:1,111 :;iii, linn. HI., ,,|, il,,. „i,|ii,.,i ,,i' n,. 

ll. 1, .llim . ill llii. ia.,'il i\:i. Ill, 1,1111,111 ,if 
.\'''ii . • . Till' riiiiiiniiiiiiir. iiiiiil, ,| 1,1 piirliii 

u , I ,1;^..,, I . ■ . . ' " ,, .1 ,, ' I . ill . n I 

M r 1, IM •- .' , '"■ "■ ""' ""'"-'"' '" 1' '■• ill '!'■■ 1' i-'iii' «.'■■'• ill till- 111 i;inniiiL' iliirtv, 

i.'ri ,?'i '11 l',''-'''"'''"'''' ''"''''' "''''i''' 'l'li"i'n'li/i,,iis ,,l ilii. iii,i„i, „a. liki 111,' 

in-' -n aiiV „ I'hi .'.'u r:!''',' """'■|"T "' ^^ ~''i '■""'■""'i^' ^'"'1 ll"- l'.i'ii""i^' ■■^'"•■"■■: >l" ^iiniiiir 

!h. ."'!,'. '".".'.' -'•':•' 'l'^l;i""illi III- 111-' i^'.l ...iil,,l,iai'ii'.,,f 111,. (In-vks. t:.i. • Latin li.iiM.r 

[,,,,■ " ".-'"i ".-.: '';"': "■'■i"l '.- ^i"- u'lii- Laiinaial uliiili, i.ii III,- .Mmmt ,,| Alhit, 

IriM.I, iii.a; . iv-iil, of ?T,2(J().0(MI, i,ii,,,ii,liii,,u iip,.i, a,la 

lipi'li a il.iv allllllally appi, lllllll liy llii' i lii,.f 


nia^ristnitf* fi>i tin' purpnsr. an ox was offiTcii iri 
9:lililii'c hy the Mssi-lillilrd Latin ~Ii>ck ti> lln' 
'Latin L'"il ' ('Lipilir Latiiirisi. "— T. .MoiniiiH'n. 

Ili>l. .■111;,,,,. hk\ \. ,-h. ■■', 

Ai.-ii IN Sir \V. (icll, y:./*"/. ff H'lim; r. 1. 
ALBA DE rORMES, Battle of. See 
.SI'ajn; a I), l^illl (.\i (a M— Niivi,Miil:u). 
ALBAIS, The. s, ,. Ami^iiik \s AiinitKii- 

Nt>; l'»Mi'\> Tlilll" 

ALBAN, Kingdom of. Sii' .Vi.dion; also, 

.N (ITHSn: Hlll-llni I'l.N I IIIIKS. 

ALBANl, The. Sic Hhitms, Tuiuks ok 
Cki.ik . 
ALBANIANS: Ancient. Sci' Ki-iKi s and 


Medizval. — ' rnin tlic scltli'mi nt of the 
S(T\ ian Scla\'oniali- v\itliin the Imiiiuls of tin: 
inii'irc [iliiririj: till' niirii of llrrai liiis. tir-.t lialf 
of till- sivi-nih <'cntur\ |, Wf ni:i\ . . . \i-nliirrln 
'iatc tin* rarlicst rinToarlniuiit.-. of tlii' Illyrian or 
Alhanian race on ttic llrlli-nir population. Tin' 
All>ani;iiis or .\riianta. who an* now callril liv 
llii insilvi < ^ikiplar3, art' siipposiil to lio remains 
of the ^Teat Tlirarian rare \\ liirh, nniler varions 
nainrs. anil more parti<-tilarly as Paionians, 
Kpirolsanil Maceilonians. take an important part 
in lurly (irerian hi'^tory. No(li^lim■t traceof the 
pi rioil nt whieh they liepin to he t'o-i>roprietors 
of (Jreece with the Ilellenie nioe can be founil 
in hi'itory. ... It seems very ilitllenlt to traee 
tiai'k the history of llie (Jieek nation without 
sn-pi-f linij that the ^erms of their miHleni i'on- 
iliiioji. like those of their neiirhhours. are to lie 
souirlit in the i~ini.Milar events whieh oeeurreil in 
the riiL'iiof lleraeliiis." — (J. Kinlav, ih;,ce I'litlir 
th, Itnii^iii^. eh. 4. »n-t. B. 

A. D. 1443-1467.— Scanderbeg's War with 
the Turks.— ".lolm Casiriot, I.unl of Kmal- 
Iliia I the nindern ilistriet of Moiihlene) (in 
Kpirus or .Mlianiii] hail submitteil, like the 
litlii r petty ihspois of thoseri'ijions, to .-Vmurath 
early in his reiiin, anil hail plai cil his fmir sons 
in tile Suit.-in's hands as hostaL'es for his tidelity, 
Tliree of them died yonnir. The fourth, whose 
name was (ieorL'e. pleased the Snitan liy his 
hiaiity, streiiL'lh rmiI intellifienee. Ainunth 
caused him to he hroUi^ht up in the Mahometan 
creed; .and, when he was only ei;;hleen, eon- 
ferriii on him the ijovernment of one of the 
Sanjaks of the einjiire. The youm; Albania]! 
pidviil his eonraj:e and skill in many pxploils 
uiiiliT .Vmnralh's eye. and reeeiMil from him the 
name of IskanderU'L'. the lord Alexander. 
When .lohn t'astriot died. Amnnth took pos- 
session of his prineipalitieH imd kept the son cou- 
si.mtly employed in distant wars, Seanderhe;; 
hroodi d over this injury ; aiel when the Turkish 
armiis were routed hy ll.uyades in the cam- 
paiL'ii 'if \\V-\, Seanilerbeu' a-termined to eseajie 
from their .side and assume toreihle i>iissess:on of 
Ills patrimony, lie suddenly entered the tent 
of Ilie Sullan's ehief secretary, and forced that 
fnnclionary, uilii fli.' poniard al his tiiroat, to 
wrilc and seal a funual order to the Turkish 
comnianilcr of the strong city of t'roia, in 
.\lliania. to ih IIm r lliat placi' and the adjacent 
territory to Si aU'lcrhcL'. as the Sultan's viierov. 
lie then stalibed the secretary and hastened "to 
(niia. where his stralti.'ein trained him instant, 
admitlance and sulanission. He now puliliciv 
alijundlhe Mahoniilan faith, and declared his 
inli niion of difindin:.' the creed of his f.irc- 

i:r!r Ts, are! r"s'..rc;" mi'- if:'ie;»!-tli!c::ce fi' ijis 


native land. The Christian population florked 
readily to his banner and the Turks were nias. 
sacreil without mercy. For nearly twentvlive 
years ScaiiderlM;; contended anainst all the 
powerof till' tMI'inans. thim^di directed by the 
skill of .Vinnra^ and his succes.sor .Mahomet, 
the eonipieror ot Consta ititiople." — Sir K. S. 
( reasy, Hht. <;!' th, (>tt<nii,ln 7'iiriH. r/i. 4 — 
" Scaiiilerbei; died a fugitive at Lissiis on tin 
Venetian territory I A. D.' l4tiT|. His scpulchir 
was siHin violated by the Turkish coni(iierors. 
but the jani/iiries. wiio wore his liones cnchaseil 
in a bnicel't. neclarid by this superstitions 
amulet their involuntary reveri'nee for liia 
valour. , . . His infant son was sJived from the 
national shipwreck; the (u.striots were invested 
with a Neapolitan dukedoni, and their bliHHl 
continues to How in the noblest families of the 
realm. " — K. (.TiblKin, Ikcline and Full of fft^ 
Jit'tiitin Kiiii>irt\ i-lt. 67. 

Also IS .V. Ijimarliiie, IlintnfTurkry, bk. 11, 

A. O. 1694-1696.— Conquests br the Vene- 
tians. See 1 1 iiKs: A. I). Ui8+-lB!)t>. 

ALBANY, N. Y. : A. D. 1623.— The first 

Settlement. — In llil-l, the year after the first 
Dutch traders had established their opentions on 
Manhattan Island, they built a trading lunise, 
whii h they called Fort Nassau, on Castle Island, 
in the Hudson Hiver, a little 1« low the site of 
the presinl lity of Albany. Three years later 
this small fort was carried away by a flood and 
the island abandoned. In 1(>;.'3 a more impoltunt 
fortilicatioii, named Fort Orange, w as eretted on 
the site afterwards covered by the business part 
of Albany. That year, "ulioiit eighteen families 
sett led thenisehcs al Fort Orange, under Adriaeu 
.loris, who 'staid with them all winter,' after 
sending his ship home to Holland in charge of his 
son. As siKiii as the colonists had built them- 
selves ' some huts of bark' around the fort, the 
Mahikanders or Hiver Indians [.Mohegnns], the 
Mohawk.s, the Oneidas, the Ononilagas, the 
Cayngas, and the Seiiecas, with the .Mahawawa 
or Oltawaw a Indians, 'cameand made covenants 
of friendship . . . and desired that they might 
come and have a constant free trade with them, 
which wascimclndeil nimn. ' "— .1. K. HriKlhead, 
Hint, .if the Slut,- of .\. J'., r. 1. pp. 5.> and 1,11. 

A. b. 1630. — Embraced in the land-purchase 
of Patroon Van Rensselaer. See New Yoiik; 
A. I). 1(W1-1(!1«. 

A. D. 1664.— Occupied and named by the 
English. SeeNKwViinK: A. 1). ltl«4. 

A. D. 1673. — Again occupied by the Dutch. 
See Ni;w Vuuk; .\. 1). 107:t 

A. D. 1754. — "^^^ Colonial Congress and its 
plans of Union. .See I nitki) St.vtks of Am. ■ 
A. 1). i:-i4 , 

ROAD OPENING. .See Sri;.\.M Lim dmotio.s 

ON l.VNI). 


Vokk: .\. I>. isj:i, 

ALBEMARLE, The Ram, and her de- 
struction. .Ve Initkii Staikh Oh' .Vm. : .V. 1). 
lH(i4 (Ai'Uii. — :Mav: Nimrii, and 
iil(Tom:u; N". Cahoi.ina) 

ALBERONI, Cardinal, The Spanish Min- 
istry of. See Spain; A. 1' 17i;i-17J."i, anu; A. i). ITl.'i \-:','>. 



AL3ERT, King of Sweden, A. I). 1363-1388. 
..Albert, Elector of Brandenburg, A. I>. 
i47i>-l4Htl . . Albert I., Duke of Auttria and 
Kineof Germany, A. I> liHH-i;i(w Albert 

ii., "buke of Austria, King of Hungary and 
A. 1». 14aH-1440. 

Bohemia, A. I). 1437-1440; King of Germany, 

ALBERTA, The District of. S(r Noiirii- 
wf>T Tkkuitiihikh DC ('.*N.H>.\. 

ALBICI, The.— A (iuUic trilK' which ocni- 
|>ii'it tliv hills uhovc Mussiliit (MHrsclllcs) iiiiil 
who lire d(siTilK'<l as a savitjfc [xnplc oven in 
Ihc liini' of (ii'Siir. when they hclpiil Ihc .Mas.sil- 
iots In (h'fiiiil their city iiii.iinsi him. — (J. l-oii).', 
Ihdiiii' "f tin' l{'nintn Utiitf/fh'r. r. .'», rfi. 4. 

— ■ Nothiii>; is inore curimis in Christian history 
tliiiu the vitality of the Maniehean opinions. 
That wild, half "poetic, half rationalistic theory 
cif Christianity, . . . appears almost suddenly 
in the 12th century, in living;, almost irresist- 
ihle power, first in its iiiternicdiate settlement 
in Uvilyaria, and on the borders of the Greek 
Knipire. then in Italy, iu France, in Ger- 
many, in the remoter tVest, at the foot of the 
I'jrenees. . , . The chief sent of these opinions 
was the south of Kmncc. Innocent III., on his 
accession, found not only these daring insur- 
gents scattered in the cities of Italy, even, as it 
were, at his own gates (among his first acts 
was to sulnlue the Paterines of Vitcrbo), he 
found a whole province, a realm, in some re- 
siH'cts the ri<-hest and noblest of his spiritual do- 
main, absolutely dissevered fnim his Empire, 
in almost universal revolt from Latin Christian- 
ity. ... In no [other] European country had 
the clerKy so entirely, or it shouhl seem so de- 
sirveilly, "forfeited its authority. In none had 
the Church more absolutelv ceased to perforin 
its propir functions." — II. ll. Jlilman. JIM. if 
I.'itiii Vhrittianity, bk. 9, eh. 8. — "By mere 
chance, the sects 8catt<'red in South France 
ri'ceived the common name of Albigcnscs, from 
I rie of the districts where the agents of the 
( liurch who came to combat them found them 
mostly to almund, — the district around the 
tinn of Alba, or Alby; and by this comnam 
name they were well known from thecommence- 
nutil of the thirteenth lentury. Under this 
■rtiiral denomination parties of ililTerent tenets 
\\irc (i)mprehended together, but the Catharists 
-rein to have otnstituted a predominant element 
:iiii"ng the people thus designated." — A. Nean- 
'liT, ilrii. Ilht. of the Ghii^liiin 11,1. ami Cli.. 
■|f/i /»/-., dir. i. furt. 4, jit. 3. — "Of the sci'taries 
«ho shared the errors of Gnosticism ami .Mani- 
iliuisiu and opposi'd the Catholic Church and 
ii' r hierarchy, the .\lliigcns<'s were the most 
tli'iniiinh and radical. Their errors wire, in- 
'I'ld. partly Gnostic and partly .Manicha'aii. 
Ii'it Ilir latter was the more prominent and 
hilly developed. They rcicivcd their name 
from a district of Languedis-. inhaliitcd by the 
Alliipois and surrounding the town of Allii. 
Ihi y are called Cathari and I'atarini in the acts 
'f the Council of Tours (.\. 1). 110:!), and in 
ilioscof the third Lateraii, I'ubliciani li. e.. Pauli- 
' i iTiii Like the Cathari, Ihcv also held that the 
' ■• il spirit created all visible Ihinns." — .1. Alzog, 
IA'/,,„,i ,f (■/!(>. f'li. J/M.. ik-ri.iil 2. ./•«■/, ',>, 
;' !, rh. H. xl-rl , S:ift — " Th" ininnniti-ms of 

irreligion, heresy, and shameless debauchery, 
which have been cast with so nuieh bittterness 
on the Albigenses by their persi-eulors. and 
which have been so zealously denied by their 
apologists, are probably not ill founded, if the 
word Albigenses be employed as synonymous 
with the Words I'roveiii,aux or Languedocians; 
for they were apparently a race among whom 
the hallowed charities of domestic life, and the 
reverence due to divine ordinances and ttie hom- 
age tlut^ to divine truth, were often impaired, 
and ni>t seldom e.\tingui.s|ieil. by ribald jests, by 
inliilel scotllngs. and by heart hardeiiiiig impiiri- 
ties. Like other voluptuaries, the I'rovcni.aux 
(as their remaining literature attests) were ai - 
euslonied to tind matter for nierriment in vices 
which wouM have moved wise men to tears. 
But if by the word Albigenses be meant the 
Vaudois. or those followers (or a.s.sociates) ol 
Peter Waldo w ho revived the doctrines against 
w hich the Church of Home directed her censures, 
then the accusation of dis.soIuteiiess of manners 
may be safely njeeted as altogether calumnious, 
anil the charge of heresy may be considered, if 
not as entirely unfounded, yi t as a cruel and 
injurious exaggeration. "—Sir J. .Stephen, //tr/*. 
VII the Uiat, of Fninrf, hct. T. 

Also IN L. .Mariolti. Frd D'llfuui and hit 
Tiinin. — See., Ptiutifiitnii, iiiitl i 'iitharintn. 

A. D. 1200. — The First Crusade. — I'ope 
" Innocent III., in organizing the j>ersecution of 
the Catharins [or Cathurists], the I'atarins, and 
the I'auvres de Lyons, c.xereisi'd a spirit, and 
displayed a genius similar to tlios<' which had 
already elevated him to almost universal domin- 
ion; which had enabled him to dictate at once to 
Italy and to Germany; to control the kings of 
France, of Spain, and of Kngland; to overthrow 
till' Greek Empire, and tii substitute in its stead 
a I-itin dynasty at Constantinople. In tlu! zeal 
of the Cistercian Order, and of their Abbot, 
Amaud Amalric; in the liery and unwearied 
preaching of the lirst Imiuisitor. the Spanish 
Mis.sionary. Dominic; in the remorseless activity 
of Foulqiict, Bishop of Toulouse; and above all. 
in th(^ strong and unpitying arm of Simon de 
Slontfort. ijirl of Ixiccster. IniuHcnt found ready 
instruments lor his purpose. Thus aided, he ex- 
communicated Uaynioiid of Tuuloiisc [A. I). 
liOT], as Chief of the Heretics, and he promised 
remission of sins, and all the privileges which 
had hitherto been exclusively conferred on ad- 
venturers in Palestine, to the champions who 
should enroll themselves as Crusaders in the far 
more easy cnterjirise of a llulv War against the 
Albiirenscs. In the first invasionof his territories 
[A. i). lill'Jl. Haynioiid VI. gave way before the 
Irrrors excileil by the yiKI.IMH) fanatics who pn- 
ciiiilatcd tlicmselvis on Languedoc; and loudly 
declaring his personal freedom from heresy, he 
surrendered liisi liief castles, underwent a humili- 
ating i>enancc, and took the cross against his own 
siibjcits. The brave resi.stance of his nephew 
Uaymond IJo.L'cr, Viscoiiniof Bezii're.s, deserved 
but. did not oiiiain success. When the crusaders 
surrounded his whith wasoccupicil by ii 
mixed populalion of the two Ueliirions. a qucs 
tiiiii w as rais<'d the approaciiiiigsack, the 
Catholics should be distingtiishi'd from the 11, re- 
ties. ' Kill them all.' was the ferocious reply of 
.\ni;ilrie; 'the l.oril will easily know Ills own.* 
Ill compliance wilh this ailvirc. not one human 
\\m:Z within >},. w:ill- w i-^ ji, ri;;i^!ii! t^i^urvjve; 




anil the tnli- of sliiuL'lilcT Iiiis Iwcn viirioiisly 
estiniiitcd, hv tlmsc wiin linvr pcrhiips i-Xiiiru'cr- 
ati-il till' iiuinlicis. al tioixin. liiil I'viii in the- cx- 
H'liiiatiiii; (li-*p:ili li. whicli till' .Vl>lwit hinisclf 
addri-sscd Id tin- I'o|m'. at net fiwir than in.diNI. 
UayTninitl UnL'ir was nut im Midiil in tiiis fcarlnl 
inas-uicic, and 1h' n pnlsi'd two altailix upoti Car- 
(•a>.siinnc, liifciir a liiac l)(Tnns lircacli of fallli 
placed liini at tlie di-povil of de Muntf.irl, liy 
wlioiii lie was poi>oTied atpr n shuii iinpriscm- 
nient. Tlie iiMnoval ol' tliat yoiiiii.' and irallant 
Prime was iiideid nuisi inipuriant to tlie nlteiior 
priijeel iif his lapiur. who aimed al |«Tiiianeiit 
estalilisliininl in tin- Smiih. The family of de 
Mimtlort had ranked anion:; the noliles of Fraiire 
for more tliaii two e. otiirie-.; and it is traced hy 
some writers thri>nL'li an illei'ltiniatu chanm 1 
even to the lliroiie: hnt the povscssiuns of Simon 
himself Hcreseantv; iieces-ily liad compelled 
liim to sell the Coiinlv of Kvreiix to Philippe 
Anu'nsle; ami the Knilisli Karldom of I.cieesier 
whicli he inherileil malcrnally. and Ihi' I.orcMiip 
of a Caslle alioul ten leaL.'iMs distant fr.>ni I'aris. 
formed the whole of his revenues.'— E. Smedley, 
Hint. I'f l-'rum-i. ,h. 4. 

Ai.s'o IN .1. C. I. de Sismondi, Ihit. of the 
'■ru-.„l,^ ,(,,-yl tl.r M!,i\:„.s,.i. rh. l.-II. II. .Mil- 
mall, //-v. ..;■ /.■"/" dnlslni:,!!:!. U: it, i-A. H.— 
.1. AlZOL'. .lA///. "f I',! CI.;,;-!, Ih'st.. /,• ri;./ 
•>. ,/»..■/. ■.!, I't. 1. (•'/. ;t.— See, also, iNlirislTION; 

.V 1>. lin:!-l-.'.'.-i 
A. D. 1210-1213.— The Second Crusade. — 

••The cMM.iue-l ol ihe Vi-c [.unty of IJ.viers had 
r.-ithcr inlLiiiied than saii.iii-.l tlie iiipidny of De 
.Montforl and llie fauatiei>m of .\iii:drie |I.;:aIe 
of the I'op' 1 -11"' "> ""' in";ilis of Ciliau.x. 
U;iyiiiond, Coiinl of Toulouse, slid possessed Iho 
fairesi pari of^rucdoe. and was still aus- 
peeled "1- a( 1 ii-e 1 of aiTordinir slieller, if not 
i(iiinliMi,iiiee, to his heretical silijcd^. . . . Th_« 
unhappy i!.i\ iiioiid was . . . a-ain escominiiiii- 
caled from liie ( lirisiiaii Church, and his domin- 
ions olTi red as a rewaril to the 1 liampions who 
should execute Iter sentence iiL'aiii-t him. To 
tarn thai rewaid De .Montlori. al Ihe lica.l of 11 
new host of Criisadci-.s, aitractcd by the promise 
of earthly spoils and of hcivenly lihs.scdncss, 
once iiiore marched through the devoted land 
l.\. D. I'.'iul. and with hiiii advanced .Vinalric. 
At each successive conrpicst, slaiiglitcr, rapine, 
and woessuch .is in.iy not he desirihed tracked 
and pollulci their steps. Ilcrelies, or those sus- 
pected of hi'icsv, wliercver they were fimnd, 
wire coiiipi lied liy the h-.itc to ascend vast jiilcs 
of liurninL.' laL'ots! . . Al leiiL'th the Cnisadera 
reached .and l.iidsicL'etotheciiyofToulouse. . . . 
Tl.rowin- liiiii-f If into the place, Riyniond . , . 
succeeded in n piiKin;: Dc .Month, rt and Amal- 
ric. It was. however, hul a temporary respite, 
.and Ihe prelude to a fearful dcstrnclioii. Krom 
I'cyond the I'yreiice., .it the head of l.iiiMI 
kniLdits, I'edrii'of .\rra:;on had marched to the 
re-^cue of liiymoiid. his kinsman, and of the 
(oiinls of Koix and ol Cominiin;es, and of the 
Viscoinil of jh'aiii. his va^viU: and lleir united 
forces came iiiio 1 omniunie:.iion with eai h oilier 
al Murel, a liille town whiih is ahout tlueu 
leaL'iies distant from roulouse. There, also, on 
the 1-,'iliof Si'ptemher |A. D. \i\-',\. at the head 
of the chanipioiis of Ihe Cross, .iiid atiended hy 
seven hishops, appeared Simon ih Moiithnt in 
full military ariav. The hattle whii h followed 
was lierce. short and decisive. . . . I)on Pedro 

was ininibered with the slain. His army, de 
prived of his eonimand. broke and dispersed, 
and the whole of the infantry of Uayinoml and 
his allies were either put to the sword, or swept 
iiw.iy hy the current of the Oaroiine. Toiilou-e 
immediately surreniiercd, and Ihe whole of the 
ilominions "of Ifciynnmd siibmitteil to the eon- 
(|Ueriir.s. At a council siihseiiuently held at 
.Monlpellier, composed of live archhisliops and 
twenly-eiirl't hishops. De Montfort was uiiani- 
iiiouslV acknowleduii'il as prince of the tief and 
city of Tonlouve, and of the other eounties con- 
quered hv Ihe Crusaders under his command." — 
Sir .1. Sieplien, /.k-I'h oil the V//.i(. (/ l-'niiicc, 
t,rt. 7. 

Also in .1. C. I., ile Sismondi, J[i>t. of Cnwvlcii 
ir'/'.-l ihi Al'n'i, ii»i.'<. eh. 'i. 

A. D. 1217-1229.— The Renewed Crusades. 
— Dissolution of the County of Toulouse. — 
Pacification of Languedoc.—" The cruel spirit 
of De. Montfort would not allow him to rest 
quiet in his new Empire. Violence and perse- 
cution marked his rule; he soiiiiht to destroy the 
Provencal population hy the sword or the stake, 
norciiuid he hriim himself to tolerate the lihir- 
tics of the cili/eiis of Toulouse. In I'.'l" the 
Toulou>aiis iiirain revolted, and war once more 
broke out betwixt Coimt Itavmond and Simon 
ill' Montfort. The lalter fornied Ihe sieu'c of Ihe 
capital, and cnL;i'_'cd in rcpdlinu' a sally, 
wh.nii stone fr.'in one of the w.ills si ruck him 

and put an end to his i \isn ncc \maury 

de M.intforl, s..n of Simon. olVcrcd to cede to the 
kiiiLT all his rii^iils in l.aiiu'uedoc, -.\ljiih he was 
unable to dell lid a'.'aiii^l Ihe old liouse of Tou- 
louse. Philip |.\ui,'iislu-.| hoiialed ti> adept 
the importani cosion, and hit the rival houses 
to theconlinuanceof a struL'u'le carried hctily .m 
bv either sine. ' Kiiii: i'lihip died in \ti'-i and 
w'as succeeded by a son, l.oiiis VIII.. who had 
none of his father's reliiclaiice to join in the 
;:ia-i)inir persecution of the unforliinale people 
of the south. Aiiiaury de .MonUort had been 
fairly driven out ot old Simon de Moiith.rt's con- 
ipiists, and he now sold them to Kiiiu' I.ouis for 
the ollice of consi.ihle of I-'ianee. "A new cru- 
sade was preached aLTain^i the .\lhiL'eii-es; and 
I.ouis marchtsi towards at the head 
of a formidahle army in the sprini; of the year 
Vim. The town of .VviL'iion had proferrid to 
the crusaders the facilities of cro-siii!.' the Uhoiie 
under her walls, hnt refused entry within them 
to such a host. I.ouis havins.' arrived at Avig- 
non, insisted on iiassini; llirouiih the town: llie 
.Vviiinoiiais shut their ).'alcs, and detied the mon- 
arch, who instantly formed the sie,:;e. One of 
the rich municipalities of the .south w:is almost \t 
match for the kinir of France, lie was ke|U three 
months under its w:ills; his army a jircy to fam- 
ine, to disease and to the assaults of a brave garri- 
son. The crus:iilers lost 'JD.IKH) men. The ]ieopie 
of .\viL'non al leiurUi suhmittcd. but on no dis- 
honouialile terms. This was the only resistance 
that I.oiiis expi rieiiced in l.aiiL'uedoc. . . . AU 
sijlimilled. I.ouis rclired from his facile con- 
quer : he himself, and the c liels of his army 
^iricken by a;i epiilciiiy which li;id prevailed in 
the eoiKpiered regions. The moniireh's feeltle 
frame could not resi>it it; he expired at Miiiitpen- 
sier, in .Vuvergne. in Novemher. I'i'^O." I.ouis 
N'lII. was sncceeded by his yoiiiur son, I.ouis 
IX. iSaiiit I.oiiisi. then a boy. under the reiieney 
of ills ellemetic and i-Hpitiile liiolhcl. iiialiciii oa 




CiistiU'. "Till' tcrminaiiciii of till' war witli tlio 
Alliii-'cnscs, anil the pacilKulioii, cir it niij;lit lie 
lallnl 111!' ncc(iiisitii)ri, ipf LahiriU'iliic. was tlii' 
rliicf act (if liui'cii lllaiu'lii's rc'L'iiii-y. l.nuis 
VIII. Iiad overrun tin.' ctnintry wiiliout rcsistanci' 
in his last canipai^Mi ; still, at liis ilcpartnrc, Kay- 
iMiinil VI. again ap|ii-ari(l. cnllii led suldii rs ami 
<'nnlinur(l to strni:;:l<' airainst tlu' nual lictitcn- 
!int. For npwartl of two \cars lie niaintaiMcil 
hiinsflf; the attrnlion of Hlancho lirinir oeciipictl 
liythe liairiu- of Ilu' liarons n;;aiiist lii-r. The 
siiiccs^es of Kaynionil VII., aecoinp.'inied hy 
crnillies, awakened tlut viiidiilive zeal of the 
pope.^uedoc was tlirealent'd with an<itli( r 
<rii-.ud('; Raymond was willini; to treat, ami 
make eoM-ideralilt ce^-ions. in order to avoid 
siii h I xtremilies. In April. l',''0!t, a treaty was 
.■-ijiKil: in it the HlMiIs of I)e .Morillort were 
parsed over. Ahonl two-thirds of the domains 
of the eonnt of Tonlonse wi're ceded to the kin'_' 
cif rianee; the remainder wa', to fall, afler 
ItavMioiid's death, to Iiis dani:hier .le.-inne, who 
hy the s:ime treaty w.-ts to marry one of t!ie royal 
piintfs: heirs faiiin.i; them, it was to revert to 
the erown |whieh it did in 1J71]. On tlieM- 
ti Tins, with the linmilialhn; a'Mition of ii iiiihlie 
li'Mamc. Uaymund \'II. oni-e nion.' was all'>\\i*d 
p( aet aMe )io^se>sion of Toulon^e, and of the 
part of his domains n .served to him. Alphnnv, 

hroilirr of I is IX., m.arrieil .liainie of Tcju. 

Iciiisi' soon afler, and look the title of luant. of 
Pni:ieis; III, a pro\irae heinir cded to hiru in 
a[':inaL:i' Uoliert, aiio'her hroiher, was neide 
eoiHit of .\rtois at the same time. I.ouis hinis* If 
niaiiird Mar::aret,tlieeld<>tdau'_'hlerof liavnemd 
litiiuijiT. eonnt of I'rovenee." — K. K. ('rtiwe. 
II,''. -f rr.n..;'. :: 1, ,•/,. -J-:).— "The ..orUL'L'l- 
; a I'll in a vast increase of the power of the Fi. mil 
I rouii, at the espeiise alik<' of the house of Tou- 
louse and of the house of Arai-'on. Tlie doniin- 
iiins of Ilie 1 oiint (»f Toidousi- were ili\ide.l. .V 
iiumlierof llefs. r.eziers, N'.arlionne. Niim s, Alhi. 
and some other ilislriets were at onee anne.\ed to 
the eroun. The eiipiial itself and its eoinity 
passed to tlie erowH lifty ye.irs latir . . . The 
name of Toulouse. <'\eept as the nann' of the 
lily itself, novv passed away, and the new ai - 
ipii-itious of France came in I he end to Ih' known 
In liie name of the Ioiil'I. ■ which was common 
to iliem with Aipiitaiiie and Imperial liiirirumly 
|l'rovenee|. liider the name of Lanirueiloc 
they liecame one of tlu' irn-atest and most valii- 
ahlc- provinces of the French kinoloni." — E. A. 
Fn email. ///.«/. '>'/".'/. nf Knroin. rh. !(. 

The brutality and destructiveness of the 
Crusades.— •' The Church of the .Mhiijenses 
had lucn drowneil in IiKmkI. These supposed 
hen lies had heen swept uway from the soil of 
France. The rest of the I..Hngueiio( iaii people 
hid Ihcii overwhelmed with cahimity, slaiiL'hter, 
and di vasiaiion. The estimates transmitted to 
lis of il,e numliers of the invaders and of the 
slain are such as almost surpas.s iHlief. We can 
niiiher verify nor correct them; lint we cer- 
t.iiiily know that, durim; a loin; succession of 
vcars. I.aniruediK' had Im-cii invaded by armies 
lii^re numerous than had ever liefore liecu 
hiouLTlit loiretlier in European warfare since 
'he lall of the lioinan oni|iire. We know that 
tiiisi. liiists Were eoiiipii«i'd of men intlamed liy 
hii-MI I valid unrestrained liy discipline; that they 
hid laither military pay' nor iimcraziucs; that 
iia.i jiruviiied lor all tlieir wants hv the sword, 

living at the expense of the country, and seizing 
at till ir pleasure iHith the harvests of the peas 
ants and the iiierch.indise of the citizens, .'lore 
than three fourths of the landed proprietors hail 
lieeu despoiUiI of their thfs and casth'S. lu 
liiinilreds of villaL'es, every inhnliitant had been 
massacred. . . . ."since the sack of Jtome hy the 
Vandals, the European world had never mourned 
over a national disaster so w ide in its extent or 
so fearful in its character." — Sir .1. Stephen, 
lACts. on tin: Hid. iif fi'in,r,, lift. 7. 

ALBION. — "Tile most amiiiit name known 
to have heen given to this island |liritaiii| is 
that of Alhion. . . . There is, however, annlhiT 
allusion to Hritaiii which seems to r;nry lis iniicli 
further hack, though it has iisu;illy hi en ill 
undei-slooil. It iK-cursin the story of the I.ihoiirs 
of Uercnles, who, after sienrinir the tows of 
*icr,\on, comes from Sp.aiii to Li^niria, where he 
is alt;ieked liy two giants, whom he kills before 
making his way to Italy. Now, according to 
I'oinponius Mela, the names of the giants were 
Alhiona and Uer,L'"yoii, which one may, without 
much lii'sit:ition, fesiorc to the forms' of .\lhion 
aril IlH'rion, reiireseiiling, tinilouhii illy, liril.iin 
and Ireland, the iiosition of which in the sea 
is most appropriately symholizcd hy the storv 
making tie in sons of Neiiiuneor tiie sc;i-god, 
. . . Kveu in the time of I'liiiv, .\lliinn, as the 
n.ime of the islaed. had f.ilh u out of use with 
l.aliii amhors; hut not so wiih the Grcks, or 
wiih the Cells tliemsi Ives, at anv Mte t -e of 
the (e.idrlic hranch; for tiny are'prcliahly riLlit 

Willi suppose tll.-ltWe ha\e hut the sallieword 

ill the Irish and Scoti h (ialie Alia, tieiiiiive 

-Mhaii. the kiic-doiii of Alliaii orSio;laiid h,y 1 

the Forih. Alhion would he a form of the name 
according to the lirythonie i..n of it, 
. . . It wouM thus -ippoar th, It the nunc Albion 
is one that has relic aid to a corner of ihe island, 
to the whole of which it once aiiplicl.' — .1. 
Khvs, Cli;.- lliit.iin. ,-h. (i. IN F. C'lcst. 0./v//e« i;it,r.i., ,-li. 1,_ 
See .Si oTI..\\ii: s I ll-'.M 11 < I.M I IIIKs. 

ALBIS, The.— The aneic nt naiiie of the river 

ALBOIN, King of the Lombards, A. I). 

DOR.— "The word alcalde is from the Arabic 
' al cadi.' the jnilL'e or governor. . . . Ali aicle 
mayor signities a .juduc. Ie;iriieil in the law, w ho 
I xcrcisis |in Spain] ordinary jiitisiliction. civil 
iiud criminal, in ;i town or district." In the 
Spanish <'oIonics the Alcalde mayor was the chief 
judge. "Irving iColuinbiis. ii. ;t;!li writes er- 
roneously algiiazil mayor, evideiiily < cinfoundiiig 

the two ollices Vn aliTiiacil iiia\or. was a 

i-hief constable or high sherilT." " CorreL'iilor, 
a magistiiite having' civil ;inil criminal jurisdic- 
tion in the lirst instance ( 'nisi prius ' ) and gub- 
iTn.itorial inspeclion in the poliiic:il and eco. 
noniicil go\ernineiil ill all the tow lis of till district 
assigned to him,"— II. H. liancicifl, Jlixl. „r t/ie 
/'c(.-//iV .V„/,.v, r. 1, /./c. v'ilT ,/,,r/u'.")n. I.^.l-lint,',, 

ALCANIZ, Battle of. .s , SrAi.N; A. D. 
ismti (FKiiiiiMiv- .Iim;i 

ALCANTARA, Battle of the (1580). Sec 
roiirrcm,; A II iriTli-irisii. 

ALCANTARA, Knights of. -"Towards 
the ilose of Alfonso's riL'ii |Alfonso Vlll. of 
t'astik' and Leon, who called himself 'thehm- 



AXEMANNI, A. D. 259. 

peror,' A. I). ll','im."iT|, iiiiiy br Hssitftii'd tlii' 
orlifiu ■■! till' iiiililai> (iriii-r of Alciiiil.irii. Two 
(•av:ili(TS of;iiiiiiiii;i, iloii Siicro ami iluii 
(loiiKV.. Irltihut lily Willi till' ili>i)?u of clio,.-,. 
ini; iiriil fiiilil.\ Iml' >oiiie siroiii; imtiiral froiiliir. 
wiinin' tlicy I. mill not only iirri'st llif (ontiniial 
in^llr^io^s of Ilir Moors. Iiiit iimkc lioslili' irni|i- 
tions llii-riisilvi> into tlii' tcrritorii's of llir iTii>lii:- 
lievirs. I'nmiilini.' aloiii; tlir liuiiks of llif 
C'oalis tlii-y fi'U in with n lnTiiiit. .\inii-ilo liy 
11:11111'. who riiioiira|.'iil tliriii ill thiir patiiolio 
(li>i-'ii anil riioiuiiiiiiiliil tin- ini-'lilioiiriii;; her- 
niitaL'u of St. .luliaii us an rMilliiil siH' for a 
fortress. Ilavini; ixaniimil ami a|iproviil the 
siiiiation. thry appliiil to tlir l)islio|i of .^ahi- 
maniM tor prrniis>ion to oiiupy the piaic: that 
pi-niiis>ioii was rrailily irranlril; with his iissist- 
aiici'. ami that of tlii' hiriuit Aiiiamlo, the two 
cavaliiTscriTlril a la-th' aroiiml tlir hrrinilat:!'. 
Tiiey were now joimil by oihir iiolilis uiiil liy 
moil; ailvrnturiT^. all caLri-'r to an{iiiru faiiu' ami 
wialtli in this life, illory in the next. Heme the 
lounilatioD of an orh-r' wliieh, iiniler liie miiiie, 
lir,l, of .St. Julian, mid siiliseipiently of Alean- 
tjra, remlcreil jjooil service alike to kins; ami 
I liureh."— S. .V. I>iinliani. Ili^l. "f SjHiiii itml 
l'a-lii'lill,hk-. :t. xW. •-', -•//. 1. tlir. -i 

Battle of (1578 or 1579). .Sue .Maiioi m; TilE 
.\uMi ('i)N4n:sr .\mj Simk. 

ALCIBIADES, The career of. See 

( H. t'. 431-llH. ami 411-407; ami 
.Vthkss. B r. 41.->. 11ml 413-111. 

ALCLYDE.— Uhyilih nil, u Cuinlirian prince 
of the sixth ccnlnry who was the victor in a 
civil conllict, " lixeil'his heailiiiiarters on a rock 
ill the Clyile. calleil in the Welsh Aleliiil ||ire- 
viou>-lv a Itonian town known us Theoilosia], 
whence it was known to the Knjrlish for a time 
as Aldyile; Imt the (loiilels called it Diinhret- 
tan, orthe fortress of tlie lirytlions, which has 
prevailed in the sli'-'htly nUHliiicd form of Uuiii- 
harton. . . . .Vlelyile was more than once de- 
stroyed by the Northmen. "—J. Uhys, <\lti'- 
llritain. rii. 4. —See. also, ('t'Miiiti.\. 

ALCMiEONIDS, The curse and banish- 
ment of the. See Atiii;ns; 1{. C I)1'.!-."p!I">. 

ALCOLEA, Battle of (18681. See 
A. i). lsiJ«-ls7:i. 

ALDIE, Battle of. See Initki) ST.\ri.s ok 
A.M. : A. I). l^iW (.Irsi. — .It i.v: rh.VNsvi.- 

V.\M \V 

ALDINE PRESS, The. Sie ruiNriM; 
.VNI) nil; I'liKss: A. 1>. 14li',l-l.")l."i. 
ALEMANNIA: The Mediaeval Duchy. 

See (iKll.M.VNV: .V. D Ht:!-Uli-.' 

213. — Origin and first appearance.— " liulir 

.Viili'iiiiius, tile Son of Severus, a lieu and more 
severe war oiiee mnre I.v. 1". ','10 1 broke out in 
Uaelia. This al-o was wa.'id airai"-' the Chatti ; 
Iput by their side a mihihI peojile is iiameil, 
whicli we here meet for the lirst time — the 
.Vlamaniii. Whence tin y euiue. we known not. 
.VeeoMiiii; to a Itoni 111 uriiiiiu' a liille Inter, they 
were a eiilillux of lliixi'l . lements; t!ie a|ipella- 
tion also seems lo imiiit to ,1 !■ :i_'iie of < oiimiuiii- 
lies, as well as the fact .iflerw.inls, the 
dilfereiit trilMs loiiiprehcmli cl uiiihr this name 
siaiiil forth — more than i> the case aiuonir the 
other L'reat (oTinaiiie peoples — ill tin irseparati' 
I :. r, ;i:;il the .Iu:hui:;:i. i:;c I,i:i::e:isi s. and 
other Alatnaniiic peoples not .seldom act inde- 

pendently, lint that it is not the (Icrinans of 
tlii.^ retrion who here ciiicriie, allied umler t 
new name and stn ntrlheiud by the alliance, •.. 
shown as Well by Ihe iiamini' "of the .Vlanianni 
aloii;; side of the ( liaiti, as by Ihe mention of 
the unwonted sKilliilmss of the .Vlanianni lii 
ei|iiestrian combat. On the contrary, it was 
certainly, in the main, hordes cumin;: on from 
the Kast that lent new streiiu'tli to the almost 
extiiiijuialied Cm rman rc~i~l,iiice on the Hliine;it 
is not iniprobable that Ihe |io»i'rtiil Semnones. 
Id earlier times dwelliiii; on the middle Kibe, of 
wlioin there is no furlher im nlioii after the end 
of Ihe 81'conil century, fiiniishcd 11 strong; con- 
liimcnt to the Alainanni."— T. .Moinmseu, //('«<. 
ef Umiu; bk. H, <-/i. 4. — "The standard iiuotation 
ropectini; the derivation of the name from 
'id'— 'all ' and m-ii— 'man', so that the word 
(somewhat exeeptiiinalilyi denotes •men of all 
sorts.' is from Ai;atliia's, who inioles .Vsiniiis 
IJuailratiis. . . . Notwithstanding this, I think 
it i» an open (lucstion, whetlier the name may 
not have been a|iplie(l by the truer and more 
uneqiiiviKaHiermans of .Siiabia and Franconia, 
to certain hss dcliiiitely liermaiiic allies from 
WurtemlM r){ and Itadcn, — parts of the Decu- 
iiiates A!;ri — parts which may have supplied a 
(l.illic, a Gallo-1 Ionian, or even a Slavonic ele- 
ment to the confederacy ; in which case, a name 
.so ('lerman as to have driven the present French 
ami IlaUan name for {Jcrniany, may, orii;iiially, 
have applied to a population other than <;cr- 
manic 1 know the a|i|iareiitly paradoxical ele- 
niciits in this view ; but I also know that, in the 
wav of etyinolot'y, it is quite as safe to trans- 
late ' all ' by ' alii ' as by ' oimies ' : and I cannot 
help tlii:iki"n;r that the " al- ' in Ale-inanni is Ihe 
' al- ' in ■ alir-arto ' (a foreigner or man of another 
sort), 'eli-beuzo' (an alieiiK and 'aliland ' (cap- 
tivity iu foreign laud). — (iriiuin, ii. 6'JH.— l{ech 
sidterth, p. 'A'>9. And still more salislied am 1 
that the ■ al- ' in Al-cmanni is the ' al- ' in Al 
satia— ''el-s;'— 'ali .sat/. '— ' foreign settlemenl.' 
In other words. Ihe pntix in question is more 
probably the 'al'in ' cl-se ', than the 'al-'iii 
•all.' Little, however, of importance turns 
on this. The locality of the Aleraannl was tlie 
liarts about the Limes Uomanus. a boundary 
which, in the time of Alexander Severn -i, 
Niebuhr thinks they lirst broke tli.oui;h. Hence 
they were the Marehnieii of Ihe frontier, who 
ever those .Marchni"ii were, (llher such Mareh- 
nieii were the Suevi; unless, iiidied, we coii- 
siiler the two iiaincs as synonymous. Zeuss uil 
mils that, lutween the siievi of Siiabia. and the 
Alemaiiiii, i o tangible dilVercnce can be found." 

— Ii. (1. l-alhan. The dirmania "f Tiiritiix; 
i:i,ll,<l',m,r,i. .11. ■^ 11. 

.\ IN T. Smith, Annii'i'ii, pi. 2, ch, 1. — 
See, aKo, Si I'.vi. and Uw viii \.vs. 
A. D. 259.— Invasion of Gaul and Italy. 

— 'I'lic .Vlemauni, '•hoverin,!; on the frontiers 
of the Kiupire . . . iuTeased the general dis- 
order that ensued after the death of Decius. 
They inllicted severe wounds on the rich 
provinces of fiaiu; they were the lirst who 
removed the veil that coveri'd the f( eble iii.ijcsty 
of llaly. A numerous biKly of the Alemanni 
lieiniraled across the Danube and throu!;h the 
Ulietiaii .\lps into the plains of I.ombardy, ad- 
vanced as far as liavenna and displayed the vic- 
tori-ju? iiaimers of barba'iaiis h'nio-t in si^bt 
of Uome [.v. I). 2'>i)]. The insult ami the danger 


ALEMANM, A. 1>. 

ALKMANNl. A D. 547. 

nkindled in the scimU' some sparkt of their 
;iii(i*'iit virtiu*. llutli tlie Kiiiihtoi-h wen- t'H- 
;;:iL'i(l in di^hint wars — Viiliriun in llic 
K:ist .mil UulicnwH i»i the Kliini'. " The siiiatorx, 
Iioui'vrr, siicrt'cilcd in cnnfnintiiiu^ tlic nud.-irioUH 
itivatliTS with a fitrcc wiiich ( hn ki-ii tlu-ir ad- 
vatiri'. .-uiii tltcv •Tiiin-il into (tnrnanv laden 
nitli siioil."— iJ. (Jililii.n, IhrUiK ,inil l\'tU iif the 
11,11,1,11, r.iiii.irt, I'll. 1(1. 

A. D. 270.— Invasion of Italy.— Italy was 
in\:ifi'd !•>■ the .\li-nianni, fur tlii' second time, 
in thereiirnof Aurelinii, A. 1). 'JTO. Tiny r.iv- 
aL'i il the provinces Irnm the Daiiuhc to the Ho, 
and were retrcalirm. laden with spoils, when the 
vi^iiriiiis Kmperor iiilcrceplcd them, on the 
l.aiiks of tlie former river. Half the host was 
periJiitteil to cross the Dannlie; the otlur half 
tt js surprised and snirounded. Hut these last, 
unable to rcijain their own country, broke 
tlinaii^h the Uotnun lines at their rear and s{>ed 
into Italy again, spreading; havoc as they went. 
It «as only after three Bretit liattlcs. — one near 
I'laeentia, in which the Uonians were almost 
lie.ilen, nniithi r on the Metaiirus (wlnre llas- 
ilrubal was ileleali'd), and a third near I'avia. — 
that the liernianie invadeis were (h'stroyed. — 
K. (iilihon, Ikdiue and Fall nf the li,iniiii km- 
Jiiir. ,■/,. 11. 

A. D. 355-361. — Repu;;e by Julian. See 
Gut.: A 0. a.'i.VWil. 

A. D. 365-367, — Invasion of Gaul. — The 
All iiianid invaded Gaul in*!.'?, committini; wide- 
spread ravages and larryiuj: away into the for- 
ests of Germany >;reat spoil and many captives. 
The ne.\t winter they cros.std the Uh'ine, again, 
in still greater nmnlKrs, defeated the Komau 
forces and captured the standards of the Hern- 
lian and Batavian au.viliaries. liut Valenliniau 
was now Emperor, anil he adoplid energetic 
measures. His lieutenant Jovinus oven anw the 
inv.idersin a great liattle fought near Chaliins 
and drove them hack to their own side of the 
river lionndary. Two years later, the Emperor, 
himself, passed the Hhine and inflicted a memo- I 
rat)le chiLstisement on the .VUinanni. At the ! 
siine time he strengthened the frontier defences, 
and, hy iliphimath: arts, fomented ipiairils he- 
l"iin the Alenianui ami their neighhors, the 
Ilurguiidians, which weakened iKith. — E. Gih- 
l«in, l),i-li:ie and Foil of t/if Human Fiiii'ire, 

■■!,. ir,. 

A. D. 378.— Defeat by Gratian.— On learn- 
ing' that tile young Kmpernr (Iratiau was pre- 
paring to lea.l the military force of (iaul and the 
West to the help of his uncle and (oIleaL.'ue. 
Viilens, anainst the Goths, the AleniaimisHarmerl 
a.Tiiss tile lihii.e into Gaid. Gratian instaiilly 
recalled the h-gioiis that were marching to I'ari- 
nouiaan.l encountered the German invaders in a 
i.'riat hattle fought near Arwntaria (nHslern 
<''liiian in the month of .Mav. A. I). JiTM. Tlie 
-VlMuanni were routed with su'clLslaiiiihterthat no 
niere ilian o.OOOout of 4(l,(H«) to 70,()(K), are said 
til h.ive escaped. Gratian aflerwanl icrossidthe 
Itliiiie ami hnmhled his troulilesonie neiirhliors i 
in till ir own country.- E. Gililion, 11,,-Jine and ' 
I •''<■/ th,' I*,, III, in Fii,j,ir,\ eh. 'Jti. 

A. D. 496-504.— Overthrow by the Franks. 
- -In ilie year 4!Hi A. 1). the .Salians [Salian 
^^:ltlk-] heg.iu that career of ciinque-t w liieh 
til- V ("linwed up with scarcclv anv inti nuissinti 
!!n':! :;,. ,1,.;,)!, r.f t\„.\v «:;rrifr kin::. Ti:f 
All ULinni, extending themselves from thiir oriiii- 


nal si-ats on the right hank of the Uhine. iMtween 
the .Main and the Danulie. had pushed forn.iril 
into (iermaniea Prima, where they came into 
(Illusion with the Krankish sidiji 1 Is of King 
•■s lire lie It of Cohigne. Clovis flew to the assist- 
ance of his kinsmiin ami defeated the Aleiiiamii 
ill a great liallle in the nei'.'hliiinrhood of Zlil- 
pich lealicd. 1 omiuonly. the hattle of Tolhiac). 
lie llicncsialilislied a c'onsideralile niimher of his 
Eranks in the territory of the Ali iiianni, the 
tracis of whose lesidi nee are found in the names 
of Fnuiciinia and Kianklurl ' — W. ('. I'erry, 
77ic FraiikH. ,h. -J — ■ (Iia is had Ikiu intending 
tiM-rossthe Ifhine. hut the hosts of the Alaiiianni 
came upon him. as it seems, mii xpectediv and 
forced a battle on the left bank of the river. He 
seemed to he ovi rinaldicd. .and lie horrnr of »n 
impending defeat overshadowed the Krankish 
king. Then, in his despair, he bethought liiin- 
seM of the GihI of Cliitilila [his ipii en, a Hurgun- 
diau Christian prinecsB. of tin orthiHlo.x or 
Calholic faith]. Haising his eyi s to In avin, he 
said: 'Oh .lesus Christ, whoin'ciotilila declares 
to he the Son of the living GikI. who art said to 
give help to those who are in trouble and who 
trust in Thee. 1 humbly beseech Thy succour! I 
havi- called on my guils and they are far from 
my hilp. If Thiiii will deliver me from mine 
enemies, I will believe in Thi e, and be haptised 
in Tliy name. \\ this nniineiit, a sudden change 
was seen in the fortunes of ilu Franks. The 
.Vlainamii bciran to wav;i, they turned, they 
tied. Their king, according to oiie account was 
slain; and the nation seems to have accepted 
Clivis as its over lord." The following Christ- 
mas day Chivis was baptised at Keiins and a,(K)0 
of his warriors followed the royal example. "In 
the early years of the new "century, probably 
about .")0S or JjIM. Clovis was agaiu at war with 
his old enemies, the Alamaimi. . . . Chivis 
niovcii his army intothdr lerritoriis and wim a 
victory much more decisive, tinmgh less famous 
than that of 4'Jtl. This time the angry king 
would make no such terms as he had done 
iM-fori'. From their ph' dwellings by the 
.Main and the Xeckar. from all the valley of the 
Middle Kliine, the territied .Mamanni were 
f.irceil to flee. Their plai e was taken by Frank- 
isb settlers, from whom all this district received 
in the .Middle .\ges the mime of the Duchv of 
Franeia, or. at .1 rather later date, tn "the 

Circle of Frani ia. The .Vlamanni, w, heir 

wives and childnn, a broken and dispiritc.i host, 
moved southward to the shores of the Lake of 
Constance and entered the old Konian |irovinieof 
HInetia. Here they were on what was hild to 
be, in a .sense. Italian ground; and the arm of 
TheiKloric. as ruler of Italy, as succes.sor to the 
Kmpenirs of ihe West, was .sirelched fiirih to 
prnteet them. . . . E;istern Switzerland, West- 
I ru 'l\riil, Soutliirn Hadeii and Wiirteml)i ru and 
S.iuthwesleni Havaria probablv formed this new 
Alaiuaniiis. which will lit;ure in later historv as 
the 'Ducatus Al.imanniie.'ortlicCirclcof Swaliia, 
— T. Hislgkin, llnhiaiul H, r Iiir,iil,r:>.,. U. 

Also IN 1'. Godwin, ///>/. ..;' Fi\ii„< : Ai„„iU 
i:,nil. H: \i. ,■}, 11. — See, also St I VI- \ D,-)iMi: and FiiANKs: A. I). IxI-.-ill. 

A. D. 528-729.- Struggles against the 
Frank Dominion. See (jinNnw: A I) 4H1_ 

A. D. 547.— Final subjection to the Franks. 
See lUvMiiv: A. 1). .')47. 


ALEPPO: A. D. 638-969 Tik.ii Iv Hn- 

Anil toildwirs c.f M:iii( 1 in li:;--. ilii~riiy v\ii-^ 

riroMiiil l.vllic Hv/.;iniiiM~ in !"i',i. >r(llv/.\N- 
TIM. KMniii : A. It. '.Hi:! IMJ.-,. 

A. D. 1260. -Destruction by the Mongols. 
-'I'lir M"iit:ii]-., uiiiiiT l\liul;ii:ii. nr IIduImji-ii. 
lirnili.T I'f AlaiiLMi K!i:in. Ii.i\iiiir ovrrruii Mr^it- 
|HiI;iiiii:i Mhil |.\lilii,'lli-lii il III" ( .'ili|>li:lli- :il Mil' 
ilail. (TM-si d Ihr i:ii| •, in Ilii' ^|lrinL' I't' I'.'tlil 
uniL ;iii\ .irirril III .Vli|ipt'. Tin- liiy was taki 11 
iili'T a sii._.,. uf M'Vrii ila\ N anil lhm 11 up I'T li\ >• 
ila.\i 111 iiilliiri' ami s'laii^'liti r. " \\ Inn ilii. 
caniaLn- riasiii. tin- vimis m re ruinliiTi il wiili 
<iir|ivv , . . Il i> sail! thai Iho.ihim wniiu n ami 

chil.iri-M Wrrr Milil as sl;l\|.s. Tin' WalN 111' 

.\Ii |i|..i Will' n/iil, i!->|iiis ili'-siriiviil, ami 
i!^ LMTii' lis ra\ii:<ii." I> imasnw Mi'iiniiti'i ami 
was s|Kirril. Kliii' /ii was rmiiiialiML'. it is saiil. 
till' ciimiiii.^r I' ilini, will 11 in-ws nf tlir 

ilralli .it till' a. iL I. nan lalliil liiin ti tlir i'..i~t. 
-II, II. llnvMirlli. //,.</. ./ /'„ M.-l''^. !■!'. ','11:1- 

A. D. 1401.— Sack and Massacre by Timour. 
>,. liM.ii .: 

ALESIA, Siege of, by Citsar. Sii-iJmi : 

li. 1 . "is--|| 

ALESSANDRIA; The creation of the city 
(I1681. S"'.' Il M.'. ; A. !>. 11; I lls:| 

ALEUTS, The. >• .■ Amikhsn Amn-.n.i- 
M..- K-uniiv 

ALEXANDER tht? Great, B. C. 334-323. 
— Conqaests and Empire. .'^ ■ M v ihum \. A. 
li. (■ :;:;i ;;:; I. :iM 1 alii I . Alexander. Kmg of 
Poland, \ 1' I""il I "11 'T Alexander, Prince 
of B.ilg.i.ria. — Abduction and Abdication. .'si i. 
I.M .\::i\, .\ 1>. l->Ts-ls~ii ...Alexander I., 
C^ar of Russia, A l> l-'il-Is.'". Alexan- 
der I., King of Scotland, A. W lln;-!!.'! 

A!cx.indcr II., Pope. A. 1) InHI -loT:! 

Alexander I!., Czar of Russia, .\. 1>. Is.a- 
|ssi Alexander II., Ki.ig of Scotland, 
A l> l.'!M','l'i ..Alexander III., Pope, A.I 1 

ll'i'i-llsi Alexander III., Czar of Russi,i, 

A I' |ss| _. .Alexander III., King of Scot- 
land, A. I) I.'l!i-r-'s(j Alexander IV., Pope, 
A. Ii l.'il-IJiil ...Alexander v., Pope, A 1> 

1 (ll'.l t llll iiln i.'l hv thr (•iillnril .if I'i-H 

Alexander VI., Pope, .\ D. U'J.'IM'.; .. Alex- 
ander VII., Pope, A 1). Km.-iICi;: . Alex- 
ander VIII., Pope, A l> h;s'.i-1(Hi| . Alex- 
ander Severus, Roman Emperor. .\. 1 1 J,',' j;"i. 
ALEXANDRIA: B. C. 332.— The Found- 
ing of the City — • Will n .\l.\,imlir n ai Ind 
till- K::\ ptiin niiJitarv si.iiii.ii at iln- liiil.i 
tiuii iir sillau'i' iif i;iiakiiii~. lii' saw uitli 
till' iplirk I'M' iif a L't'i at I 'iniiiiamli r Imw 
til turn tlii^ p. ity s, lllrnnnt int.i .'i L-f'.it 
rity. atnl III 111, ike il^ ri'alsl. ail. mit nl wliirli 
-hips ruul'l 11: liliiwii liy a ilialiL.'i' iif wind, 
intii a iliiiitilr hirliiiur rnnniy iiinii'.'h In 
sliilti'r till' n.ivii-iil til.. W'.rlil " All tiial was 
nil 'llll was til j..i,i til. i-i.iii.l liy a ninli 1,1 ilir 
ii'iilimnl. Till -ite wi- aillniialily -1 1 iiri' ami 
( iiMvi'tiii lit. a narrow .-trip 11} lainl lutwi'-n tin- 
Mi'iliti rraiii'.'iii ami till' irn it iiilaml L.ikr .Man ■ 
litis. Till' wiiiilr n.irtlnni -iili km. I tin' lu.i 

liirl rs, wliii h Hiri' I mliil la-t ami ui -1 by 

till- 111. ill' ami liiymiil hy tin' I'lni.', n.irr.iw riii kv 
i-liml iif I'hnrii'-. stri'ti liiiiL' |iarall.'l wiih thr 
I list, (In till' smith was till' inlaiiil p.iit ..| l.ak" 
Man litis. Tin- li iiu'lli nf tlir rity was nun ihan 
lliin- iiiiii-s, ll«. iMi'a.iiii iiiiiii' liiaii I iiri't'-ipiarli'rs 
nf a mile, the iiiiile was almve llini'.i|iiarters nf 


AI,i:XANI)lJIA. H. C. 'jwa Jl«. 

n mill' lull:; ami six humlnil fcrt lirmiil: its 
liriaillh is imw (linilih'il, nwiiii; In tin' dilliiiu' up 
of Ike saiiil. .Miiilirn .VIe.vaiiilria until lalily 
nnly iM'i'iipii'il the imile, ami was a uTeat liiwn in 
a mniir lit' the sp.'M.|. whii'li .Mexaiuler. with 
lai'^e pni\i-iiin fnr the fuliire, ineasiireil nut. 
The f.iriii lit the new city riileil by that nf 
Ihesile, liiit the famy nf .Vle.Nalliler (lesi^'lleil it 
in the shape nf a Mui eilniiiaii clnak iir ihlainys, 
siieh as a iiati.inal In rn wears nii the enins nf the 
kiiiL's nf M,ni'i|nii. lils aiiees|nrs. Till' siliiatinii 
i> exiellenl fur I itniiieree. .\le\ali.lria, with the 
best llL'yptiaii harliniir nii the Meiiiterraiiean, 
ami the iiilaiiil purl eniineeteil with tin- .Nile 
streams ami i-.inaK. was the natural enipnriiim 
nf the Imliaii trade, i'nrt Said is siiperinr nnw, 
beeaiise nf its jrraiid irtiliiial pnrt and the 
advantage fnr sti ainships nf an uiibrnken se.i- 
r.iute.'— 1!. S, I'nnh', fili,« '.f Kflpl. fli. 1-'.— 
See, alsii. Mvri,iinM\, \i-.: li. ('.":i:il-;t:!il; and 
Ivivi'r: li. C. :WJ. 

Reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, B. C. 282- 
246. Greatness and splendor of the City. - 
Its Commerce. — Its Libraries. — Its Museum. 
-Its Schools. — I'Inl. my I'hiladi Iphiis, -nii 

nf I'Lili'lny Sntir, sini eeiie.l In the nf 

^.-'.^ pt ill '.'si-.i Ik t'. when his fathi r retind fnini 
it in his f.ivnr, and n iiiiied until '.ilii Ik C 
" .\le\andria. fniiiiilt'd h.v tiie ^^n at e'liniuernr, 
imr. ased ami liiautilii d iiy I'tnleiiiy Snti r. was 
11. iw far llie L'reate-t eity nf .\li'\aiiiier s Ijnpin'. 
If was the tifst nf ihiiM' liew fi mm kit ii HIS wliiih 
are it inarke-l feature in llellenisiii ; ihi re were 
tnaiiv I'liiel^ nf ■j:\r:\\ >i/e and iiillinrlanee — 
ali.'M- all. .\niineh, ihi 11 Si k 111 ia mi Ilie Ti'.;riM, 
th.n Miiiiiiedia, .Niei.i. .\paini':i. w hi. h lasted; 
lie-iile.s sill h as I.ysiiiiaeheia. .\ntiL:nni'ia, and 

iii'iirs. wliieli early di-a|ipiari"l Mexaii- 

lirii was 111., iiimli'l fnr all I lie rest. The inter- 

si'ilinll nf Iwn Li'-l! prill'lpal I le 'fnll i: llktli s, 

;ii|nrneil with enlnnnadrs f. a* tie- fnni w ays, fnriili d 
till' piiinl, the iilll|ilia|iis nf the i ily. Till' 

ii'lier sMiits Win' ,11 riirlii aiejli s wiih this, 

tllnnill'.'lifares, mi tin' wllnle plaee was iplile 

n .'ular, ('iiiiitinL' its nld part, IMiakntis. w hieh 
was :.:ill the li'iliiiaii 111 \4 native Ku'yptiaiis, 

Alexail'lri.l ilil.l ti\i- ipi.illi-rs, nm- ;tt least devited 

tn .lews Willi nriirinally sel'li d there in jrn.'it 
iiuii'lii rs. Till- inis.d p.i|iiilali.iii there nf Maee 
li'iiiiati-, (Irei ks, .Ii'W'.. and liu'yptiaus t;:ive n 
p. i-nliarly eninpli \ aii.l \ at iaiile clKtraiter tn the 
piipiilaiimi. Let us lint fiirijet the vast niiiiiln'r 
i\i stranL'i-rs frmn all parts nf the wnrlit whnni 
tr.-ide and pnliii.-^ IirniiL'hl tln-n'. It was tle- 
L'h'iit mart wh.-n- Ilie \\i alilinf I-airnpeaminf .\sia 
I li.inji-d hand--. .\l'-\;iiiiier had iip.-m-d the sea 
way liy i-xpliiriiiLMheena-t-nf MidiaamI I'ersi:!, 
(■:ira\ans Irmii the head nf the l*ersian <iulf, ;tiid 
ships nil III, l!,d .-Sea, liniiiL'ht all the nf 
liy Inn ami t'liina, as well as nf Further India, In 
.Vli'\.iii.lri;i. Till n-, inn, the wi';illh nf Spain uliil 
(kiiil. the pniduie nf It,'ilv and .Maeeilniiia, the 

aniliir nf till' liilliei.nd tli,'s;dl lish nf I'nntlls, 
till -ihrr nf .'s|iaill ;lll.| the i upper nf {'yprils. Ihe 

tiniliir nf .Mai-i-dniiia ami ( n le, ihe piillery and 
nil ,il (f ii I . r — a tiiiiiis.iml iiiipiiris frniii ail liii- 
.M. dill rr.-im .111 — eallle tn lie i-M halliji-d fnr llu- 
s|iiee- nf .\|-alii:l. the spliiidid liinis and eliilimi 
ill rii-nf Imlia ami ('e\ Ion, the L'nld ami ivmy of 
.\frie.-i, Ihe liutel.ipes, Ihe apes, the lenpanls," the 
elephants of tmiiieal eliines. lleme the enormous 
weaiiii of the'i', tor in additinn to the mar- 
vellous fertility and L'reiit popiihttinn — it is said 

ALKXANDUIA, H. f :Jsi-.>40. 

ALKXANDKLV, U. C. aMi! i4H. 


111 hiivf Ikiii seven rnilliunx — .if Ku'vpt. Iliei 
riMile iill tile prntii-i of tlii^ erinrriKiiiv riirrviiii^ 
ir.iile. We LMin II l'iuhI iili :i of uleii ihi- >|'i|iii- 
tli'iirs nf Ihe ejipiral \^erl■ tiy the \ir\ hil! ;ieeiiunt 

liriMTVnl 111 lis In AlllelMl'lls iif I lie i: real ti :l^. 
wlllrll ill;lll!:l>rillei| the leiiril iif l'llil:|i|el|ilills. 
. . . All liil^ >eeins iilli- p.ini|i. mii'I Ihe ili.iiu' nf 
an iille syliiirili'. I'liiluili I|iIi>ih wiis;iih ihin;; Imt 

thilt. ... It W:l> he «hii ii|iiriei| lj|i the I^L'Vp- 

tiiui triule with Italy, ami inaile I' ijn' i:reat 
purl liir ships fnim Ah .vamlria. wliieh it leiiiaiin il 
fur centuries. It was lie whu explnn i| Kihiiipia 
anil the siiiilhern parts of Africa, ami limuulil 
hack nut "iily the eiiriniis fauna In hi*, /iiiilni.'-ical 
L'arilens, liiii'tlie lirst kmiwleilire i.f the ■rro:jlii 
ilytes fur ini'ii uf silence. The cnllivatiun nf 
SI ience ami of letters tun was sii reinarkalilv uih^ 
uf his pnrsiiiis Ihe pmirress uf the Alexan- 
iliia uf his ilay funiis an epuch in the wurld's 
histiiry, iiiiil wp separate his liiivcrsity ami 
its priilVssiirs fruiii this siinmiary, ami ih viile tu 
till in a se|iari>te scctiiin. . . . The hisiury uf the 
en;aiii.ratiun of the rniversity iiinl its'stall is 
cuvcrcil with almost iinpenetralile tnist. Fur the 
Miiseiini ami l.iliniry were in the strictest si use 
what we shoiilil now call an Iniversity, ami uiie, 
lull, if the Oxfunl type, where h'ariieil men wi re- 
iinileil tu take Kelluwships. ami spcml tlair 
harned leisure close to ohscrvaturies in science. 

ami a ;,'riat lihrary of I ks. Like the ineilia val 

iiiiivirsitics, thiseiiiliiwnientiif resiarcli tiatiir.illy 
tiirmil iiitu Hc i-iiirine fur le.ichinL'. as all who 
ilisire.l ki.uwlcik'e lluckeil tu siieh a centre, ami 

pi r^llaileil the Kelluw tu become a Tlltur. The 

inuili 1 came fruni Athens. There the sehuuls. 
hcLrinnim; with the .Vcadeiny of I'lalu, hail a 
Iixiil |iriipeitv — a home wiili its sununmlim.' 
ijar.lin. ;Mi.i in oriler to • ,.ike this fuumlaliun 
sure, it was niaile a shrin .vliere ih • Muses were 
w.irshippeil. ami where the heail uf Ihe schuul. ur 
a prii-t appuinteil, perfurineil statcil sacrilici s. 
This. then, licinu'' helil in tnisi liy the siiccessurs 
of ilie iluMur. who liiipieatheil il. Mthern. was a 
pru|.iiiy which it wunlil have l-cii s:icrileiriuiis 

lu iiivailc. ami so Ihe title .Mliscuni afuse lor a 

SI li ".1 uf learninu'. Hemclriiis the rh.alcrcan. the 
fri' ml iuiil pruiector uf 'i'licuphrastus. InuiiL-ht 
tlii- ilea wi:h him li> Ahvamlria. when his name- 
sale illuve him illtil c\ile |see (il;l.ll I:; |{. ( '. 

■liiT-l'.l7| ami it was Imjlil his ailviie to the 

lir-l I'luli juy which oii:.'inateil tlii' c"' at fuun 
daliun. iliuii-h I'hihiili Ipliiis. who imaiii evilnl 
ill nil iriiis, ;r,ts the en ilit uf it. I'hc pupil uf 
Ari-'.iilc munuvir impris>eil an the kin- the 

H" 1 ->iiy uf Murim; up in i central r.pu^iiurv 

all thai tile wurlil knew ur (uiilil pruiliice. in 
• r.l. r 111 aMcrt.iiu the laws ui thin-- tium a pro 
I'M- anilvsis uf ihtail. Hence wa- luiinilcl nut 
uiilv the L'leat lilir.iry. which in tlnwe il.n - hail .a 

'!i"'i-iiii'l 'i s the value a -real lihr.irv ha- nun. 

111! iKu uh-ervatiirics. ^'ai'ili n-. cul 
I'Miunsuf ixiitic plants, ami uf mhcr new ami 
siraiiu'u ihin'i- hruii-lit liv explurini: c\pciiiiiuns 
:r.,ia ilic fiinhest ivL'iunsuf Araliia ami .\rrica 
I'll- li'ir.iry anil nin-ium pruvcil iiiileeil a liume 
f ■'■ 'lir Mii-is. !iml ahuut il a rm.-t lirilliani _'riin|i 
'■' •■II leiiis in liieratiire ami >eiini e w:i> furnicl 
Ihe .-mil— ive lilirarians were Zeiiuiluliis ilie 
^.-v.aninari.ui ur erilic; fallimachus. tu whose ' 
!■ nil- wc shall presently return; Krai... them-. 
the a-irunomer._\vhii i.riirinateil the |irui,.-s liy 

•.;:... 111... ..;., ..;-;■,., , ,,rlh I- ill iiimiiicii lu iia\'. 

Al'iinllumus the Ulimlian. ilisciple ami enemy "of j 

('allliiia(lnis:.\ristopliiinesof Hyziintiimi. founder 

• if .1 sehiKil of pliiloliii,'ical eriiicisni ; and Arislar 
ehiis of .Saliios. repuleil to have liei'il the ;;reatest 
c rilie of ancient limes The -tc 'y of the text (if 
lloiner was the- chief laliuiir of Zeiii dolus, Aris- 
luphanes, and Arislarchiis. and it was Arislar- 
chiis whu maiiily lixed ihe furm in which tin. 
Iliad and Ody-sey remain tu till- (lay. . . . The 
Mist eullectioi.s uf the lihrary nnd inusi iiin 
actually determined the whole I'lianeler of the 
literature uf AliAiindria. One wurd sums it all 
up — eriidition, whether in philosophy, in i rili- 
cisiii, in science, even in imkIiv. SliaiiL.'e lo say, 
they iicirlccicd not uiily uratu'ry, fur nhicli lhe'r(■ 
was mi seiipc. Iiiil liisturv, and ihis wc iiiav attri- 
liiitetothe fact that history liefure Alexaiii'ler had 
no eharins fur Hellenism. .Mythical lure, on the 
utlier hand, stranu'e uses and (airimis wainls. were 

'lepart Ills of research dear luihein. In science 

tliey did ereat thiiiirs, so did lliey in iti uirraphy. 
. . . Hut were they oriirinal ill nothinir'.' Did 
they add notliinu' of their own lo the spli n(li(i 
record uf Grick literature? In the next (.'eiier- 
aiiiiii car.e the art of criticism, whiih Aristar- 
chus divelopi-d into a -.-al .si ience, and of that 
wc may s|icak in its place; lint even in Ihis 
u'eneralion sve may claim fur them the credit of 
three urii;inal, or nearly oriirinal, developments 
in literature — Hie iiasti.riil idyll, as wc have it 
in Theocritus; the eleu'y, as we liave it in Hie 
liomaii iinitalurs uf I'liiletas and Callimaclius; 
and Ihe roinani e, ur lu\e stury, the parent of unr 
muilern nuvcl.s. All these had early |irutotype» 
ill Hie folk suiijrs of Sicily, in the love sun jrs of 
Mimnermns and of Anliinachns, in the tales of 
.Miletus, hut still the was f.iirlv to lie 
called uriL'inal. Of these the pastoral idvU was 
f.irthc mu-i icmarkalilc, ami laid liuld ui'iun the 
wiirtd fur ever. "—.I. 1'. Mahall'v. 7 /„ Sl„n/ .-/ 
.\!,.i„,.,/,r:s i:,„i,;i;.,-l,. i:Mt. — ■■■Tlicicwere'tw'o 
l.ilirarii s of AliAandria under the I'toleinies. the 
laru'cr one in the ipiarler called the liruchinm. 
and the smaller one. named 'the daichtcr,' in 
the Serapeiiin. which was.siiiialcd in the (piarter 
called lihaciiii-. The furiner was lui.iMv 
(li-iruycd in Ihe cuiilla-ratiun uf the liruihium 
diirin;.' V.c-ars .\li\amlrian War [see heluw : 
It, C. IS i;|: lull the latter, which was uf t;Tc;it 
value, remained uniniured (see .\Ialler, lli^l-ire 
il, VE,;.}, ,/■.!/,.,„, „/,/,, /■./, 1, ;i. i:!;t «,-/., -j;)? 
*'7.) It is not St. lied Jiv anv anciiait writer 
where the cullectiun uf l\r:.-a'iiins (-ee I'na.v- 
.Mi m| w:is placed, which .Vnluny L'ave tu clcu- 
patra HMutarch. Antun.. e. .'iSi; Imt it is must 
pruliiMe that il was ili pu-iied in the liriiehiiim. 
a- that (piarier uf the city w,is tiuw w it jiuui a 
lilii:ir_\ . and the i|uei n was anxious to rep.iir the 
ta\.c,-es IK ca-iuned l.y the ci\il war. If this 
suiipii-iiiuii is ( urrei i.'iwo Alexandrian lilirarics 
ciiiiiinuid to exi-1 after the time of Ca-ar. and 
ilii- is n mlered still mure pruh.ilile liy the lad 
ihiit diirin;; the lirst threei enluries of tin Cliris 
lian era the linichium was still the litetarv 
ipiarter of Ah-xamlria. I'.iit a meat i lian:;e tuuk 
plaie in the linie ut Auielian Tlii- Ijnpiiur. in 

sU|ipre.— illiT the nvuil uf l-'irmus ill K:;\|il. .\, 

I). ■-•::( l-ce licliiw; A. I), '.'T:!! is ^.lili to h.ive 
di-lruyid the lirnchiiim; and thuur^h thi- -i.'ie 
iiient is liardly tu lie taki ii literally, tlje Hruehiuin 
cia-ed fruin iliis time to lie included williiiithe 
w.'ll-of .Vlexandria. and was n -anhd unls as a 
-uiiuriiuf liie city, Wlicther ilii ;rreat lilirary 
iu the Hrucliiuin with the museum and its other 


ALEXANItltIA, H f '.'NJ -JW 


W ! 

Htirary istiilillsliimnlt. pi rishcd !it tlii^ tiiiii-, Wi- 
lli) nut" know ; liut 111!' Sirii|iiiiiii fur Ihr m XI 
<Tiiliiry tiiki'S ill plair :is tin' litcmrv iiuartir <if 
Alrxanilriii. anil iKiiiniis Ilii' riiicf lilirary 
In till' lily. Ilniri' lalir wrilir-. iTroniiai>ly 
•peak 111 llir Si rapi'iini as if it hail Ik iii frmn lliu 
iM'^iiMiiiiK Ilir ■ Alixaiiilrian liliran . . 
(lililion Mirns t.i tliiiik ilial Ilir ulmlr nf Ihr 
Scrapi'iini was ilislrnviil |A l> ^Ml. Iiy onliT of 
lllr KniplTor 'I'llliBlilsills— sir In low |; hut this 
win nut thi' liisi' It wiiulil appi'ar lliat il was 
only till' sani'tuarv I'f tin' uml that was 
livi'lliil with till- u-r'niinil, anil that tho lilirary. 
till' halls anil "IhiT huililiims in llir loiisiaratiil 
(triiiinil n-niaiiiril stanilini; lunir aftirwarils,"— K. 
flilihiin. Ilf-liiie ivnl h'lH nf III!' /.'■'iwin Kiii/iiir. 
f/i. ','■<. S..l,.il'ii III. .<./i/7A.— CiinriTii- 
iiij; till' rrpiitiil lirial ilr.strnitiiin nf tln' l.ihrirv 
bv the .Mi.slcins. sci- liilnw: A. I). li4l-lU(i 
" Ai.sii IN : (1. liilipiirn- llliil'irirnl liifirt,lf%>. 
rh. :i. -S S!iar|M-. Ili^t ■■/ Jy/i/pt. .•/.:.>* utul ! ' 
— Sei-. also. .NKiin.vTiiMi ~ ami l.n;n\nn^ 

B. C. 4ft-47.— Caesar and Cleopatra.— Tne 
Rising against the Romans. -The Siege. - 
Destruction of the great Library.— Homan 
virtory. — From tin- liatlli* licM of IMiarsalia (vi-i- 
Hoiii. : IJ. ('. 4^) I'linipiiiis lliil to ,\li xanilriii 
ill KL'vpt. mill was tri'arhiToii>.lv inunlrrril iia lie 
sii'ppril on sliori'. Cii'sar arrivi'il a fi'W days 
iillirwanls, in rlnsi' pursuit, anil sliiil tears, it U 
siiiil, on lirinj; shown his rival's inanuliil head. 
lie had lirouL'hl scareely inorr than ;t,(IO{l of his 
soldiers witli him. ami he found Ki.'ypt in a tiir- 

Indent slate of eivil war The tlin was in 

dispute lielween children of the late kini;, 
I'tulem Ills .\iililes. Clei Jiatra. the eldir daiii-'h- 
ter. and I'loli-iuaua. ii son, were at war with 
one another, and .\rsinoi'. ii youiiL'er daiiirliter, 
was ready to put forward i 1 liins (seo Kovi't: 
II. (' sii-|Mi. Notwitli-laiiiliiii; the insiu'iiili- 
eaneo of his foree. Ca-sardid not hesitate to iis- 
Hiinie to oeetipy .\li\andria and toiidiudieate the 
ilispule. Hut the f.isiinatiiins e .'leopatra 
(tlien tnenty years of im'e) soon iniide him her 
partis'", and her seareely di^iruised lover. This 
aL'^'rivaied the irritation wliiih was eaiised in 
Alexandria Iiy the iinsi'iiee of Cesar's troops, 
and a furious ri>ini; of tin; eiry was provoktd. 
Ill' fiirlitied liim^eU in tlie great palare. wliii h 
he had taken pii»-r~~iiin of, and wliieh eoni- 
nianded thi' i:iu~i\vay to the isl.'ind. I'haros. 
ther liv 1 oinniandii'i: the ]iort Destroying' a 
laru-'e jiarl of the ity in that neiijhliorhood. he 
made his i\i II iliii.'i, stroiii:. .\; the 
same time lie m i/.id and liiirnid the royal llei t, 
and thus eaiiM'd ii i nulla i.'rat inn in wlii' h the 
j;ri aler of the two priei le-s lihraries of .Ml \- 
iindria — the lilirarv of the .Miiseiiin — wa-. iiiiuli 
of it, I'onsuniid. '|Si r above: I!. ( '. 'JsJ .'.'pi. ] 
By siiih niea^un s ( 'a sar willi^to,,d. for 
se'viT'd iiiontli^. a sii :!e eoii'liieted on th ■ part of 
the .Mrx.iiidrian- wiih ^'leit drliriiiinatioti and 
aninio-iiy. Il ■■v,i'> uiiiil Mm h. It. ('. IT, 
that he was rili'M-d from his liaii-jirniis siliia- 
tiou, liy the arriial of a l.iiililid ally, in lln' [nr- 

^, r Milhri'hili-. ol !•• r-aiim-.' who l.d an 

aniu ililo l';L:vpl. nilm i d I'l lu-iiilii. and ero'.sed 
till- Nile at tlie liiad ol 'il.' Hi lla, I'lole 
lri:i lis aiU.'llieed vvilli iii- troops to ineit this 
new invader and was lollowi d and overtaken iiy 
("a' .:r In the V'a'iie a^M. h ttwii on iirnd 

mii'us pens 

lan arm\' was ii 


mild and I'loIc 

married, after the Kcypliati fiwhion. to • 
\oun;.'er briillH'r. and eslulilislud on the throne, 
while .VrsinoC w«h Hen! it prisoner tii Uoini'. — 
.\. llirtliis. /v.,' M, riiiiilniin Wm: 

A. D. 100-312. -The Early Christian 
Church. — Its Influence. See (•hiiisti.\nitv: 
A. I>. Km :irj 

A. D. 116.— Destruction of the Jews. See 
Jkws: a. I) IHi 

A. D. 215. — Massacre by Caracalla.— 
"Ciraealla was the 1 oinnion em my of niankiiiil. 
lie hit the lapital (and he in v 1 r n'tiiriied to it) 
iihoiit a year after the iniirder of (lelii |.V. I). 
'.'l:t| riie rest of his reinn (four years] was 
spinl in the siviral provinees of tiie Kniplre, 
ii'irtii iilarly thosi' of the Kast, and every prov- 
line was, by turns, the seeiie nf his rapine and 
1 rill Ity. ... In the midst of piaee, and upon 
the slightest proviKiition. lie issued hiscoininands 
at .\le.\aiidria. Kiiypt [.V. I). '.'I'l], for a neiienil 
massacre. From 11 weiire post in the temple of 
Si rapis, be viewed and direeted the slaiiirliter of 
many thousand eiti/eiis. as well as slianprs. 
without disliieriiishin); either the niinilMr or the 
crime of the siillerers. " — K. tiililion, Ihcliiif itiul 
l''iill ct' till l!,iiii,in Kiii/iirf. ch. (1. 

A. D. 260-272.— Tumults of the Third Cen- 
tury. — "The [H'ople of .\le\andria, a varioua 
mi.xture of nations, united the vanity and incon- 
stancy of the (ireeks wi'li the superstition and 
obstinacy of the Eu'yptians. The most triflinK 
iiceasion. a transient scarcity of llesh or lentils, 
the neulect of an accustomed saliilalion, a mis- 
take of precedency in the public baths, or even 
a reliLdoiis dispute, were at any time Hiitn<'lent 
to kindle a si'dition amoni,' thai vast multitude. 
whov roiiitmeiils were furious and Implacalile. 
After the ( aptivity of Valerian [Hie lioman Km- 
[leror. made pri-.oner by Sapor, kiiiic of Persia, 
\. I>. ^v;ii| and the insolence of his son had re- 
iaxeil the aiiihorily of the laws, the .Mexiindrians 
abandi lied Ihemselves to the unfroverned rage of 
their jia-^ioiis, and their unhappy country was 
the theatre of a civil war, which contimieil (with 
a few short and suspicious truces) above twelve 
years. .Ul intercour>e was cut olT hetwci-n the 
several quarters of the alllicted city, every street 
was polluted with bloiMl, every buildini; ot 
stren'.£th eniiverled into a citadel; nor did the 
tuiiiidl .'.ubi.i'le till n considirablc part of ,\lex- 
aiidria was irretrievably ruined. The spacious 
and mau'iiilicent district of ISruchion, with its 
pahices and museiim. the resilience of the kinirs 
and philosophers of V.\:\ [it. is described, above a 
century afierwards, as already reduced to ils 
|iri -I n't stale of drearv solilude." — K. (iibbon, 
I).'-!:,,,- iii.'l I'.ill i.flh.'lt.iiiiiii /'.■,«/./'•,, rh. 10. 

A. D. 273.— Destruction of the Bruchium by 
Aurelian. — .\fli r subdnini; I'almyra and ils 
l^iiei a /.eiiobia, \. I), yii, the Knipeior Aure- wa.N called into K^-ypt to put down a re- 
beilic:i there, lii tdi il liv one Kiriniis. a friend 
and .i!!.i of the I'alniyn lie ipn 1 n. I'"innus had 
L' wi liih. ill rived from trade, and from the 
pa['i r Manufacture of Kirypt. which wab mostly 
in his II anils, lie was det'ealed and put to deaili. 
"T.i .\iiri ban's war a:^aiiet Kirnius, or to that 
of ri'oliiisa bull' bil'uie in K^'vpt. may be re 
fi ired 'he ile-.l ruei ioU of liruehiuni, a ;rri'at 
ipiailer of All xandria, which accorilini; to \\\\- 
niianiis Marcellinus. was ruined under .Vurelian 
and remained ilesirleil ever alter. " — .1. Ii. L. C're- 

heij in the Xile. I'leopalra was tin 

vier, Ilinl. of tlie Ii 

iniin t.i/iihrnrn, 

Ilk. 27 


At.KXANDIUA, A, l>. im. 

ALEXANDRIA, A. t>. 641 64«. 

A. D. agA. —Siege by Diocletian.— A Ki'ncral 
revolt of till' Afririiii |iri>viiii'is uf ihi- HuniHii 
Boipirt- iivt'lirri'il A. i>. 2M). Tlie litirliuniiis 
tribvii of Klliiopiii uiiil lUv ilcst-rt wvrf limuKliI 
into ullluiia' nilii tliv i>riivinciiil.i of KKypt, 
Cyn'naica, C'urlluiKi- uiiil Muiiriluiiiu, uiiiI tliv 
daim.' of war wnn iiniverxul. liiilli tliceinpcnirs 
iif tlie tiiiif, DiiH'li'tiitii uiiil .Mnxiiiiliiii, witi' 
rulleil to tliu African ticlil. " DiiM'Irlian, uu liiit 
niilc. oiH'iit'il till- lanipiiijj'n in Kjjypt by llir 
nii'jju of Alt'XBnitria, tut oil ihi- uiimdmlH wlilcli 
ciinvi'Vfil tilt' wiitcra of the Nili'iuloi'Vi'ry tjuur- 
tir of that ininii'iiiH' city, anil, rcmlcrfuK lii» 
camp impregnable to the usiW'm of tlie iM'Hie^i'ii 
niiiltitiiile, he punlieit liisreiterateil attacks with 
niuliiin and vigiir. After a siege of eittht 
inunths, Alexanilria, wa»liil by the sworil unil 
by tire, iniplonil the eleineiiey of the compiero.", 
Imt it experieuceil the full ex'leulof his severity. 
Many tlioiisunils of the citizens perisheil in a prii- 
nilHciiouB slaugiiter, anil there were few obnox- 
ious persons in Kgypt who esiiipeil a sentence 
either of death or at least of exile. The fate of 
Utisirls and of Coptog was still more melancholy 
than that of Alexandria: those proud cities . . . 
were utterly destroyed."- E. Uiblion, Decline 
iiud FtUl of the Jitnuttu Kmi'ife, rU. liJ. 

A. O. 365. —Great Earthquake. See Ea iitii - 

Ijl AKE IN THE KOMAN WollI.I): A. I). 30.5. 

A. D. 389.— Destruction of the Serapeum. 

— ".\fterthe edicts of Theoilosius had severely 
prohibited the sacrilices of the pagans, they were 
still tolerated in the city and temple of ISerapis. 
. . . Tlie arclii'piiicopal throne of Alexandria 
was tilled by Theophilus, the perpetual enemy 
of iieace and virtue: a bold, bad man. whose 
hunds were alternately poUuteil with goUl and 
with liliKid. His pious indignation was excited 
by I lie honours of Serapis. . . . The votaries of 
Siiipis. whose strength andnumlHrs were much 
iuferiiir to tliose of their auiai;oiiists. rose in 
:irnis [.\. I). 38W] at the instigation of the philo- 
Miplur Olympius, who exhorted them to die in 
the ilefeiice of the alljirs of the ginls. Tliesc 
pagan fanatics fortilied themseh ■'« in the temple, 
(iT nither fortress, of tierapis; repelled the be- 
siegers by daring sjillies and a j.-soUile defence; 
;iii(l. by the inhuinaii cruelties which they excr- 
> ised on their Christian prisoners, obtained the 
list eoiisolatioD of despair. The elforts of the 
pnideiit magi.-trate were usefully exerted for the 
eslalili.shiiient of u truce till the iiuswer of Tlieo- 
'i'l-ius should determine the fate of Senpis." 
The juik'Hient of the cuipeior comlcmued the 
grr;it temple to destruction anil it was reduced 
to a heap of ruins. ■' The v:iluable library of 
.\li xanilria was pillaged or deslioyeil ; and, near 
twciiiy years afterwarils, the appearanee of the 
eiii|ily shelves excited the regret and indignation 
■ it every spectator whose mind was not totally 
dark, lied liy religious prejuiiiee. " — E. Gibbuii, 

l> ■lini illid Full I'f l/ii'. Uonulll Etiljiin', cll. '.'». — 

ililib.'ii's .staleiiieiit as to the destruction of the 
^Ti III library in the Serapeum is called in ijues- 

II 11 bv his learned aiiuotator, Dr. .'^milli. See 
Mli.K, : It. ('. •.>S2--J4li. 

A. D. 413-415.— The Patriarch Cyril and 
his Mobs.— ■■His ToUe [that of Cvril. Patri- 
ar. Ii o! Alexandria, A. 1). 4|-,'-4441 intlained or 
iil'l'iaseil the passions of the nndtitude: bis eoin- 

III Mils were blindly obi'yed by his and 
f;:;::;;- J. irLilr'laiii, faiiiiliari/rd in liicir daiiy 
elliie with scenes of death: and the prafects of j 

Egypt were awed or provoked bv the tem|Miml 
power of these Christian pontnys. .\rilent in 
the prosecution of heresy, t'yril auspiciously 
opened his reign by oppnssing the Novatlans, 
the most inniH'ent and liarndesa nf the sectarhs 
. . . The toleration, and even the privileges of 
the .lews, who had multiplied to the numlH'r of 
4(I,<M)0, were secured bv the laws of the CH'sars 
and Ptolemies, and a long preserlptlon of 7110 
years since the foundation of .VIexandria. With- 
out any legal wiilence. without any royal man- 
date, the patriarch, at the dawn iif iliiy, led u 
sidilious niiiltiti'de to the attack of the syna- 
gogues. Vnarmeiland unpre|iared. the .lews were 
incapable of resistance: their hoiisis of prayer 
wen levelled with the ground, and the episcopal 
warrior, after rewanliiig his Iroops with the 
plunder of their gis»ls. eX|Hlliil from the city 
the remnant of the misbelieving nalinn. Per- 
haps be might plead the insolinee of their 
prosperity, and their deadly hatred of the Chris- 
tians, whose bliMKi they had recently shed In a 
liialii ions or aeeiihiital tumult. .'<ucli crimes 
would have deserved the animadversions of the 
magistrate: but in this promiscuous outrage the 
innixent were loiifouniled with the guilty." — 
E. (iibbon. Ihflim find Full nf the Hnmnit Km- 
pin . eh. 47.— ■ Hefore long the adherents of the 
arelibishop were guilty of a more atrocious and 
unprovoked crime, of the guilt of which a deep 
suspicion atlaehed to Cyril. All Alexandria 
respected, honoured, lisik pride in the lelebnited 
Ilypatia. She was a woman of extraordinary 
learning; in her was centred the lingering knowl- 
eilu'e of that Alexaiidtiiin F'latonism cultivated 
by I'lotinus and his school. Her beauty was 
eipial to her learning: her moilesty conimended 
both. . . . Hypatia lived in great intiniaoy with 
the prafect Orestes: the only charge whispereel 
against her was that she encoura.L'ed him in his 
hostility to the patriarch. . . . Some of Cyril's 
ferocious partisans wizeil this woman, dragged 
her fnim lier (iiariot. and with the most revolt- 
ing indecency ton' her elollii s oil and then rent 
tier limb from limb. "—II. II. Milnian, l/iid. nj 
hitin Chriiitianitji, hk\ 2. eh. II. 

Also in C. Kinirsli v. Iliii«iii,i. 

A. D. 616.— Taken by Chosroei. See 
Eovi't: A. I). (11(1-(1--'H. 

A. D. 641-646.— The Moslem Conquest. - 
The precise date of events ju the Moshiii I'l'U 
quest of Eirypt. by .\niru. lieiilenaiit of the 
Caliph Omar, is iineirlaiii. Sir Win. .Aliiir fi\e^ 
the lirst surrender ot .\le\aiiilria to .\inni in 
\. I), till, .\lterthat it was reocenpied by the 
lly/antines either once or t^viee. on oeeasions of 
neglect by the .\rabs, 11s tiny piirsueil their eon- 
ipiesis elsewhere. Till' probabilily seems to be 
that this oeeurred only once, in t>l(>. It seems 
al.o probable, as remarked by Sir W. .A'mir. that 
the two sieges on the takiiiL' and relaUing of the 
city — till and (ilfi — havebeeii imu h I'lntuseil in 
the scaiiiy aeeoiinis w lijeh lia\ ecoine ili.u n to us. 
(in the lirst oieasion Alexandria would appear to 
ll;i\e been generously tri;lleil; while, in the 
second, it .sutVered pilia.:;e and lis t"('iti!ii aiions 
were ilestrnyed. Ilcw far tin re is Iriitli in the 
commonly iircepted storv of ihe ileliberale burn- 
ing of Ihegreat.Mexaiidiiaii l.ibniry— or soimicb 
of it as had escaped destruction at the bands 
of Uonian generals and Christian palriaiihs — is 
a .jti. .s;i,,n .s;ill in lii.spui.'. (lil.b'.ii ,i.s, i. .iiied 
the story, and Sir William Muir, the latest of 

§ ' 



tUlcliriii In Miili.iiiii tiiii lii-Iiiry, iliiliiii's rviii tlii' 
nil iili.Mi cif il ill hi- ii.irriiliM' m| tin- ioii.)iii .1 uf 
Ki:\ |il. Iliil ■'llii r lii»liiriiiM» ■! n pnti' iiiaiiilMiii 
llir'|.!Ml,;ilih' 111! ur;M \ m( iIm' mIi- I. .1.1 l.y Aim:- 
|ili.iriii:iiH— ihiii ( iilipli unliicil tlii' ilr- 
tlniiliMii i>f liir l.iliiary. I'li iIh' i.'roiiiiil tliiit. 
If tlir li.Hik» ill II MLTii'il «iili 111! K'Tiin lliry 
\M Ti' ii^i It..., if 111. > ilUiL'ricil «ii(i il iliry wrrc 
|ii mil i..ii-. — >i !• MviiiiMKiAN I'oNt^i t>i ; A. 1>. 
tun lllll 

tith-isth Centuriei. Trade. Sir TitAnc, 
Ml III I \ \i 

A. O. 1798. - Captured by the French under 
Bonrparte. Sir Khanik: A. 1>. 17«»(.M\i — 
Ai 1.1 »ii. 

A. D. 1801-igoa. — Battle of French and 
Engliih. — Restoration to the Turkf. Sn; 
KiivM r.: A. 1>. l'<iil-l»if.' 

A. D. 1807.— Surrendered to the Englith.— 
The brief occupation and humiliating capitu- 
lation. SnTlKKi: A I). iNIHi-lHo;. 

A. D. 1840.— Bombardment by the Englifh. 
Si.Tl llK^<: .V I). I-'MI-IHIII. 

A. D. i88a.— Bombardment by the Engliih 
fleet.— Maisacre of Europeans.— Destruction. 
Nr K.iViT: A. 1). 1n7:i IhsJ. ,„i,1«:i. 
— •♦ 

ALEXANDRIA, LA., The Burning of. 
Sir IMtkkStmisokAm.: A. I>. I'-lU^MuuiI 

— Mw: l,llll«IANA). 

ALEXANDRIA, VA., A. D. 1861 (Mayi.— 
Occupation by Union troops.— Murder of Col- 
onel Ellsworth. .NT IMiKi) SiATiMof' .Vm.: 
.^. I) I-*!'.! (M \v: Villi. iMAi 


ALEXIS. Czar of Russia, A. I>. Ilii:i-lti;il. 

ALEXIUS I. iComnenus', Emperor in the 
East iByzantine, or Greek., .\. 1). ln-'l-lUs. 

Alexius II. iComnenusi, Emperor in 

the East (Byzantine, or Greeki, A. D. W*\- 
llKl. .. Alexius III. lAngelusi, Emperor 
in the East (Byzantine, or Greeki, A. I>. ll!l"i- 

l'.'ii:i Alexius IV. lAngeluss Emperor in 

the East iByzantine, or Creek), A. D. lJii:i- 

IJiil Alexius V. iDucasi, Emperor in 

the East iByzantine, or Greeki, A. I>. I'.'ol. 

ALFONSO I., King of Aragon and Navarre, 

A. I) ll"lrli;tl Alfonso I., King of Castiie, 

A. 1>. lu7-.'-ll"!i; and VI. of Leon, A. D. H".".- 

llo'.i Alfonso I., King of Leon and the 

Asturias, or Oviedo, A |) T;)'.i-7".7 Alfonso 

I., King of Portugal. A. 1>. 1 1 IJ-l 1-".. . . . 
Alfonso I., King of Sicily, A, 1>. lllii-ll".-< ... 
Alfonso !!., King of Aragon, A II llti;-! I'.Mi. 

...Alfonso II., King ofCastile, A. Ii. 11. 'H- 
ll."i7 ...Alfonso II.. King of Leon and the 

Asturias, or Oviedo, A l>. 7'.il-Hrj Alfonso 

II., King of Naples, A. H. 1 llU-l I'l'i. . . . 
Alfonso 11., Kine of Portugal, A. 1). IJll- 
r.';:i .. Alfonso III., King of Aragon, .\. II. 

r,'s',-r,".il Alfonso III., King of Castile, .\. 

II. ll",-<-IJII Alfonso III., King of Leon 

and the Asturias, or Oviedo, ,\. I), wiii-liin . . . 
Alfonso III., King of Portugal, A H. 1-Ml- 
l','7'.P. .. Alfonso IV., King ofAragon, .\ 1). 
|.;.'7-K'..:ti ...Alfonso IV., King 01 Leon and 

the Asturias, or Oviedo, A T>. !)J i-!);!ii 

Alfonso IV., King of Portugal, A. II. i:!-.:;!- 
i:t'i7. . . Alfonso V., King of Aragon and I. of 
Sicily, .V. II. lllf.-ll"!^, I. of Naples, A. I). 
*, 4 1:1-1 1 ".■<... Alfonso v.. King of Leon and 
the Asturias, or Oviedo, .\ f' nn.i in.', . , . . 
Alfonso v.. King of Portugal. .\. il 1 Cfs-U."*!. 

. Atfonto VI., Kinr of Portugal, .V. D. 
IH.Vl liui; . .Alfonso VII., King of Leon, A. 
I>. mm H'Jit .. Alfonso VIII., King of Leon, 

A. II. K.'iltl.'iT Alfonso IX., King of Leon, 

.\. II. l|xH-l'.> III Alfonso X., King of Leoa 

and Castile, A H 1.'..' IX . . Alfoaao XL, 
King of Leon and Castile, A li Ilil'J-in.Vl . . . 
Alfonso XII., King of Spain. A. D. Wi- 

ALFORD, Battle of (A. D. 16451. ^><'e 
S.i.n.xMi: A. II. I'UI llll.V 

ALFRED, called the Great, King o( 
Weiiex, A l>. H7I Wil. 

ALFURUS. S,.(ii>ni;- 


.VL'ilT-* litrrillV >i::ilitir.. ■■ lllr i..l.ll|.|, ■ llllll \\ U-* 

il.riviil In. Ill ilii' ..riu'iiiMl r'.ii~lni. lii.ii ..f in 
li:irli..r. .1111' siili' ..f utiirli \\;i'< *i'|>.iriilril from 
till' liiiul. For liiiti.rv. < 1- llviiiuuv Statk*. 

ALGIHED, The.— The term hy which a 
U'lir Ih iiriH'lalnicil tininiiK thi- .Miilii.inrtans to lie 
« War. 

See Ami'.iiii'an .Vuouiiiinf.s: .Vi.uo.nki.n Family. 

ALCUAZIL. Sii. A1.1 Ai.OK. 

ALHAMA, Thetakingof. 8< c Spaw: A. D. 
UTtl I4i»-.'. 

ALHAMBRA, The building of the. See 
Spain: A. II. l'.':W-rJ7:i. 

ALI, Caliph, .V. II 11.-..-, iMil. 

ALIA, Battle of the (B. C. 390). Sec Rojcb: 
It. c. ;ttHi:ii:. 


Sii" .VmK.IIICAN .ViioKIuIM.s : .Ml>KUCMiKK 


Si'i' IMiKi) STAiKsor Am: A. H. ITKS. 

ALIGARH, Battle of (1803). Sif Lsdia: 
.\. II. I7!W IwCi. 

ALIWAL, Battle of (1846). Sec India: 
A II. 1 HI.-, 1-111. 

ALJUBAROTA, Battle of (1385). Sir 
I'.iiiTiiiM.: \. I>. i;W) i:is-), mill Si-ain; \. I). 

ALKMAAR, Siege ■1573'- •""■ Ni'nihii 
I XM.-: .\. II 1".7:l i"i;i. 

ALKMAR, Battle of. S. . I'livsri: .\ |i. 
I ;;iii iSi I'll MM I! 1 1. i..i'.i.i;. 

"ALL THE TALENTS," Ministry of. 

^.■.- i;m,i \m.; ,\ I' :~iii :--iiii, :."'i i"-"'' i^i'.'. 

ALLATOONA. Battle of. Si .- IMiiii 

STAii^i.r Am .V H l^r.i i<i.|it (lit.- C. nrL'i-'i 
ALLEGHANS, The. Sop Amkiitcan Auo- 

111. .IM ^ A I I I ■:( w- 


lu.v. N| Its: .\miI:|. \ .\. |l 17li» I"-!, 

ALLEMAGNE. — Til.' Tr. ii, h 11:1111. |..r 
( J.-iiM iii\ , .Icri'. I .| li'.lil Ih.' roll!. .1' 1:1 ti- 111 i.f till' 
AI. iiiuiiii. ^M.' -Vi i:m\\m : A l>. 21:1 

ALLEN, Ethan. >.•, \ i nM..M. .\. II 17III- 
I ;;i , iiii.l I'm iKii >nii.- Ill .\M.: .V. 11. 17r."i 

ALLERHEIM, Battle of or Second battle 
of Nordlingen, — 1645.) .Si i- (ii.iiM \\v: A. II. 


ALLERTON, Isaac, and the Plymouth 
Colony, s.'.' .Ma><m m ^^.n■t (1'i.ymiu rii): .'.. 
I>. lii'J:i-ir.'Jli. ;iiiil iifi.r. 

ALLIANCE, The Farmers'. .Sic 1'mti:d 
Static iiK Am : A. H. 1-77-1-*!!!. 

ALLOBROGES. Conquest of the. — Thi- 
.\'.'S (-;..■ .Kill!; iiKii OAn.-i Iniviiii; 
slii'tcri.l till' rliiifs of till' Salves, wliin tin. hit- 





tir tiirrumUHl in ttu' Komunx. ami liininf 
rc'fuwil to (lillvcr tlii'in ii|i, ilii- |rrcKiinsiil Cii. 
IKiiiillliiii liiiinlicil hJK iiriiiv tnnnnl Ihilr i iiiiii- 
irv. II. ('. I'JI. Till' Allolircij:.-. acluiriiril ti> 
Hint him mill win' ilcfnitiil at Viiiiliiliiiin, umr 
lUv Jiini lloii iif till' .Sorifiin Willi tlh' Itliiiiir ami 
II..I tar fniiii .Vvl|;iiiiii, liavliii; ;>l).iiiii) uuu niain 
anil D.IMKI lakiii |iri*iiiir<. 'Ihr Arvi nil, who 
»rr. till' ailiiK iif the AlliiliniKi"., ihin i,Kik iliii 
III 1(1. rriiH»iiii,' till' ('I'Vi'iiiii'H iiiiiiiiitaiiH iiiiil tlin 
livir lllioiii' wjih II vast lumt, tn allai k tin small 
Ibiiiiaii annv I'l MO.iHHt niiii. »lilili hail |ia>«iil r till' KaiiiiiaiKl .1 ^ KaliiiiH .Maxiiiim 

• KiiiiliaiiiH. (hi tin: Hth III Aiiniisi, II c. I'.M. 
til.' (iaiilMi liiinli' 1111 iiiiiiti nil tin- h^ri,ii,s nf 
lliinii-. al a |iiiiiit inar tin Juiii tiiai nf tlir Im rii 
anil till' Ithiiiii', ami wi-n- naitiil with nm h i imr- 
iiioiis -liiiiirlilir that l.Vt.IdH) arr saiil i,, havii 
liiii slain ur ilrowiiiil. This lialllr wltliil thi' 
lair ill thr .\lliiliriii:i's. whu siirniiiliriil tn llnmn 
"illiiiiil fiirthir Ktni(.'L'li': liiit tin- Arnriii wi rii 
iiiil |iiirsiiii|. Tlir lllial riilii|iiist nf that |irii|ilii 
»a» nsirviil fur ( ii-mir. — G. Um^', JMiIiih: »f 
'III li,.ii,,iii llrii'Mic, c. 1, (A. ai. 

ALMA, Battle of the. Si'o IIiwia: X D. 
IS.VJ iSh; 

quarrel of the. 8<'c i'Kiii: A. D. l."i.l:t \r,\>i, 

ALMANZA, Battle of (A. O. 17071. Scu 
Sf.vrs; A. I). 17(17. ' ' 

ALMENAKA, Battle of (A. O. 1710). Si-o 
Si'.mn: a. i). 17i)7-17|(». 

ALMOHAOE3, The. — Tlio cmpiru of thu 
Aliiiiiravlilcs, in M.riKiii uiiil S|iuiii, A.hlcli 
iiriiinatcil in a Mosk'iii iiiksi mary ni vtniiii', 
WIS iivirturiicil in the iniihllt' 01 \w twcl ih nn- 
liiry hy 11 tiiDVcnicnJ of s nicwlmt slmiliir nut iirt. 
Till' au'llatinif caiiwnf the revdlution was a re- IIS tiailur naiinil .Malidiiict Ixii Aliilalliili, 
«lii> ruse ill theni«u nf All (sucti ssor to the 
i-rt'ut .VInioravlilo priiici', Joseph), who guiiH'd 
theoiliirof .samiitv iit .MnriK-co iiud who tiwlc 
lli'titlfof Al Milull, iir El Mahili. tin- lA-aili-r, 
'■,'iviii^r himsilf out fur til I pirsiin whom uuiny 
Milii.niitansi'xpiot iiiiihr that litli'. ,\s bcf re, 
ilii'.siit gnw- into an armv, ami thu army (tri'W 
i)ii.) an iiiipiri'. The new dvnasly were calleil 
Aliiii.liailis from .\1 .Mehili, aiiil hy liis appoint. 
Mil lit aeirtaiii .Vlxlelmuimn was eletleil Caliph 
Hul ( iimiiianiler of tin Faithful. rmler his 
M.-nriius giiiilanec the new kiiimloin rapiilly 
-riiv, till the Alinohailes olitaiiieil quite the 
U'liT haiiil in Alrii a. ami in UKl they too 
l'l^-l i| into Spain. I'mlir Aluleliiiiimen uiiil his 
-iiii^sors, .III,, .ph ami .laioli Aliiiansnr, the .\1- 
ni'li.ulrs enlirily siipplaiiteil the .Mmnravliles, 
i:il hname mure formiilalile fiHs than llnv hail 
I ■' 11 to the ri-ii|ir ( hristian iiowers. .laioli .\1- 
tui.:-i.r Willi ill iii).-| the terrible liattleof Alareos 
t::.iiii^t Alliiiisi) of Castile, ami carriiil his cuii- 
•i;i' -IS ill .|, into Iha! kiii-iloiii. Ills fame spn ail 
'■'iriiiuli the whole .Mnslein world. . . . Willi 
■ 'ill Aliiuiisor pi ri^heil the t'lorv of the Alinn- 
'■•!-. lis siieii-s.,r, .Mahiimet, lost in l-'ll 
|l 111! li.| tl.e o; battle of Ala.ab or Tolosa 
^■. 11:1 1 Allmisii. ailil tli:il liai' iiiav be saiil to 
■■ '>' le I 1, e.l ih,. late of .Malii.iiietailisiii in !sj,:,in. 
!■" AliimliMileilwiastv urrailuallv ilei lined. . . . 
11.1- AlTiiiiliailes. like the Oinmiads ami the ,\I. 
'■: ii null s. vanish from history amidst a sei iie of 

• iiM-ioii the details of which" it were hma-lessto 
■■■ .••.i: :.. ieiiuiiiiH.r."_K. \. J^'reeuiuii, ili>'.. 
u;, / i .,/,.;v«r» ufilie Siracciui, l,et. 5. 


I AI.IM1 IN II, Coppfi'. Co.,/.;,./ „/ Sinin bg IIU 
Arah- .V->rt, U'. », rfi. 4.— «.<■, uImj, Si-ain . A D 

ALMONACID, Battle of. N<ti »i>aim: A. 
D. ImiUi.Vt 111 KT— Niin.:MHt.iii. 

ALMORAVIDES, The.— nnrlnc the eon 
fusloim of the llth lentury In the .Moslem world. 
■ nil.sHioiiary from Kalrwan — one AlalHllah — 
nremhint! the faith of Mam to a wild trilw In 
Weitcrn North Afrlia. 1 n ated h reliuious move 
metlt whiih "iiaturally hd to a polltiral one." 
' The tribe now lallnl' tin inw Ives .\liiiora\ide», 
or more nrnperly Moribi thah, whii h appears to 
mean followers of the .Maraliont or n liifious 
ti aeher ANIallah dms not appear to have hlm- 
Kelf eluhni'd more than n reli;:ii.iis aiithorltv 
' ut their prim en Zai harlah and Abu llitr 
were coinpletelv iruldi'il by his roiiiisrls. After 
his death .Vhii lli kr foiiii'did In |il7ii the 1 ity 
of MoriKco. Till re he left an his lieiiti iiant 
his (ousin Joseph, who jjrew mi powerful 
that Abu IJikr, by u wonderful eMreise of 
modiratii.n, alKlieated in his fanmr, to avoid 
a prob.ible I ivil war. This Ji™ jih. when he had 
Ihi oiiie lord of most part of Wisterii .\frlea, 
was reipii sted. or eaiisi d hiiiiM If to In' rei|uested! 
to iissiiine the title of Kmir al .Monieiiiii, Com- 
mander of the Faithful. As a loval HUbjeet of 
the Caliph of llaudad, he shrank from sueli saerl- 

lei:lous usurpili bm ho ,[id m,t Rcruple to 

style hlnis,. If i;inir Al .Miishmln. Cnmniamhr of 
the.Miisleiiis. . . . Tlie.Mninnnide Josiplipaswsl 
over into Spain, like another Tarik; lie yun- 
ipiishid Alliiii'ii [the Clirisiian prime of the 
risiiuf kliiudoni ot Castili | at Zalaeeii [Oet. ^8. 
.y 1). 10X111 and tin 11 converted the greater por- 
tion of .Mahometan Spain into an ap|Miidage to 
his own kiiiirdom of .Mormeo. The 1 liief por- 
tion to eseape wa.s the kiiij.'ilom of ZaraRossii, 
the (freat outpost of the Saraiins In north- 
eastern (Spain. . . . The inanities of .\iidalu- 
Mii were all brouRht under a di ({radiiig submis- 
sion to the Almoraviilis. Their dynasty how- 
ever was not of long duration, and it feirin turn 
r.V. I). 1147] before one wliiiM' iitiu^in was strik- 
ln_i;ly similar to tin ir own" |ilii. Alnioliailesl.— 
E. \. Fri email, ;//.< ami CinuiiUHlaof the Sun- 
d /.». /■ rl. 5. 

Al.sii IN ir. Coppie, Ciuipi,.! 'if .<!•., ill h,l tilt 
.\i„f,.M.,„r,, hi., si^ ,./,, .J „ ,„; .|._s,.,., als„,!PonTf- 
• lAi.; Kaiii.v llisiiinv. 

ALOD.-ALODIAL.— "It may be ipies- 
tioiied whiihiT any etvniiili'<.'iial 1 omuxioii ex- 
ists betvuiii the wiiiils i.ijal aiidaliHl, bin ihelr 
Mgliiliealli.n applied tn land is the s.iliie: the alisl 
is the liiridii iiy isiMie derived fr.iiii primitive 
oiriipali'iii; for u hirh the oumrowes mi service 
eveept the iiiTsniial oblii,'atiiiii to ap|ii ar ill the 
liost.imlintlieioiineil. . . , The land held in full 
ownerv|ii|i mioiit h,. ijiher an 1 tin I, an iiilu riled 
oroH'iruise aninlnd poriioii of original allot, 
liieiit, oraii 1 -late criaieil by Ii-lmI proci ss out 
of imblie land, limli the,,. ,",i,. i,,, h,,;,.,; j,, i|,e 
inure coiiiimni tcniialii,l; but tin- rnriiier looks 
for its evidence in the pidiirn r ot iis oh iier ol 
ill the wiiiii-sof llie ciiiiiiiiuniii. « |,il,. the lat- 
ter cm produce the charter or' I k by which 

It is iriated. and i- called Imclind. " .\s the 
priiiiiiive allotments undiiallv In-t their his- 
torical characiir, as the priiniiive iiiimIcs of 
transfer bccaini' obsolet'.'. :t!:d the !:-.e of '.vri:;;':: 
ivcords took their place, the cllicl is lost sinlit of 
in the liooklan'l. All the land that is not soac- 





(iiiinlnl li fnlrliiml, or |«iilillc IhimI — W, 
Ktiilil»". ' •' Ui-> ■'( K.f U, unit 

rS. ft. .../, .Ill— ■• \l.« l;iiiil« an- I "n >iily 

(ipiMi'u.l t'< Uihlli liiry iir f. lulil, llii iMiimr Ik'- 
liiK »lrit ti\ |irM|irlil,ir\ , w liili ihi' Ijiiii r ili |'i mini 
iipiMMi ■.111" riMf. In llii-. Bi ii-i' till' »"nl N uf 
I'tiiitiniiiil I., iiir. iiri' ill 111. i. Ill lilsiiirim, !ii«< 
■ml iii-iiriiiiii nil It ■"■iin liim h. h'lvvi vi r, 1m irn 
till- wll-«' i>f llilii ril.lllir . . , llrliri'. III lln' 
charli'H if ilir rli n iilli 1 1 iitiiry, Inn ilitary III li 
urv In .|iiiiiiK liriiH .IhI.mII i "_ ||. Il.illiiiii, M"l 
dU- .lv«. ./. .'. /.' I. "■'■ 
Ai.-i'iv-l M. Kiiiilili- '/'/., .Sir.. ),« i/i A'/iy/.i/ii/, 

4*. 1. •■',. II -S, ,. ;,U,, I--,,,, I, AMI, 

ALP ARSLAN, Seljouk TurkUb Sultan, 
A. I> Iml.l I'lM 

ALPHONSO. •*. !• A I roNiM. 

ALSACE. -ALS/.TIA: Th* Namt. «>•<• 
Al I M VNM: AM -I ' 

A. D, 843-870.— Included in the Kingdom of 
Lorraine. >ii' I.ihiiimm.: A l> xll "ii' 

loth Century. Joined to the Empire. Hee 

LllllllMM A l> Oil (l»ll. 

loth Century.— Origin of the HouM of 

HaptburK. hir Ai-riiu: A. I). lJlil-rJ>«a. 

A. O. 1525. — Revolt of the Paatanti. l^ti 
Okiimvn^; a I> l.V.'l iri,'". 

A. D. 1631-1632.— InTationt by Manifeld 
■od his predatory army, .n iHIkiim >nv: .\. I>. 

A. D. 1636-1639 —Invaiion and conqueit by 
Duke Bernhard of Wfimer.— Richeliru'i ap- 
propriation of the conquest for France. N r 
GKHMknv: a li lii.l li.i'.i 

A. O. 1643. Crssion to Frrnce in the 
Ptacc of Westphalia. Si .- <ii iim \nv: .\. 1). 

A. D. 1659— Renunciation of the claims of 
the King of Spain. Nv rii\Mi.; .\. 1), lil"ili- 

A. D. i674-i678.— Ravaged in the Cam- 
pjit(ns ol Turenne and Conde, Sic NKniKit- 
1, AM. -(lint. HMD: .\. 1> Hi:i-1(1T«. 

A. D. 1679-1681.— Complete Abtorbtion in 
Trance. -Assumption of entire Sovereignty by 
Uuuis XIV.— Encroachments of the Chamber 
if Reannexation— Seizure of Strasburg.— 
Jverthrow of its independence as an Imperial 
City. S.i' KiiAM k: a 1). Ili7!t-lii'<l. 

A. D. 1744. -Invasion by the Austrians, 
S,-, \i>riii\; A I) iTl.i-Kll. 

A. D. 1871.— Ceded to the German Empire 
by France. Sie I'iiame; A, D. l^TI i.Iam auv 

1871-. J79. — Organization of government as 
a German Imperial Province. .Si' Ct.itMtNv: 
A. U. l^Tl-l'?fu. 

ALTA CALIFORNIA.-Upper California. 

8€u ( Ai.iM.KM \; A. 1>. I'.l:(-i;-l. 

ALTENHEIM, Battle of (A. D. 16751. 
Sii' Ni.iiii.itLAM)- (ll.ii.i.ANiii: A. I), liiri- 

ALTENHOVEN, Battle of (17931. fi. 
KlivMi- \ li lTli:l ^Fl i.h. m;'. Ai'IJI). 

ALTHING, The. >. . ■|lll^..; al..., Nou- 

HANS.- NilliniMIA .\. Il, Mill Ullll, allil S( AN- 
llIN iVUS SlAII - (111 NMAllK — Irl.l.AMlj: A. |) 
1^1!' 1-71 

ALTIS, The. Si. iii ',mi'i. Ki -tivai. 
ALTMARCK. :-. t H!i-.-.:-.M;t i:.;: A. D. 


ALTONA: A. D. I7i3.-Burned by tha 
Swedes, si r Sr*i«iiiN.4v un Si Aiii(.S»i.iir.!ii) 

A. i> im; WIN 

ALTOPASCIO. Battle of (I3JS). ^. Iimt 
A. Il 1:11.) 1:1^111 

Nkiiiiiii \sim: A I). IVlil I.iHh i„ 1 ,:.l-|.-i74 
AMADEO, Kingof Spain. A 1> In?!^?.!. 
AMAHUACA, The. .•'1 • Amuii. a.\ Aiu.k 

?I1IM'«; Am>i IVN'. 

AMALASONTHA, Queen of the Ostro- 

giiths .Sii UoMi : A II .VI.V.'i.'i.l 
AMALEKITES, The. -'I In' Amul.kii.i 

w I ri' iisiiatt r.L'ir.l.'.l ai a liran. Ii i>t iIm' 
i;.|i.iiilti 4 1.1 ill. I -Uiii.-' .\iiiali l>. liki' Kriia/. 
till' l.ithir lit tlir ur ' lluiiliT-i.' wiw 
till' Kraiiilsiiii III Kwiii i<ii II :lil: I'.', Ill), lln lliii'* 
Ih'Iiiiii.'1'iI III till' ^ri'.iii|i "( iialiniiM, — Kiliiiiillr», 
Aiiiiiiiiiiiii H. ami M.'iiiili », — wliii hliH»l in a 
n l.iiiiiii iif rliiw klii-.lii|iiii Urml. Hut tiny liiul 
|iri nili'il 111!' Iirarlili 1 In ilii|Mi..M's..liii.' tin' nliUr 
iiihaliilaiit.t I'f III.' liiiiil. ami I ^lalili^liiiii: tlirni- 
M hi "H in tliiir pliii'. Tin Kilmiiiii > liail partly 
ill .-iriiyril, jiarily iiiiialk;aiiialril tin' ll.iriiin uf 
Mi.iint .Si ir lIK lit. 'i: li), the .Mmiliiti k hail iliiiie 
^'iviiiii' til till' Kinlin, 'n |u'i.|ilr k'natuiul iiianv, 
I'liil (all iH till' .\iiakim' (I >. ill. 'J; lUi, wliilv tfm 
.\lllllliillilril liail rxlir|ia1i'it itliil tun r. . ili-il til tilt' 
111 |ili liiii ur '(iiaiiK,' uli.i ill that part iif the 
iiiiiiilry uiri' tcriiiiil Zaiii/iiiiiiiiiiii (Hint. 2:20; 
(i. II. II: Ti). Kiliiin liiiwiM r hIiiikI iu a rlijsor 
ri I iti.m t<i Isnicl than its two iimn' mirtlu'rly 
III i^jliliiiiira. . . . Hi'paraii' triiin till' Kiliiniili-Hiir 
Aiiialikiln wiTO till' KciiitiH ur wainlirliig 
''Miillii.' Tiny fiiriiii'il an linpurtaiit (liiiM in 
an a.'i- wlitn tin- art uf nii-(alltiri.'y uaH (-miliii. 1 
t.ia livv. Ill till' tllllil lit Silll \i' In ir iif lllim 
aicainiiiii;,' aim lln; tlir Aiii.ilikili'Ml. Sam. I.'):U.) 
. . . 'I'hi' Ki iii'is . . . iliil mitinii^Iiliito II rare, 
or cvfii a tril-r. Tliry witc. ut nin?it, 11 lastt-. 
Hut tiny liail uri^'inairy mim', liki' tin' l-rin liti'K 
or tho Kiliiiiiiii s, fniiii tlni-u' liarri'ii r<':;iiiiui of 
N'ortinrn Aralia wliiili wrri' pniplt'il liy tlic 
.Mriiti of (il.' I.L'yplian Ihm ripliims. ituilully, 
tlnrrfiin', we iii:iy n L'arl llu in aa allinl tn tin- 
(li'M'riiilaiK-i lit Aliraliain. W hill- tl', Ki'nili'i 
mill .' 'iialikitis vvfri' lliiis Si luitir in iliiiriiriKiii, 
tin: IIi\i(i-> ur ' Villas'. T;.' are ."frially luiso- 
ciati'il Willi .\imiriti'S." — A. U. Saxcr, lli'iii nj 
a, uht •/...'. ./,. 11. 

AiMi IS II. Krt.ilil. ///«/, ./ Inniii, bk. I, tcrt. 
4. — Si 1'. ai ■.. Aiivni \. 

AMALFI.— " It wan 'hi' s!iiL;iilar fate iif tliis 
c-ily (11 lla.i; lillnl lip tin nililval liitwrin tu n 
piriii.!.'* iif riiilizaiiiiii, in miiliii- i.( wliirli >.lii- 
w;is lii-^linrii ti» 111- ili-IiliL;ni>.lii-ii. Si'ari'riy 
kniiiMi liit.irL' till' inil uf llir .■.(Mil ciiuiiry 
.\iii;illi r;iii a lirilU;iiiI ciirirr, ii.s a Iri r auil tr;i't- 
iiiK ripiililii' {-vu liu.Mi ■ A. 1). .V>4siKi|. whiili 
\v:is I'lii'i kill hy till' ariii^i't' :i|iirriir in tlir 
ijiiililli' of lliL' twiliili. . . . 'I'liiTL' iiin-t lie, I 
^'i-|.rr(. sunn,' c.\a^';:i ration at.-iiit (hr roniiiirrrr 
aM'l .ipiilriiii' ut .\in:illi. in (hi' nnlv ai;i' winli 
^ll,■ |i.iNs.',M'il any at all. '—11. Il.ill:iiii. '/7<. 

I/,././/, .1.;,.., ,-h. i). i.t. 1. irith (,..^. -'■ Anialli 
aii'l .\lrani lii' I 1.1-1' (I'L.lh.'r in t\v.» . . 
ra\ ill. s. ilif iiiiniiiTain-i alin. .-( :iri'hiiit;o\i'rtlii'in. 
aiitl I'll' M ;i \v;i-hiiii.r ((11 ir \rry lioii-(:-\\;ill- 
... U is lii.t la-y to iniaL^iiii' itir tiiiii: \vh. ri 

.\inalli ami Alriiii w.ri' oiii' t.nvii, Willi ilork- 
:in.l ;ii-i ii:ilsanil li;irliiiiii':iLM' for llii'ir a-^soiiati' ; 


1 ML'cuU'l in 

III Ill> UiiVul iMlVVt-r Lit 




MirtnllHii Furop* Tlic lU/milnf Fmpiro lout 
li'. h>>M on Itiily cliirlii^r tli' , Il'IiiIi i i murv . imil 
ulu r thU llriii 'ihi' hlolurv "f Ciilaliii i i< irmiiily 
(MiHirriiil with till' n |'iil)li< •< i.f .\ii|il. -i nn'l 
Aiiiilll, thrir iMtilllit nlih Ihr I.ninli.inl ilukin 
cif It. M. wiilii. Iliilr M|i|H..iii..„ I,, th, H.iriic.ii«. 
iiii.l iIjiiI .iiLjii^ iii.iii hv i|„- Ncriimii 
i..ii,|ih n.ri tif Hli il) It. I VI,, II lli<> j.'iir «;!!» 
A K.wlnn Aiiiiilrl fr.r.l li.. If fniu'ihu ii.ii- 
lr..| ..( \.i|iln nil, I III,' v.'k., .i| It. h. M iitii, anil 
III, J, ir . i;il, uliiii lt,-.r.,r Il:iiil.'\j||i' lii,,.r- 

|i-,r;il,,| 111!' Il|,lll,llc ill lil„ klliL,,|.,|ll , ( til., 'I'ttii 

Si. ,l',>, lliJH lily »:i. III.' I,,i, iii,,'.i iii\,i| uii.l 
i,,h,;ii.ri ill! p.,rl iif IIm1>. Th,' l.iiruli, m i,f 

\iu.M rliiliil thrir .,v\il ||.,H|.; f.,iii|,|i,| t|„, 
l|ii'|,il:il of Ji ril-.lli III, will II. r Slirilllg llill 
klii-lllly nnllT l,( S .l.illll; i;„\.' ImiiH- 

l.illi.' rii 111 ••I .(ii'irl, r in ruliTiii.,: iiii.l oh in, I 
lni,|iiu,'i'^liilili,liiii,iiNi,r f.i. ii.rl.'^lii all I In c hi, f 
(ill.. i,r till' l.rv.iiil. ' L-.'M (.,iniici' iif 
'l:iri' f,,rnii',| Hi,' -liill.l,ii,l nl i urn m y l,if.,'c Hi,, 
Kl'ir, ■ilin.»;iii,Ut.illlIi,,IIIii' liU ali,|.< .l,,hll ii|m,ii 
Ihi- TiiMaii ll,.riu. I'h. ir Khi'|,j,iiii; r.'iriil:ili,,in 
suppllrd Kuriipo with in ,kI.' nf niiriiuii,' lawn. 
Thi'lr sihiitart, In tlir il.uKi -I il, plh, ,,1 ilii, ,|ark 

Fii;,-i, prizr'l ami i i,,| a faiiniiH i ,,pv iif llm 

l',iii,l, . I-, ,,f .Iii»liiiian, an,| lli.'ir wiini n i'Ii'sith .1 
the liiiii' (,( liaviii;; til.:, if th, y iii,| nut 
uctually invent, tin.' cuinpasui. . . . Th," ripiililic 
h'nlKr,'»n unil H,,iiri>hi,l on ttio ilnav «,1 tin- 
(iriik Knipir.'. Whi'U the Imril lian.l. i! raci' nf 
llanli \ill.' at.siirlHil llii' licritati- ,if (in, kn and 
l,,'inliai,l< an.l .Saracciw in S..iiihi'rn Italy Uiv 
liAM (S.mihirii): A l> liHHIImi )|. thi'sr 
iiih, mill, r» sin-ci'i'ilnl in annrxin!; Ainalll. lint 
it wi.n.'l tlnir inl, ri -^1 I,, i'\iiiif;iii.h th., stale, 
nil tlif .,,nirary, tiny relieil f,,r a<si-l.iiire iipnn 
Ih,' Mil,! ihr armii'H iif the lilll,' i',iinin,in- 
». illh, .New piiwcrs lia,l nii aimhile arisi ii in 
til,' .\,,rtli ,,f Italy, win. »i re ji almin nf rivalry 
up.'ii II,,' .,(1111 SI is; 1111,1 Hhi'ii till' Ni'ap.ililaus 
r,M^l<',l Kiiii! l{(,;r, 1- in IM-'), lliev lalhil I'isii to 
tli.'ir niil, anil sent her tleet to ileMmv .\nuilti. 
'I'll.' >lii|,< ,,1 Ainultl were on friiar.l wiili Itnnir s 
navy in Ihe Ray of Naples. The armed cili/ens 
«ire. nnil, r Itoner's onlem, «t Aversii. .M.-an- 

"I'll'' '111' h,,i f iherepiililic lav lief,. neih'vson 

i!sin,,inilaiii f;ir,|li',ls,'al>oard. 'I'hi' l'i^ans^ail,■ll 
iiiiij Ihi harlhiur. sa,'ke,| the city ami e.'irri,.! ult 
llie fani,,iH I'an.l,, Is i,f .In~tinian as u trophy. 
I«,i yi' lai.r iliiy retiiini'il, to e.,iiip|,'ti' tfie 
Work of i|,'v,i.iali,in. Anialli n.-ver rei,ivi'reil 
li'iii III ■ injiirii's ami th,' hnniiliali'iii " — .1. A. 

AMALINGS, OR AMALS. -Th.' r.nai 

I"' I I,,.' 111. i, 'III (l-ir.iL.' iiIk. u> Ih.' It.ilihi .ir 
I,, 'li:'i_'- w. r,- ,,f III,. \ iM.',,lhs liolli I laimiii" a 
'! -' • 'i' In.iii til,' "cl, 
AMATONGALAND, or Tonftaland.- i in 

■■' ,'■'; ~' "'■ >■ Airi.a. iM,rili ,,r /iiliilai,,!, 

M- .|ii' lliiij-li j,r,,!,., n,,ii ..ill, ,. i,,s 

AMAZIGH, The S,,l.riivvNs 

AMAZONS.- "Th,' Ani,iz,„is, ilaiithierv ,.f 
\' . Ill I llanu., Ilia, are li.,t!i (.ilviriati, ,11-^, ,111.1 
II rii 'Il r, |,r,Klii,ti,,iis. ,,f tli,'anii.'iil epi, . . 
A lull., not eoiiri ,.,iis. har,ly aii.l ih.U faiii.'al,l.' 
>V'■|^>•ll,.l',vellinlr apart fr,,!,! m, ii. pi rniiiiini,' 
"lih a >li,iii |.n,p,,rary inl. nmirM' for the pur- 
■" ,.f r, ii,,valiiiL' Ihiir iiiiinlnrs, uiiil liiirniii..'- 
iiiir ri,'lii lir, a-l vi ith a view of eiialilii, ' 
<■■■■ :i.-,His loilnw Ih,' l„,w fn eh. — this was at 

hi- i„ iirer* Nor wa« It nl all n'p,irfnaiii to th- 
I' f the liitler-- «h,i ha.l ti.i i..,.r.|..l taiK 

t,. - ,1.' Iheni, >in,l II,, ,,ihi r slaiuhinl of i reill 

• ihal 


■as of 



-, anil 


I"" I. and a tin me (inineiilly p,,|„i]ar with I lei l''-irii, k the river ( 


hillly a.. I.I 111. p 1st e\i • pi sin |, | 
live* tlnnisilvis - to .1,11. live 
AiMtiioiis ,is having aetit.iltv e^Uii 
time, Aeii'rilinL'ly «. iln.l ihesi' »,. 
roiislanilv r, a|,pi .itin ■ in tin am i, nl j 
iiiilvers.illv .1, ,,pi,,| I, p,,,t rialiiii 
Ilia, I, wh,ii I'ri.iiii HI l,.<t,, illii-iMi, I iiipliail, 
iilly the most iiiiiii. i,,u. Ii.,si in uhiil, \„- ,.<iit 
f,,iin.l hihi-. If II,. Iii.le.l, I,.. 1,11, II, ,1,,, il „,„ 
IIS.. ml, I,, I in ri.ri ;ii, 1,11 ihe hunk. ,,f th, >an 
k'ariiis, |,,r ll„ purp.,..' of i, -i-iiin.- ih,' f..iini,la 
l,le .\iiia/,,ii... U hi II 111 II, i,,p|„,n is 1,1 In mi 
pl,.),',l ,,11 It ih ellv an.l p. ril.ais iiii.l.rlakiiiL'. hv 
lli.sowli.i iii.|\ ui-h to jir.Kiir.- his ,|,,ith 
h,' isil, .p.'iii heil au-aiiist the .\iiia/.,,iis. . . . T|„', 
.\r;;,,iiaiiiie hi To. . Iin,| th,' .\iiia/.,iis on the riv, r 
riiirniil.1,,11 III their i vpeilitioii iil,,ni,' the south. 
, rn eoasl nf the r.ii\ini' To the name spot 
llOrakli. ;;,N s i,,all.iik tin in, in the [m rrormaiieu 
of till' iiiiiih lalioiir inipi,si ,| iip,in |,ii„ (,, Knrys- 
Ih, lis, hirih,' piirpos.' of pri« nrini: Hie "(.'irille of 
111,' .\liia/.iniani(iieen, Ilippolyle; an, I we are li,l,| 
Hill Ihiy ha.l ii,,t v 1 1 rei,,vi'fid from the Iosmh 
siisiaiiii'd in thissevi n'ni;i.'ressi,,ii h|i, n Theat'im 
nls.i assaiilleil mil ilifialeil Ihi III, larrvin^ oil 
thiiripiiiii Anli,,jA 1 his inpirv Ihi v 'iivenifisl 
In iiivailiii!; Anna . . . ami iMnitraiiil even 
Into .Minus itself: will re the liiial hallh', luinl- 
foiiithi ami at one tiiiie iloiihifiil. hv whi, li Tlif- 
Mil', crushe,! theiii, was l',,iit;M— In the very 
heart of till I iiy. Altii iiiiii,|iiari, s i',,nliilenlly 

I ih'l o'll Ihi' exail posiii,,n ,,f the two con- 

temlin.^'ariiii, ., , , . N., porlion of theante-hlj. 
lornal i pie iip|,iar'S' I,, liav,' Is , ii in,.r,' il, eply 
Worked inl, I the nali,,nal min.l of (irieie timn 
this invasi,,ii itn,l d, I, ai of the Ania/..,ii.s. 
Their pr,,p,'r I, r .iOiry was a.serleil to !«• the town 
and plain of Themiskyra. near the fJreeiau c olouv 
of Ainisiis. on the riv, r [norlherh 
Asia .Min,,i |, ii n i.'i,,ii rail,, I all,',- Iheir iiuine hv 
I^llnan hi.i,,rians an, I K..,L'raphi rs. . . . .Some 
ttiilli,,rs pl.ii'e,| them ill l.iliva or Kihhipla "— 
G. (;r',i, . //,V, „^ (.>!,, ',. ;,^ i ,-fi 11 

AMAZONS RIVER. Discovery and Nam. 
ing; of the.— I'll,' m,,nih .,l th. L'nal river ol 
Soiilh Aniirie.i was ,li., ,,ver, ,| in l.-,oil hv Pin- 
z,,n, or l'in.,,iii (.,,' Aviiiin \: A. I). 1 PWll.'rfM)) 
who (ill.. I il -.^.ini.i .Maria ile la Mar Duhe' 
(.Slim .\IiTy of th.' I'Msh-Water Siai. "Thi. 
Was Ihi' lir.i name L'iv. n t,, Ihe livi r, eMepl thai 
olihr an, I 1,1 It, r .,n,' ot ihe Imliaiis, 'I'lirana.' 
the Na; afii rvv.irds il was .Marai"i,,n ami Uio das 
Aiii,i/.,iia.. fr,,ni tlie I'l iiial,' warri,,rs that were 

supp,,-.,'i I,, liv,' n. ir ils hanks \ii,,' |'jn. 

,,i,M s liiu,'. th, r.' Were ,,iliirs wh,, sivv the fre.h. 
wall r -, I. 1,11' no one was har.h i'noii:.'li to 
veiiliM.' int., it. Thi' honor .,f it,. {, al ili.eov, rv 
w IS r, ..rv.'l for J''nini i.eo deOnllina: and h'e 
i\j,|,,r,,| it. from ihe east, hni fr,,m the 

vvi .1, ill ■ ol' Ihe mosi .lariiiL' vova-, . thai wxs 

i".,r 1,1, , nil, 1. It ai.i,!. Ill latlar lli,,ii 
.i..i'jn 111, It l..| him t., it, .\ii,i . . . I'izirn) 
I' 111 I 'It'll,, r. ,1 I", rn, h,- .- nl hi. hroih, r •;,,n- 
/,il',, wiiii :i(il .spaiiLli ...,l.|i, r., ,uid IKXI 
I.ellatH. to.'.\p!.,r,'lli, uri'at h.r, .1 , a.| ofC^iiilo. 
.V ill re till re Win iintiini,,ii tries' The e\pi 
ilition .larleil lai,- in 1.".:;;). ami it was two vears 
h, l,,r,' llie starved and raL'i;,'d survivors retiinied 

II. .' u.iudelilltts f It.'V 


Iniil.lin,' hen a hrig- 



••ntlnc. thov followed down thr cuiTPnt, ii piirt of 
Oiom in tlie vosscl, a iwrt on sliorr. After a 
while lliev met some Indians, wlm told tliem of 
a rich euiintrv ten days' journey iM'vond — a 
emnilry of jrol'd. and witli plenty of provi.sions. 
Ooii/.ulo plaicil Orellana in eomniand of the briK- 
aiitine, and ordered liini, with 50 soldiers, to p) 
onto this sold-land, and return with a load i^f 
provisions. Orellana arrived at the inonlli of 
the Clio in three davs. hut fonnd no provisions; 
■and he cnn-idi red t' if he slaudd return with 
this rii \vs to rizarro, he woulil not reach hiiu in 
a on aee.iiuit of the stroni; eurniit. and 
that if he remained »hen> hi' was, he- would he 
of no use to the one or to the othiT. Not know- 
ins.' how loni: (Jiin/alo IM/.arro would take to 
reaeh the plaei-. without eonsultin.i; any one he 
set sail and pn>se<uteil his voyage <mward, 
intendini: to iirnore Ota./.alo, to re.aeb Spain, and 
iihtain that t'overnment for himself.' Down the 
Napoand tile .\niazonR, for si'ven months, these 
Spanianls floated to the Atlnntie, At times they 
sullired terriblv from hunirer: 'There was 
nolhini.' to eat hut the skins whieh formed their 
prdles. and the leather of their shoes, boiled 
with a few hirlis,' Wiien they did izet UhkI 
they were often oliliced to fm'ht "hard for it; and 
ajjiiin thev W( re attaeked by thonsiuids of naked 
Indians, who eanu' in eanix"s a,!:ainst the Spanish 
ve-scl. At some Indian villa:.'es, however, they 
were kindlv received and well fed, so they eoidil 
rest while" a new atid stronger ves,sel. 
, . Ontheilithof Aniiust, l-ifl.Onllanaandhis 
men sailed out to the blui' water •without either 
pilot, eompass, or anythin;: useful for naviija- 
tion; nor diil thev know what ilireetiou they 
sliould i,ike.' Kniliiwini: the eoast, they pas,sed 
inside of the inland of Trinidad, and so at length 
reuehnl Culiau'iia in Seiitend)er, From the kin.? 
of Spain Onllana reeeived a pnint of the land 
hi had disiovered; but he died while nturning 
to it, and his enmpany was dispersed. It was 
nut a very reliabh' aeeount of the river that was 
iriven bvOrellana and his ehronieler. Padre f'ar- 
hajal. So Ibrrera tells their story of the warrior 
females, and very properly adils: ' Every reader 
inav bi'li<'ve as muell as he likes.'" — H. U. 
Smith. Ilrii:i>. tin' .\m<i:<in.o, Uliilt/n (iiist. eh. 1. 
—In eh. IH i>f this .same work "The Amazon 
Myth ■ is iliseusseil at lentrth. with the reports 
and opinions of nutnerous travellers, both larly 
and ricent, eoneernini!; it. — Mr. Sonlhey had so 
much nspcet I'.ir the memory of Orellana that 
lie made an < Ifort to restore that boM but unprin- 
I ipled discoverers name to the L'riat river. " lie 
diseurld M iriiiMii. as bavin;: too much reseni- 
blMiici' !o M.irinliam. and .\mazon. as bcin^' 
ruindi d upon lie lioii and at the same time ineon- 
V( iiient. .\i cMrdiniilv, in his map, and in all his 
reliTeiici s to tile trrcat river he denominates ii 
Orellana. Thi-. deei-ion id' the p.i. tlaurealc of 
Ureal Uriiain not proM d aiiilioritaii\e in 
Ura/il. * I Anci/.oiias is the iitii\t r^al iippellalion 


iif til. 



the :il 
ajipropriale than 
lather i>\ waters.' 

lat up 
:i ii- h.iiik-. . . . I'ara. 
id' iliis river, was more 
oiiit r. It sii^niiit s * tin 
Till- ori-jin of the nam. 
iiid mvstery conceniinL' the bniale warri. '-s. I 
diiiik, has b.'cii solved within thi last few v. ar^ 
bv the. intrepid Mr. Walhicc, . , , Mr. Wailac... 
I think, shows i..inclii-ivi Iv that I'riar tJasjiar 
tCarhajall and his <,anpaiiioiis saw liuiian iiiaie 

warriors who wen' attireil in Imbilimcnta such as 
Europeans would attribute t*i women. ... I 
am stroniily of the opinion that the story of the 
Amazons has arisen from feminineliwkiiig 
warriors eneounti.n'd by the early voyagers."— 
.1. (". Fletcher and 1). P. Kidder, lirazil aitd the 
lirnzili'im, rfi. 27. IN A. U. Wallace, Trarcl» on the Amn- 
ion anil Hill .Vf,7r(>, c/i. 17.— K. Southey, Iliit. of 
Ilr,i:il, rli. 4 (r. 1). 

War. See SotTii .\FKi( \; The AnomiiiSAL 
I.NH.\iUT.\STs; utid the sjinie: A. I). 1H77-1879. 

AMBACTI.— "The Celtic aristiK:raey [of 
Gaul] . . . devcloiied the .system of retainers, 
that IS, the priviU'tje of the ii'obility to surround 
themselvis w ith a nuinlicr of hired mounted ser- 
vants — the ambacti as they were called — and 
thereby to fonn a state within a stale; and, 
restini; on the support of these troops of tlndr 
own, they defied the legal authorities and the 
common "levy and practically broke up the oom- 
moinvealth. . . . This remarkable word [am- 
bacti] must have lieen in use as early as the 
sixth century of Itome among the Cidts in the 
valley of tile I'o, ... It is not merely Celtic, 
however, but also German, the root of our 
'.\mt,' as indeeil the retainer-system itself U 
common to the Celts and the Oennans. It would 
be of i;reat historicjil imjiortance to ascertain 
whether the word — and therefore the thing — 
rame to the Celts from the Germans or to the 
(icrmans from the Celt.s. If, a.s is usually sup- 
posed, the word is oriirinally German and pri- 
marily siirnilied the servant standing ia battle 
'a.iraiiist the back' ('and '—against, 'bak'— 
back) of his master, this is not wholly irrecon- 
<ilable with th<t singularly early o<curTcncc of 
till' wonl among the Celts. . . . It is . . . prob- 
able that the Celts, in Italy as in Gaul, era- 
ployed Germans ehietly as those hired servants- 
at-arms. The 'Swiss guard' woulil therefore In 
that <ase be .some thousands of years older than 
people suppose."— T. Mommsen, IIM. of Rome, 
M- .5. cli. 7, iinil fu'l-niiU: 

AMBARRI, The.— A small tribe in Gaul 
whieh iMcupied anciently a di.stricl bi'twcen the 
Saone, the Hhone and the Ain, — Napoleon IlL, 
lliKt itf l\i.i,ir, I'k. :i, rh. i, note. 

AM'BIANI, The. See ttvAAije.. 

AMBITUS.— IJribery at ilecl ions was termed 
ambitus among the IJomans, and man^' ii'iavail- 
iiii.' laws Wire enacted to check it, — \\. Itiinssiy, ,4' ll'iOHln .Intn/., ,/,. '.). 

AMBIVARETI, The.— .\ trilie in ancient 

Caul whieli .Helipie.l the left bank of llleMeUse, 
to the so., Ill of the marsh of reel.— Napoleon 
III., in.4. ■■!■ '-r.,.,,-, ',/.■. ;!, ,■/,. ■,'. n„lr. 

AMBOISE, Conspiracy or Tumult of. See 

Fiiw. I. .\. 1>. l.'iV.i l.-,ill. 

AMBOISE, Edict of. SeeFKANcE: A. D. 

AMBOYNA. See Moll HAS. and .Mai.\» 

.Vlll llll'I.HoO. 

AMBOYNA, Massacre of. See I:fT>iA: .\ 

1). le.oo ITO'J, 
AMBRACIA (Ambrakia). S.i Koi!kvi!\ 
AMBRONES, The. See Cimciii 

SIAN CHANT. See Milan .\ l> :trt:w; 

and Ml .-n , Kmiiv Ciiiiisti an 

116631. Sec i'liuni.AI.; .V. I) 10:i7 1(H)C. 












The Name. *■<• Mow: \. I). irm-\r,U. 

Prehistoric. — " Widi'ly s( utlind lliniiiL'lupiit 
tho I'liitcd States, fnini sea Id s<ii, iirtiliuirtl 
iiiiiuiuls aro discoviTcil, wliicli may Im' cniiimr- 
aiiil by the tlioiisaiuls orliunilreilsnf thousittids. 
Thiy vary u'reatly in size ; Sdiiie are so small tliat 
a halfdoziii lalHirern willi sliovcls mijrlit coii- 
^iriKt one iif them in a day. while iithers cover 
ai n-* arni are scores of fret in In ii:ht. These 
ninnnds were observed by the earliest (-xplitrers 
aii'l iiioru-ers of the co'niitry. They diil not 
attract ^reat attention, liowi'ver, until the 
sci' lae of arehu'olo!.'y demanded their investi^'u- 
lion. Then they were assnmed to fiirni>h evi- 
dence of a race of people older than the Iiulian 
triliis. I'-.eiid-areha-oloi.rists iloeatilitl on the 
.Moiiiid builders that once iiihabiic.l the land, 
and they told of swarmiiiL' popuIali"ns who had 
reat lied a hii;h eoiiditinti of eidiure, erecting 
ii tuples, jiracticini; arts in the metals, and usin;^ 
hirnitrlyplis. So the >!oiind-bn|lder> formetl the 
tliciiie of many tin I'v-ay on the wonders of 
aticieiit civilization. The nM-.inh of the past 
ti ti or liftcen yiars has put this subject in a 
pmprr liL'hl. First, the aimals ipf the Coluiu- 
liiiit epoch have been carefully studieil, and it 
i> found that some of the moimds have been eon- 
-Iructed in historical lime, while early explon rs 
and settlers found many tictually used liy 
tiibes of North American Indians; so we know 
that many of Ihein were builders of mounds. 
.\..Mit>. htmdreds lual thousands of the<M> mounds 
!i:i\i' been cari'fidly examined, and the works of 
art fniuhl therein have been collecleit anil a>scm- 
Mid in museiinis. At the sank' time, the works 
of art of the Indian tribes, as they were pro- 
duced before nioditication by ICuropean <'ulture. 
have III en assendiled in the .same musuems. and 
till- t\Mi classes of collections ha\(' been carefully 
li'inpared. All this has been done with the 
cnatest iiainslakini.'. anil i'" Mound-builder's 
.itts and the Indian's arts ate found to Ik' sid)- 
-tantially ideiitical. No fraL'ineiit of evidence 
r.inaiiis to siip|iort the tiuinent of theory that 
till re was jui aiu'ient nice of Mound-builders 
suprrior in cidture to the North .\nurieaii 
Iii'liaiis. . . . That .some of these mounds were 
biiil! ;uid used in moilern times is proved in 
■111 ilii r way. They ofti ii <'ontain articles mani- 
fi^Myiiiailt by white men, such as i^lass head.s 
iinl iri|.|iir ornaments. ... So it chances that 
i"'!iy .uiskilled arclireohijrists are colliciitiL' 
many titautil'ul thiiiL's in copper, stone, and 
sill II which Were made by white men and tradiil 
I'the Indians. Now. some of tin se li.inirs are 
f'liiiil in the moiuii|s;anil bird pipes. i|,|ili.ani 
I'ipis. banner stones, coppi r s|)|.;ir heads and 
knives, and luachiiie made waiiipuni are col 
1 ' 'I'l in ipiantiliis and s.ild at liiirh prices to 
"■ iltliy anialeiiis. . . . The study of these 
'iiMiiiiils. lu-ii,rically and an lia'.iloj;ii .illy, proves 
iiiat th. y w. re usiil for a variety ol piirpo,.„s. 
Nnii Were fur sepiillure. and such are ihr 
'■mill. ill and widely scalli red. Otlnrs 
'i-"l :.s artiiicial hilis on which to build 

'<"•<: .1 h'iUsis. . . . Some of the Very 

n. ' .nds Were sites of lartre cotunmnal liou 
wl:i(li entire tribes dwell, 'i'hrre is still a 
' -I" . . . conslriicled as pl.ices for public 
:iss. nibly. . . . Hut lo explain thi' mounds and 
ilu ir Uses would expHnd this :irii. i.. i,;;.. .^ !....".'k. 





It is enough lo say that the Moiind-huililoni were 
the Indian tribes liseovored by while men. It 
may wtdl he that some of the mounds we're 
erected by tribes extinct when Columbus lirst 
saw these shores, hut they were kindred in cul- 
ture to the peoph's that still existed. In the 
southwestern portion of the I'nited Slates, con- 
ditions of aridity prevail. Forests are few and 
are found oidv at ;.'reat hiif^hts. . . . The trilies 
lived in the plains and valleys below, while the 
liiirhlands wen' their hiuitin!; grounds. The 
arid lands below were often naked of ve^rctalloD; 
and Ihe led^'cs and clIlTs that stand athwart the 
lands, and the canyon walls that inclose the 
streams, were eviry where quarries of hiose riK'k, 
lyini: in blocks ready to the builder's hand. 
Iliiiee these people learned to build their 
ihvellin^is of stone; and they had larire com- 
munal houses, even lari^er than the structures of 
wood made by the tribes of the east and north. 
.Many of these stone jiueblos are still occupied, 
but the ruins are scattered wide over a ref;ion of 
CI untry cndiraein;^ u little of California anil 
Nevada, much of I'tah, most of Colorado, the 
whole of New Mexiio and Arizona, and far 
southward toward the Isthnnis. . . . No ruin 
has been discovered where eviilencesof a hi^iher 
culture are found than exists in modern limes at 
Zufii, Oraibi, or Laufuna. The earliest may have 
la'cn built thou.sands of years a;ro, but they were 
built by the ancestors of existinu; tribes and 
their conL'cncrs. .\ careful study of these ruins, 
made diirini^ the last twenty years, abundantly 
dcnionstrati s that the pueblo culture bi-L'an with 
rude structures of stoiu* and brush, and i^radu- 
ally developed, until at the timiMif the explora- 
tion of the country by the Spaniards, litginning 
about Mill, it had reached its hli;liest phase. 
Zufii [in New Mexico] has been built since, and 
it is among the larL'est and best villai.'es ever 
established within the territory of the United 
States without the aid of idi'.is derived from 
civilized men." With reirard to the ruins of 
dwelliiu;s foiiial sheltered in the craters of extinct 
Volcanoes, or on the shelves of cliir.s, or other- 
wisi' conirived, the concliision louhieh allreciut 
archa'olo,i,'ical .s'lidy tends is the same. "All 
the stone |iueblo ruins, all the clay ruins, all the 
cliir dwelliii:.'.s, all the crater vjllai-'cs, all the 
cavate chainbi fs. and all the tufa-ldock houses 
arelullyai counted for without nsort to hypothet- 
ical peoples iiili.tbiting the country anterior to 
the Indian tribes. . . . I're-Columhian cultnre inillirenous; it beiran at the lowest sta'i'e of 
sa\ai:ery and divel.iped to the hiirhest, and was 
ill many |i|aces passlni; into barbarism win ii the 
L'liod nini ti s.ild her jewels." — .Major .1. W. 
I'nwell. t*nJii!<t'>:'i<' .\fil ii iit .\itu f><:t ; in ''Tint 
h'T'iui," ■Inu.iiij, — " Tlie writer believes 
, . . that the inajority of .\mcrican nn li colo- 
L'ists now sees iiii sullii ieiiT reason f.-r supposing 
that any my sterious superior race has ever li\eil 
in any portion of our contineiil. They lind no 
af' Iiieolociid evidence jiroviiiL^ that at the time 
I i its discov.Ty any tribi' had reaihe'l :i statre 
of (ull'ire that can properly be calhil i iviiiza- 
tiiin. Kveii if we accept the cxatiireralrd state 
nil Ills of the Spanish conipierors. die n.ost inii Hi 
i:i 111 and aihaliced peoples found here wen, 
only SI mi barbarians, in the .stau'c of transition 
from the st<. lit' to the brtaize vl'Zv. jiossessiuc U'j 


.\urn Oncuvtry. 


written lanKunirP. or wli:it can properly In' 
stylcil an iilplialx't. unci nnt yet having' even 
Iriirnoil the ii-r iif liiii-ts uf Imr.l'ii. " — II. W. 
Iliivnis, /';y/,(W..;l> .\irl„r:l.,n,i ,:f .V. Am. {r. I, 
rh.'{\. .;>'•• Xlrnitii; <itiil Crllir^il' Ili^t. ./.I/M."). 
— " It may lir prcinisiil . . . that tli" Spanish 
ailvi-nliiri rs wliii Ilinni.'iii lo tin- Xrw Wnrhl 
after itH ilisrnvrr^" found the same rare of Hcd 
Incliani in the WiM Iiiiia I-lan.l'*. in (\nlral 
anil Sniitli Anirriia. in i''l"ii.ri ami iji Mexici 
In tilt ir niofii- of life ami hieans of suttsistcrici , 
in thrir woapons, arts, u-a;r('s an<l i iistoins. in 
thi'irinstitulions. an<l in tUtir mental an<l physi- 
cal eharailiTisties. they were llii' same people in 
(liirerent slai:esof ailvaneeineiit. . . . Tliere wus i 
neither n poliiieal soeieiy. nor a stale, nor any ■ 
(■ivitizalii'ii in Anieriea when it was tliM'oven'iI; 
anil, e\elii'lin;r the K-Uiinos, hut one race of 
Indians, the l!ed l!aee."-I,. 11. .Alor^'an, //-«.*.« I 
iitui ll>'!Hi -Uu -'f tfn Aiii' }•!<', tn .\'>*'ri'/t/nn : (t'"'f 
trih'iti,nih>'X. A. l-:iln„.lo;iii. r. :,.). cli. 111.— •■ We i 
have in this eountiy the eonelnsive e\ idenee of 
the evistinee of man hefoie the time of tin I 
jrl-iciers, and from the priinillve c^iiiditions of 
that time, lie has lived here and dexeloped, 
throu;;h si:i;^es whieh eorrespMid in many I 
tieiil.irs lo the llomerii' aire of (Jreeee," — F, W. 
Pnliiam, liijit. l*i<i^>'nlif Mn,-u'iin <•/ Arc/iirofn'/i/, 

Also in L. Carr, 7"/.. .V^'imh of the. 'Misshsippl 
Y.ilhii.—^'. Tliomas, Dnri.d it„i,nih i,f the 
y,irth,ru .<,rti,.i(iff the ('. S.: AiiU'i.i! It:)'!, of 
Vie ll' •■!' A'"//."'."/v. lss:i-M4,_.M;ircinis il'e 
Nadaillae, y^■,/,,■,.^./v>' .'l/;,, /■/.■.(.— J, Kiske, The rii iif Aiiiiiirii. eh. 1, — See, also, Mkxico; 
I' and Amiiiii w Aiioukmsis; Ai.i.i:oii.\ns, i 
ClIKKOKIIs, and M \v\s. I 

loth- nth Centuries. — Supposed Discover- [ 
ies by the Northmen.— The f.n t that the Norili- 
inen ' of the existenee of ihe Western Con- 
tiiien! prior to the aire of Colnmlms. was promi- 
nently liroiiiriti liefore the people of this eonnlrv 
in Ihe l^iiT, when the Hoyal Soei.iy of 
Norlhern Aniiijnaries at Coiienliairen piilili^hed 
llieir woilv on the .\ntii|iiitii.i of Norlii Amen'ea, 
under Hie edilorial supervision of the frreat lee- 
landie seholar. I'lofi --or Itafn. Ililt we are not ' 
to suppose that ihe Iir>i ;ri neral aeeonnt of these 
vo,\ai:is was then uivcn. for it has always lueii 
known that the history of (irl.iin earlv voyaires 
to .\ineriea Ijy llie Nortiinii n were preserved in 
Ihe lihraries of DenmarU and 1. • land. . . . Yet, 
o«iii_' to the fail ilial tile In liindie lanirn;ij:e, 
thou li simple ill eonslruelion and e.isy of :ie'pii- 
silion. «as ii lonirue not undi rslood liy seliol;iis, 
the ^llliji-i I unlil ri-eeni Vears lieell'sUlTiTed In 

lie ill till- h.H ■l<;;rouiid, aiici pennilled, thiouL'h ; 
a w;iiii of inien^i, to share in a mea-iiie the 
tri aimeiit nut' il out lo va;;ne ami nni eriain i.-- 
\iori>. . , , Il now n iiiaiiis lo irive tlie reader 
some L'l 111 ral ai rouiil < f ilie i oiiti nis of the nar- 
r.ilivi s wliii li nl.iii iiion- or le^s to ihe dis<overy \ 
of Ihe we^ierii ( oiiiinent. . , , Tile lirst exiiaets 
tl'wi-w aiv Very li'iet. '|'hi> are taken from tlie , 
'Landaiiiuna Hook,' iumI lo the re]iori in | 
).'eniTal eireul.ilioii. whieh indieaieil one liiinni- 
iMUn as the diseioerer of (Jrei nliiiid, an event i 
wliii il im, Ih'.'Ii lixed at the ,\e:ir xTH. . . . Tin- ' 
next iiairaiive relates to the rediseoverv of 
IJriciilaiid hy the outlaw, Krie the Red, in' '.l-<:i, 
who iliere p:i,,eil three' years in exile, and after- ! 

war .s reiur 1 to lei'laiid. Aliout the year !|s(l. 

te iiroiiciii out lot'ireeiiiiind a i on^ideralile ctilonv I 

of .settlers, who fixed il. ir aliixh' at lirattahlid. 
in Krii'sflonl. 'I'lien follow two versions of 
the voyaiie of liiarne Ileriulf-on, w lio, in the 
same year. '.Ht>, when sailiiiLT for trreenland, was 
driven away durin;; a slorm, and saw a new 
land at the soiilliward, which he did imI visit. 
Next is fiiven three accoiinis of the voyau'e of 
I.iif, son of I'.rie the Ueil, who in the yr'ar IIHMI 
siiled from lir.illahlid to lind the laiid wliiih 
liiarne saw. Two of these ai eouiils are hardly 
more than notices of liie voy.iu'e. lull the third is 
of considerable leiiLdh, and del.dl.s the sueceSi-:<?8 
of 1,1 if, who found and explored this new land, 
will re he spent the winter, retiirnini; to Oreen- 
laiid the follow iiii,: sprinir lha\ ini; named dilTer- 
eiit, rei-' IS whieh he visited Ilelluland, Mark 
land and \ inland, the latter name indiealive of 
the liiidin;; of ■.'rapes]. After this follows the 
voyare of Thorvald Krieson, liroiher of I,<df, 
who sailed to Vinlaiid from finiiilind, which 
was ih,' point of departure in all these vo,\;ii;cs. 
This eX]ie.liiion was Imlmmi in IhOi, and il 
him his life, as an arrow from one of the natives 
pierced his side, caii^in;.' death, Thorslein, his 
liroiher, Weill to seek Vinland, xvilli the inten- 
tion of l)rin-:insr home his IumIv, but f..iled in the 
atlenipl. The most dislbtiruished explorer wa.s 
Tliorrmn Karlsefne, Ihe Hopeful, an Icelander 
whose ^'cnealoL'y runs i.ick in the old Norihern 
aiini's, ihioUL'ii Danish, Swedish, and even 
Si li- ' iind Iri.-h ar.iesiors, some of whom were 
of ■•■ al blood. In the year lilod ho went to 
<irceiilaiid. when' lie inel (ludrid, widow of 
Thorslein, whom he married. Accompanied by 
his wife, who nrued him lo the undcrlakiiifr, he 
sailed lo Vinland in the spriii!^ of IIHIT, with 
three vesNel> ;iiid lliO men, where he remained 
three years. Here his son Snorrc was born. He 
aflerwards liecame the founder of a L'reat family 
in Iceland, wliicli lmvc the inland several of its 
hi's! bishops. Thoninn liiially left Vinland be- 
cause he found il diiliiiilt to sustain himself 
airainst the jiilacks tif tiie iiative.s. The next to 
iinderlake a voyaL't' was ji wicked woman named 
Frcydis, a sisier lo I.eif Kricson, who xvent to 
Vinland in loll, where she lived for it time with 
her t\vo ships, in the same places occupied by 
I.eif and Thorlinn. Hifori' she returned, she 
caused the crew of one ship to hv, cruelly mur- 
dered, assisiin:.'- in the butchery x\ilh her own 
hands. A'''er this we have what arc called the 
.Minor Narratives, whiiii are not essential," — li. 
F. DeCosta, l'r,-f„lu,„l,.ii, i>,,<e;e, e>/<,fA„i.. (le- 
er i' li,lr.:l. — \W those who iniepi fully tlie 
claims made for Ihe Northmen, as discoverers of 
the Anieriean contiiieiit in the voy.iircs believed 
to be authentically narrated in these saL'as, the 
Ilelluland of I.eif i. commonly ideiililied with 
Neu iiiindlaiid, Markland with Nova >eoiia, i.nd 
Vinland Willi various pans of New Kiu-land. 
.Ma--aclin-eiis liay, ( apel'od, Naniuckel Island, 
.Manila's \'inevard, Hu/zard's liav. Narr.iiraii- 
setl liay, .Mount Hope li.iy, I.oiil' I'-land So .nd, 
und New Vork Hay ;oi aiiionir the |oc'"!ii.s 
supposed to be n-cojiii/ed ill Ihe Norse narra- 
tives, or markid by some traces of tin presenn' 
of the Vikinir explorers, I'rof. (lusiav Sionn. 
the most recent of the Scandinavian invesllL'a- 
torsof this suli|eei, linds the Helbiland of the 
sa),'a I in Labrador or Northern New biundland. 
M.irkla:id in Newbinndland. and Vin'uid in 
Nova Scotia and I 'ane Hrelon Island — (1. Slorm. 




i<(H(tuti ft ttti Inn/'Uiff \ityii<itM.^ 

The orUy tlis- 




AMERICA, 1404-1492 

rmlil wliUli has been tlirown upnn the story of tlic 
Viiilaiiil voyuiri'S, in llic ivi s cither nf Kihiiliirsdr 
iif ilii'),'i'iuTnl piililic. liiisariscii f.iii)lliffii;;iTrn'- 
ihiiity witli whicti in^ctiiotis uiiti«|i]:i]-i;ins liavc 
now iinil tlicn trii'il tci pn^vr nuirr lliiin farts will 
Hurrunt, . . . Ari'lniloKical ni iMJiisof tlic Norlli- 
TMc Ti ;ili"nnil in (ini iilund. all the way from Ini- 
nurlijuk' !.■ near *'apc Furrwill; ilic cxislcnic 
(if iini ^n^■li rt-lio on (In* Nf»rlli Anicriran i-on- 
linint has ni'ViT yet Ihtii i>ri)\cil. Not a sinfilr 
vi-liL'i'of tho Northmen's jin ^cnci^ Inii', at all 
Kurtliy of crcili'nci', has cmt liii'n fuunil. . . , 
Tlu> n'l.isl lonvincini; proof that tin- Xorthnun 
ni'vcr foinidrd a colonv in Amcriia. south of 
l>a\is .Strait, is fnrni-hcil liy the total absincc of 
liorxs. lalllc anil other domeslic animals from 
Ilic N'il of North Anieriea until they were 
liroUL'Iit hither l>y the Spuni-li. Frene'i aiai 
Ijit'li^h settl'TS. " — .T, Kiskc, J'/u- JJisronn/ if 
.l/zurici, c/i, 2. — "What I.elf and Karlsefne 
knew they experienced," writes I'rof. Justin 
\Viii>or, "and what the sa;;as tidl us tln'y 
uiiderHent. must have just the liilferi'iicc be- 
tween a crisp uarrative of personal ndvciituro 
and the olt-rf |M'ated niid cinbellishid .story of a 
lircside narnitor, since tin- traditions (If tlie 
Nor>e voyaires were not |)Ut in the shape of 
n rurds till about two centuries had elapsed, anil 
we have no earlier manii.script of such a record 
than one made nearly two hundred years later 
still. ... A blendii'i;,' of history and myth 
l>r,:in]>ts Horn to say that 'some of the sulms 
«( re doubtless oriijiually ba.scil on facts, but tho 
telliii!: and retelling have chanired them Into 
imre myths.' The unsympathetic stran^'er sees 
I Ids in stories that the patriotic Scandinavians 
are over-anxious to make appear us (rcnnino 
clirniiieles. . . . The weight of probability is in 
laMirof a Northman dciccnt upon the coast of 
tlie American mainland at some point, or at 
several, somewhere to the south of (ireenland; 
but the evidence is hardly that w hich attaches to 
well established historical recoril.s, . . . There is 
not a sin.'le item of all the evidence thus ad- 
valued friim time t;^ time which can be sidd to 
ciiuint by ardneolosieal traces the presence of 
the Northmen on tiie soil of North America 
s"iit!i (,t Davis" Straits." Of other imagined 
pri-Ciilumlian discoveries of America, bv the 
Ui I-li. by the Arabs, by the Hasiiucs. Ac", the 
I'ov-iliilities and probabilities arc critically dis- 
111--11I by I'rof. Winsor in the Siime connection. 
— 1. WinsiT, Xiirnilire anil Critinil llinf. of 
.1"., r. 1, .•/(. 2, iinil Critiotl Xotin In t/ii" minr. 

Ai so IN lirvant and Gav, J'l'jinlur Hint, nf tin 
r .< , eh, :i._l-;. K. Shifter, Kl. r..//,/.v,.« i.f the 
S'li'ni,, „ i„ Am. (/'n'lii-e Sie., ISTTl.— the imie, 
li:,-:.'.,-,/ if Am. hi/ thr K.irtliinin (.V. /f. Hut. 
> ■,. |sss) — >,\ j^ lleamish. JHffi'riiii of Aiii.hy 
•'■ y rthiMn.—K. i. Wcis', Dinnii-iriis of Am.. 
'■'•. 1. -^ 

A. D. t484-i492.— The great project of 
Columbus, and the sources of its inspiration. 
-His seven years' suit at the Spanish Court 
-His departure from Palos.— ■ .VII atieinpis 
■' liicilnish the glory of Columbus' achievement 
'■■)' priiving a previous di.scoverv whose results 
>| Tc known to him have sigiiiilly failed. . . 
■ "luMilm.s oiitrinaled no new the()ry respcctini; 
'■■v I arih's form or size, though a popular idea 
li:is always pri-vailed, notwithstanding the state 
.11. Ills (.f tljo lujst writers tn the cccirarv, that 
I ■ H entitled to the glory of the theory us' well 

as tn that of the execution of the project. He 
was nut in advance of his age, eiilcrlained no 
new Ihciiries, iH-lievcd nii more than di^l I'rince 
Henry, bis pre(hcesMir, or 'i'oscaiielli. his con- 
temporary; nor was he the .irsi to cnnccive the 
possibility of reaching the east by s.iiling west. 
He was however the llrst to ail in ai corilaiice 
with existing beliefs. The Nirthinen In their 
voyagi'S had enlertaineil no ideas of a New 
World, or of an Asia to the West. To knowl- 
edge of geo^Tiiihy, Coliindiiis added 
the skill iif a jiractiial navi'gator, and the iron 
will to o\crcoine obstacles. He sailed west, 
n'ached Asia as he believed, and pr'Ved olil 
theories correct. There seem to be two unde- 
cided points in that matter, ni ilhcr of which ran 
ever be settled. Kirsl, did hi, experience in the 
rorlugilesi^ voyages, the perusal of .siitiie old 
author, or a liint from one of the few men 
acipiainted with oiil liadiiions. lirst suu'L'cst to 
Columbus his project '/ . . . ,S-conii. to what ex- 
tent did his voyage to the north [made in 14T7, 
probably with" an Kiiglish mcrcli.animan from 
liristol, in which voyage he is believed to have 
visited Iceland] inlluence his plan '/ There is no 
evidence, but a strong probability, that be heanl 
in that voyage of the existence" of laiiil in the 
wi-t. . . ."siill, his visit to the north was in 
IITT, several years af'er the tirst I'lirinaliou of 
his plan, and any information gained at the lime 
ctiuld only have been lonlirinatorv rather than 
sii;r;:estiv;.."— H. H. liancruft, 'jli.^t. of thf 
I'loiiir .^t,it'i. r. \. Hiiiiiiiiiini iijiji. tick. 1. — "Of 
the works of learned men. that which, according 
to Ferdinand Columbus, had most weight with 
bis father, was the M ■i.smo';rapliia ' of Cardinal 
Aliaio. Columbus Was .i! coiitirmed in his 
views of the existence nf a wi stern p.assagc to 
the Indies by I'aulu Toscaiielli, the Florentine 
philosopher, to whom mm h credit is due for the 
encoiiraL'ement he alTordcd to the enterprise. 
That the notices, however, of western Lands were 
not such as to have much weight with other 
men, is sullieienlly proved by the dilbculty 
which Columbus had in contending with adverse 
geographers and men of science in general, of 
w horn he says he never w as able to cnnvince anv 
ime. After a new wi.rld had be( n discovered, 
many scattered indications were then found to foreshown it. One thing whicli cannot l)e 
di nieil to Columbus is that he worked out his 
own idea himself. . . . He lirst applied himself 
to his coMntrymen. the (icniiese, who would have 
nothing to say to his scheme. He then tried the 
I'ortugiiese, who listened to what be had to .say, 
liiit with bad faith soiiirht to anticipate him by 
sending out a caravel with iustrui liais founded 
upon his plan. . . . Columbus, di.sgiisied at the 
ti'e.itment he had received from the I'lirtiiguese- 
Court, i|uitte'l Lisbon, and. after visiting Genoa, 
lis it appears, went to see what favour he cuuld 
meet with in Spain, arriving at Palos in the yi ir 
14S."i." The story of the long suit of Coluinbus 
at the Court of Ferdinand and Isaliella; of his 
disciinrageiuent and departure, witli intent to 
go to France: of his reiall by command of 
Qui en isidM'lla; of the teiliou"s hearings and 
negotiations that now took place; of the lofty 
demands adhered to by the conlidcnt Gi n.xse. 
who rei|uired "to lie made an ailmind at once 
to be appointed vieerov of the countries he 
-bciiW ;!is.-.->vr-r, Jir.-i t-,"li^v,. -.. -I;;!:!!: ,,f .;„. 
profits of the expedition;" of his si cond rebuff. 

VMElUt A, 1484-1498. 


AMERICA, 1492 


hl« swonii ilcimrliirc for Fnimi', uml wrmul n- 
rall liy iHalullu. who lliiully put lirr In art Into 
till' ihlrrpriM! ill'.! |vir>ii:iiliil her iiicirc skrpliial 
riiiisiirt 111 iiHsni In il — llii' stury uf llmsr scviii 
yciirs of till' siriii.';;li' uf (nliiTiiliiis to olitain 
miana for hi-* vii_\:ti;t' is fainiiiar to all n'liilrrs. 
" Tlif airricintnt lu'twccn ('oliitnliuM ami tlicir 
('iillmlir hiL'hiii'«s<-i was siiriicil at Santa Ku mi 
the ITtli of April. W.H: ami CuliiinlmM wnit to 
I'alin 111 tii.iki' pripiraliiiri for liis myairr, iHar- 
iiii: Willi liiiii an unlrr Iliat llif two n-.n.scis whicli 
thai riiv tiinii^liiil aiinii.illy In ilii' iniwii fur 
tliri'i' iii<>iiili> sliiiiilil 111' plaii'il ai his ilispo.'^^il. 
. . . Till I'in/ciiii. rirli linn anil skilful iiiariiirrs 
uf I'ali'-. jiiiiHil ill ilir iiiiilrrlakiiiL'. siilisiriliini; 
;in tii.'Jitli 111" til'' I'Xpi iisis; aii'l thus, by thrv 
unir •! i Mriimis. tliin' vrssi Is wi'rr nianni'il with 
90 ni.irinrr-, ami pruvi^iiiiinl fur a yrar. At 
lriii;Mi -ill ilii' prt'paraliiins wire riMiiph'to, ami 
on a Kmi.a liii'l inail^piriuus ill this'). tin' 
;(il uf .\ii_'ii-i. I I'-'-V atiir Ihi'V hail all cimfissnl 
iii'l M'liMil ilii* s.iiranii lit. tliry si't sjiil frum 
ihi' liar of Sallis, inakini: for tlui Canary 
MainN. '— Sir A. IIi'Ips, 17ie ^ihii.M C/iKi'iest 

in A;,,,!.:,. H- ■_■, ,■/,. 1. IN ,1. \Viii~ur, l'fin'!'f"ii!i, r CihimhiiH, eh. 
.-1 !t. .-•,./ -.'1 1 

A D. 1492. -The First Voyage of Colum- 
bus. —Discovery of the Bahamas, Cuba and 

Hayti.— 'I'lii' ilini' vi^mIs uf Culiiinliiis uiri' 
■ illi-.l ilii- Siiita M.iri.i. 111!' I'iiila ami tin- 
Nil"! I. ".Ml hail luri'iaMlIrs ami hii;h poops, 
hut till' '>uii,i Maria* was tin* mily one 
wasiii'i ki il aiiiiiNliip-. aini -.ihi' wasralli'il a ' nan" 
or slii]>. 'I'lii' othi r two win- laravi'las. a 
I la*' uf small vi''Is hiiill fur spi'i'il. Tin' 
'Sania .M ui i.' as I ir.illn r fnuu -latlrnil nulii is 
ill lii.' Iitlir- uf (111111111111- was uf IJil to |;li» 
tuiis. liki a luuili-ni ruasiiii;; srhuum-r, ami sin.' 
*-arrii il 70 anii, iiiuili cruwiifil. llrr >ails wi n* 
.1 I'uri'-ail ami a Ion-top -ail. a sprit-sail, a main- 
-ail « iili two liunmts, ami inaiiilup sail, a mi/./.in, 
ami a lnLals -ail wrri' uriasiuiially huisti-il mi 
till' poiip rill' •riiita'aml 'Niiia' only hail 
Mjiiari' -ills nil till' fori'inast anil lat«'n sails on 
till' ni.iiii ami ini/.zi'n. Tlu' furini'r wns 50 tun.s, 
till' l.iitrr 10 tun-, with rrrws uf '2tJ men cai-h. 
tin Kri'lay. till' :iil of AuL'ii-t, tin,' Ihrct' litlh' 
VI— iN I'll llii' liaviii uf I'alu-, ami this tni'inor- 
alili' vuvaui' was i-oiiiMirmi'il. . . . The c.xpi'iii- 
liiin piiiri rilnl til thi' ( 'aiiary l-lamls, whure the 
ri^' uf till' ■ i'iiita ' was alhiiil. llrr lalrrn sails 
wi 11' nut ailapliil for riiiiiiinir ln'furi' thii wiml. 
aii'l -In- wa> tlnn furi' liiii'il with siinarii sails, 
liki- Ilii''Saiila .Maria.' liipair-, wiri'coniplctiil, 
till' VI— 1 Is wiTi' lilliil up with wuml aiiil waliT 
at tfuiiii'ra. ami Iln- r.xprilition touk its li"'il ilr- 
parluri' frmn thi' i-laml uf timnira. uni.. ,.f the 
(aiiarii-. un Sipiiiiiliir lilh. 14'J'J. . . . ('0111111- 
liii- h ft 1 hii- 11 hi- rutilf must haiipily, ami with 
Ili.ii furliiii.ii. |iri\i-iiiii whiih iiftiii wails iipun 
L'riiiii-, l-'ruiii tluimra, tiy a ruiir-i- a lillli' 
simili uf wi-t. 111' wiiiilii run iluwn tlir trailrs 
tu ihr li.ihaiii.i I.-I.111.I-. Kruin tin' par.illi'l of 
aliiiut :iir .N. marly In tin- 1 ipialur ilirri; is 
u /um' uf pi-rpiiiial w iiiils — iiaiiit'ly. tin' 
iiuriii !■ i-I ir.iili' wiml- — alwa_\ - iiiu\ ini; in tin' 
sanir ilirrrlimi, as sirailily as tin' rurrrnt of a 
rivir. i'\i-i-pl whrri' tln-v an- tiirnril asiili' liy 
local raUM's, so thill tlii' ships uf (■uliimhus wrrv 
-tt-ailily rarriril to tln-ir ili-Iiiiatimi liy a 
l.iw uf naiiiri' whiili. in iluf liiui'. ri-vi'iili-i! 
iisi'lf to that clusi' olisirviT of Inr siirits. The 

rnnstnney of the wind was one cnum of alarm 
ammiK the crcwn, for tlipy lirK^ti '" murmur 
that till' provisons woiilil all bo cxhausteil if they 
hail tu hiat ai;ainst thi'sv uiici'usiDg winiU on 
thi' n turn voyat'c. The next event which cxi iteil 
alarm amon),; the pihits was the diseovery that 
the eonipasses hail more than a point of easteriy 
variation. . . . This was ohservi'il on the ITtli 
of Septemlier, anii about ;t(M» miles westwanl of 
the ineriilian of the A/uris, when the ships hml 
been elevenilaysat sea. SiKin afterwards the voy- 
ailirs foiinil tlniuselves siirruiiiiiled by ina-ses of 
.si-aweeil. in what is ealleil tlie Sar> Sen, ami 
this amiin aruiisi'd their fears. They thoiiLdit 
that the ships would t'et 1 ntanuli'il in the beila 
uf weed and hi'ionii' iinniovabli'. and that the 
Ih'iIs marked the limit of navii;alion. 'i'lie lausu 
uf this aeeiiniiilatiun is well known now. 
If bils of cork are put into 11 basin of water, 
and a eireular motion iiivi'ii to it. all the nirks 
will be found iTowiiini; tu^rether towards the 
centre of the pool where there is the least nnilion. 
The Atlantic Ocean is just such a ha-in, the 
(Julf .Stream is the whirl, and the Sarjiasso Sen 
is in the centre. There (olumhus found it, and 
there it has remained to this day, nioviiii; up 
and down and cliaiii;iiii; its pu-iliun according to 
si'a.sons, storms and winds, but never alterini^ its 
nieaii pu-iliuii. . , . As day after day passed, 
and there was mi siirn ut l.'ind, the crews liccani',; 
liirbulintand niiilinuus. Culiiinbiis eneuiira;;ed 
lliem wilh Iiupcs uf reward, while he tuld them 
plainly that he had cunie to discover India, ami 
that, with the ln'l|i of (lud, he would persevere 
iiiiiil he fiiunil it. At h nu'th, on the Uth of Oc- 
tuber, tuwards ten ut nii:lit, Columbus was on 
the poop and saw a lij;lit. ... At two next land was ili-iiiietly seen. . , . Tlie 
i-laml, called by the natives (iuanahanf, and by 
Cul uml Ills San Salvadur, has now been iLscertained 
to be Watlini^ Island, one of the Bahanias, 
n miles Iuiil; by broad, with a brackish lake 
in the centre, m2V 10' :!0" north latitude. . . . 
The diirerence of latitude lietween (Jonnra ami 
Watling Island is ',':!."> mih'S. Course, W. .5' S. ; 
distance 11,114 miles; average distance made 
KuihI daily, W; voya je li.T days. . . . After dis- 
cuverini; several smaller islands the tieet came 
in sight of Ciibn on the 2Tlh Octolicr, ami ex 
plurcd part of the northern coast. Culiimbus 
iit'lievcd it to 1m' CiiianL'o, the island placed on 
the chart of Toscanelli. between Kiirope and 
•V-ia. . . . Cros-ingthechannel between Ciibaand 
St. Diiminu'o [ur Hayli|, they anchurcd iu the 
h irbuur uf .St. Nicholas .Mole on December 4th. 
The natives came with presents and llio coun- 
try was enchant inc. Columbus. . named the 
i-i.inil 'Kspailolu' |or llispaniola]. Hut with all 
this pcaci fill iH'auty around him he was on the eve 
of ili-.isiir." The Santa .Maria was drifted by 
a strmi_' lurrent iipunasand bank and hupelessly 
wrecked. "It was now inccs^jiry tu li-.-ivc a 

small ciiliiny mi the island \ fort was 

hiiill and iiann'd ' I«i N'avidad.' :il» men remain- 
ing behind supplied wilh siures and provisions," 
and on Kiiday, .Ian. 4, 1 lli^i. Culumbiis began 
his huniewarii voyage. W'eaiheriiig u daiuxer- 
oiis gale, which la-led several days, his little 
ve--ils re.iched the .V/m'es Feb. IT, and arrived 
at I'alos March 1."), liiarinL' their marvenous 
111 ws — C. It .Markham, The S,a Faihrrn. fh. 2.— 
Tlies-ime.'t of ('olnrnhnn. eh. Tt — Theslatemeiit 
ulHive that tile island of the liahamas on wlu<:h 



AMERICA, 1402. 

I'UlKil Ufllllt. 

AJI£UK A, 149:)-ua6. 

Columhm first landi'd, anil which he rallifl San 
h ilvailiir, " now iMcnast'ertuiniil tolx' Wittling 
Isluiiil ' M'cms liiinlly justiticil. The ()iu'sli(iii 1m'- 
twirii WalliiiK Islaiiil, iSuuSiilvadiirort'iitKluiKl, 
Sirriiina, or AltwiHxl'at'uv, Murii;imnu. thctinind 
Turk, and (ilhirs is stiti in di>piil('. I'mfts- 
N r.lustin Wiiiwir auy» "tlio wiinlit of iiiiKlcrn 
lotiiiKiny SCI'. IIS t(i fuvnr \Viilliiii;'s Island;" 
liiit at Ihi' siiiic liini' lie tliinlis it " pmlialilc lliat 
nil n will never cjidli' a),'rir whieh iif the liaha- 
riias it was iipnii whieli these startled and e.xul* 
t.uit KuroiK'aiis tirst st^-pi>ed. " — J. Wiiisor, Chrix- 
t-'i'fiir C"t"nil/'iit, f/t. U. — 'i'ite saiin', yiirnitire iihil 
Ciilinil UIaI. of An,., r. i, rli. 1, iwli U.~ 
I'nife-sor Jdlin Fiske, says; "All that ran Iw 
p.i>itively a^-erted of (JiiaiiahaiM is that it was 
oneot'ttie Ilati;iinas; there has heen endle>sdisfus- 
>ii'n a> to Willi h (»ne, and the question is nuteasv 
to settle. Perhaps the theory of CaptaiiH.iiistavtia 
Kox, of the United States Navy, is on the whole 
best supported. Captain Fo.\ maintains that 
the true liuan.ihaiii was the littli' Island now 
known as Sarnana or Atlvvood's Cay." — J. Fiske, 
The J}iMi-'>i; 11/ of AiftrTirii, rh. 5 {r. I). 

.\l,.-o i.\ r. 8. Vixut and Oi'hUHi: Sum f/, Jlipt., 
issii, „mi. \A 

A. D. 1493. — Papal grant of the New 
World to Spain. — " Sjiain was at this time 
ei'tiiireted witli the l*ope about a most moinen- 
li'U^ rnaltir. The (ieiiiMsi-. ( 'ri^tofom ( nloinl'o, 
ariived at \\v Spanish eourt in .Man h, \VM. 
wiih the astoundinj^ news of the discovery of 
a new continent. . , . Ferdinand and Isaliella 
thiMiu'ht it wi-^e to secure a title to all that iniL^iit 
eii-'ie from their new discovery. The I'ope, a.s 
Vi'irof ('lLri>t. was In Id to "have nuthfirity to 
iti !'■ -'■ of lands inhabited by the heathen; and 
by pipil Hulls the di^ro\ cries of i'oftu;;.d 
alotii: ihe Atriean coast had beiTi secured. T'he 
I'eriai,' lese shoHc d si::ns of urcinirelaimstolhe 
.New World, as beiii)^ already conveyed to tin in 
by the papal (;i'aiils previously issued in their 
lavnur. To remove all cause of dispute, the 
.•"panish nionarchs at once had recourse to AIe.\- 
a.i ler VI.. who issued two Ihills on .May 4 and 5 
[1 lli;l| to determine the respective rii;hls(d' Spain 
au'l I'orlniial, In the first, the Tope );ranted to 
Ihe Spani-h nionar<hs and their heirs all lands 
di^cinered or hereafter to be discovered in the 
wr~iirn ocean. In the second, he detined his 
LTant to nierui all hinds that iniu'hthe discovered 
we^i and south of an iinaLrinar\' line, drawn from 
the .V'Tlh to the .South I'ole, al !!»■ di-lanee of a 
Icifiilrcd haLTUes wislwanl of the .\zori'S and 
( ipc i\i' V. rd Islands. In the lij;hl of our pres- 
(i;t knowliil;;e we are ania/ed at this simjile 
nil ans ,.f di^posina; of a va~t extent of the earth's 
^ :i' » e. " Iniler the Pope's stupendous ]i,atc iit, 
Spain wasdllc to claim every p;irt of the AuL.riean 
I .ntineiilixeeptthe Hr.izilfan roast. — .M. Crei-di- 
t n. Ill»t. iif Ihf l\ii»irii iliiriiif/ ttif Itifjnihi- 
' ■■!. W. Tt. rli. 6 (r. 3). 

.\i.~o IS K. (i. Hotirne, 77ic Ihmiirriili'ui l.imi'f 
/'•/.. .\'.i.n„l,r Vf. {i.i/, I!.:, .Wti/. IsllJi.— .1 
i !-k<-. P" lUxfon r>i ofAnit ric'i, cK. is t^r. 1). — ,1, 
I. Tdon. Tin IhillK il'i!,l'iihnth,q Am, rir,i (.\,ii. S.r. 
'• 'A. Il,\t., r. 41.— See, also, below: .\. 1). IIUI. 

A. D. 1493-1496.— The Second Voyaee of 
Columbus.— Discovery of Jamaica and the 
Caribbees. — Subjugation of Hispaniola.— 
' Ihr diparturi' of Columbus on his .second 
V ^ ,.rn of ili«c;,vcry prcijT.'cjj vi lirilliant r.-.e,- 
10 Ma gloumy embarkation at I'alos. On 


the 25lh of September [I l»;i|. al Ihe dawn of day, 
the bay of Cadiz was whiteiieil by his lleet! 
Thire were three larire shi(is of heavy burden 
anil fourteen laravi K. , . . Ilebire su'nrise the 
whole fleet was under way. " .\rrivcd at the 
Canarii'S (m the 1st of October, Coluinbiis 
purcha.sed there calves, iro.ats. sheep, hoi:^, and 
fowls, with whi<h to sti« k the islaml of 
Ili^patiiola; iiKo "seeds of oranues, lemons, 
l)eri::imots, tiielons, anct various orchard friuts, 
which were thus lirst intriKluoil into the islands 
of tin! west from the Ilcsp, rides or Fortunate 
Islands of 111.' OM W'orl.l. " It was not until the 
Mill of Oel.ibir that the lli.t h'ft the fan.iries, 
an. I it arrivi .1 amoii'.' lb.' i-.laiiils since calle.l the 
I.. -v-r .Vntilli'S .ir t .'iribbiis. on the evinin;.' of 
Nov. 2 .Sailiii.; lhrout;li this .'in hi p. la l:.., . lis- 
(..virinf th.' larj,'er inland of I'.irto Hie .>ii the 
way. ('..liinibus reaelnil the .'astern e.Mnniily 
of lli-p.'iniohi or llavti on the '.'','.1 ..f November, 
aii.l arrlvi.l on the U'Tlh at I..1 .\a\iilad, 
he li.i.l l.'ft a jjarris.'u t.n nionlhs Iiefore. He 
fooii.l iiothinir but ruin, sil.ii.-.' ami the in. irks 
of d.atli, aii.l learn. '.I. aft. r in.|uiry, that 
his null. ruinate men, i.i-iii^' all di^.ipline .'ift.'r 
his depariiin', had pi'.)Vok.'.l lb.' natives by rapa- 
eiiy ami lie. nliou^ until the l.itt.r n.-se ai;aiiist and d.sln' them. .Vbaii.l.iniiu,' tin? 
scene of this disaster, C.'llllnbu.^ an 
ev.'lh'nt h.irbor tin leuL'Ucs est of .M.mte 
< risti aial h.' b.'-aii the founding' of a 
1 ly whi. li ho naiu.'.l 1-abilla. " Kabi lla at the 
pr.'s.'iit .l.iy isipiil.: o\.r::r.»wn with fori >t>, in 
till- inid^I of which ar.' still to be seen, partly 
sian.lini.', the pillars of th.'chiinh, some p-mains 
of the kin;:'s stor.'h..u-. s, ami part of the rc-si- 
diiice of I ol'inibus, all Imilt of li.wn" 
Wliile the foundaii.ins of the n.-w city were 
1). ini; lai.l, Coluiubus s.-nt bai k ]iart of hi~ ships 
t.> Spain, ami uii.l. rlo.-Iv an e.\].l. .r.-iiioii of the 
interior of the island — tin' luoiiiitains of (ibao 
— whereabun.lameof l'oI.1 was pronii-ed. Some 
gold washiiiL's were fniiii'l — far too scanty to 
satisfy the e.\peetal ions of the Spanianls; and. as 
want an. I si.kiiess soon mail.* app.'aranoe 
at Isabella, diseonti lit was rife ami niiitinv afisit 
h.'f.ire the y. ar had en.h.l. In Aprii] 1494, 
C.ilunibus .set s;iil Willi t line larav. Is to re visit the 
roast of ( uba, for a iinTe cMeii.l.-.l exploration 
t ban he ha. 1 at tent pi i.l on the lirst discovery, "He 
supposed it 1. 1 be aeontiii. nt, anil the extreme end 
of .\-ia. and if so, hy foil. .wins its shores in tlie 
jir.ip'.^.'d li.' niii^t eventually arrive 
at Cathay ami other ri. h and coiumereial, 
th.iUL'h semi-barbarous countries, described hv 
.Maml.ville ami .M in.i I'ol..." li.'p.irts of irolll hiins. luthwanl fmin Cuba until he discovered 
tliei>Iaml wliirhhe called Saiili.ii,'. .. but whi.h 
has kept its n.iii\'enaiae, .la 111a i. a, si jnifyiiu: the 
1,~I aa.l.if SpriiiL's. l>i>app. .inte.l in ili.'scareli for, he soon relurn.'il f.-.uu .laiiiaiia to Cuba 
aii.l s.iile.l al.itu,' its south, rn co.i^t to very 11. -ar 
the AN.^l.-rn extremity, contirinin:: liiius. if and 
his followers in the b.licf that tli.'y skin. 1 tli.' 
slior. s of .\~ia ami luiLrlit follow them to tl,. Kei. 
S. a. if ships ami stor. s were e.iu;il t.i s.>;; a v.'vau'c. "Two or tlin'e da\ s' further 
s.iil w.iuld liavt! <'arri.'d Cobimbus round Ihe 
extniniiy of Cuba; would have di~pi ll.-.l his 
illusion, and tniL'ht have };iven an cniinly differ. 
cut c.airsc to his subsequent ilis.-..veries." In liLs 
p -..-^ lit rotivicii.^n lie lir-d iie-l 'li'-l; K-'i'-x iH;; 
to his last hour that Cuba was ib.' extrcmitv of 

'J I 

AMEIUt'A, 14U3-1406. 


AMERICA, 1497. 

the Asliitlr coiitlticiil." liciiiriiii':; lastWMnl. lie 
vlsitiil .luiijiiii a ML'iilii anil |piir|>i>-i il M>mi' funiirr 
i'\|>l<>riiiii'ii iif il]i' ('.irililiic Nliiiicl^i. «liin lii-< 
toils and auxictirs ovrrcainc liim. " llr f'-ll intu 
a iliiji li UiaiL'v, rcariiiliiiii;.' ilcalli ilsilf. Ilia 
cri'W, alarini.i lit lliis |pr(i|'(iiiiic| lor|"ir, il 
tliFit (li'alli II mHv III liMiiil, Till y aliandom-il, 
Ihcnforr, all furiln r jirn^i iiiil ui i.f tliu vuyairi-: 
au<l spnailiiiu' llnir sails id tin' ciist wind su 
prevnliiii in llmsi' cias, liurr ( nliiinliiis back, in 
ahlalc iif rniii|ililr iiiM iisiliility. to Ilic liarlinr 
of ImiIh lla,"— Si pt. 1. lic'i (ivirin}; rnnscinns- 
ncss. till' adniiril wa-^ irjnind to llnd liis 
lirolliiT liarilii'lnincw. friiiii ulmm lie liad liri ii 
W'parati'd for yiars, and " Im liad Ihcii sint out 
to him from Spain, in coininand of tlinr ships. 
Otliciwisi' IhiT.' was lillh- to (tivp ph asure to 
C'olnmliiis whin hr rctnrnrd to Is,ilii'lla. Ilis 
followiTs Wirt' ai.'aiii disor^r.nii/.fd, ai'ain at war 
with the nativis, whom tliry plundirrd and 
liccntioiislv aliusi'il. and it inisrhiif inakiiiL' 
priist had L'onc hack to Spain, aloni; with 
certain iutri.'uiiifr olliccrs. to make romplainls 
and .set cnmitiis a.stir at the I'oiirt. Involved in 
war, Ciilnnihus proseeiited it relentlessly, 
reduieil the island to siihinission ami the 
nalivis to servitude and misery hy lie.'ivy 
e.xaetions. In .Mardi MlWi lie retmaed to S|i.iin, 
t4P defi lid himself airaiiist the mai liiiiations of 
Ills eneijiii s, traiisferrini,' the pivi riinii'iit of 
Hispaiiiola to his hrolher Ilartholoniew. — W. 
Irvin;.'. I. iff mill Voifngi* if ('■■hinih'm. hk. f>-N 
(r. 1 21. IN H. II. lialicroft. Jli;i. if til- Piintir 
Sl.itiM. r. 1, (•/(. i—A. Winsor, Cttri'tupliir 
(•..h,mli'i», rh. Vl-\\ 

A. D. 1494. — The Treaty of Tordesillas.— 
Amended Partition of the New World between 
Spain and Portugal. — " W hen speaking' or writ- 
ing of the eoni|iiest of America, it is t'enerally 
IX'Tievcd that the only title upon which were 
hnsvil the conquests of Spain and I'ortiiL'al wiis 
the famous Papal I'.iill of pariition of tlie llcran, 
of 14'.»;t. Kew inoili rn authors take into eonsid- 
entioii that this Hull was aineiided, upon the pe- 
tition of the Kim,' of I'orIUK',il, hy the [Treaty of 
Tordesillas]. siu'iied hy hoth powers in 1404. 
au}.'menliiii; the portion assiirned to the Portu- 
guese in tile partition niaile lietwcin them of the 
Continent of .\iiieric,i. The arc of meridian lixed 
by this treaty as a dividini.' line, which slave rise. 
owiiiL' to the ijjnoraiice of the aL'c. to so inan.v 
di|>|i'inatic coiii:res>es and inlcrminahle eonlro- 
versies. may now lie traced liy any student of 
elemeniary inathemalics This line , . . runs 
iiloni; Ihc'iiii lidiaii of 47 3','' .">«" wi s| of (Jreen- 
wieli. . . . The name Hra/il, or ' tierra del Bra- 
zil,' at that lime [llii- middle of the lllth (cntiiry] 
referred only to the part of the continent pro- 
ducing' llie dye Wood so-called. Nearly two 
i'enturics later the Portuirucse advanced toward 
the South, and the ii.'iine lirazil then covered the 
now possessions ihcy wire ai iiuirini:." — L. L. 
noiniiiL'uez. Ihti "/. t'l ■■ Tf-i t'lihijiimt itf fite Hirer 

Plltle-' {lhl.l'l!lt S,r I'::!., .V,. Ml). 

A. D. 1497.— Discovery of the North Ameri 
can Continent by John Cabot.— "The achieve 
iiient of Coluinbiis. revealini; the wonil, ■ ! truth 
of nhidi the j-'erm may have exislcJ in tlii' 
imairination of every thoughtful mariner, wain 
{in Kn;.!tiiiid] the admiration which lK'loiiu;ed to 
^, iiiiis tli-tr s. ; Tr,cd le.iirc divie-e than 
and ' there was ).'rcat talk of it in ull the court of 

Henry \'II.' A feelini.' of dlsuppolntment re- 
mained, that ft deries of disaster:* had defeated 
the »ishof the illustrious 4teniM'St' to iimkti his 
voyau'e of essay under the lla^ of Kngland. It 
was, thirefore, not ilillleiilt for .lohn (alHit, a 
deni/.en of Venice, residint' at llristol. to interest 
that politic killer in plans for discoverv. On tin' 
.Ithof March. 1 l!MI, he ohtainicl under tin' irnat 
wal ft commission cmiMiwerini,' himself niid his 
three KonK, or either 01 them, their heirs, or their 
depiitirs. to sail into the cistern, western, or 
northern sea w ilh a lleet of live ships, at their 
own expense, in search ot islands, provinces, or 
rcL'ioiiH hithcrt.i unseen hy Christian people; to 
alllx the banners of Kntrlind lai city, isliind, or 
conlinint; unil, as vassals ot the Kni;li~h crown, 
to possi'sH and iMcii]iy the territories that nii;:ht 
he found. It was further stipulated in this ' most 
ancient American State paper of KiiL'land,' that 
the patentees should Im* strictly iMiiind, on every 
rcliirn, to hind nt the port, of liristol, and to iiay 
tothekinir one-tifth pari of their nains; whih' 
the exclusive rifflit of freipieiitini; all the coun- 
tries that iniirhl be found was reserved to them 
and to their assigns, without limit of time. 
rtiilcr this patent, which, at the first direitiou of 
KiiL'lish I ntcrprise tow aril America, einbi«lied the 
wiirst features of monopoly and commercial 
restriction, ,lohn Cahot, taking with him lii.s son 
Schaslian, embarked in ipiest of new islands and 
ft passiire to .\sia hy tlii' north-west. After sail- 
iiiL' prosperously, as he reported, for TIM! lea;;iies, 
otithe ','tth day of .lime |1 t!IT] In the niorninir. 
almost fourteen months liefore Columbus on his 
tliird voyape came in si^'lit of the main, mid 
more than two years liefore .Vmcriiro V( snuei i 
s.iih'd Wist of 'lie Canaries, lu' discovercil the 
western continent, probably iu the latitude of 
about ."ifi^ (let;rees, ainont; the dismal clilTs of 
Labrador. lie ran nione the coast for muny 
leagues, it is said even tor liiN), and landed on 
wliat he considered to be the territory ot the 
(iraiiil Cham, lint he incoiintered no human 
beiiifr, although there were marks thai tliere;,'ion 
was inhabited, ileidanleil on the l.-tnd a large 
cross Willi the tlair or Kngland, and. from alTec 
tion tortile n puhlicof Venice, he added the ban- 
ner of St. -M.iriv. which hud never been Ikirne so 
far before. On his homeward voyairc^ he saw on 
his ri^llt hand two islainls, which for want of 
provisions he could not stop to explore. After 
un absence of three months the jrreut discoverer 
reentered Hristol h.irbor, where iliic Honors 
awaited him. The kiii^' pive him money, and 
encourai^cd him to continue his career. The jieo- 
ple called him the ^reat admiral; he dres.sed in 
silk; and the KnL'lish, unil even Venetians who 
chanced to bo at Bristol, ran afti r him with such 
zeal that (le could ■ '-list for a iii'w voya;re a> 
many as he please i . . . On the third day of 
the month of February next after hi.s return. 

'John Kaboto. Veneci ' aecordin;.'ly obtained 

a power to take up ships for another voyape. at 
the nites ll.xi'd for those employed in the scrvhe 
of the kiii«. and once more to set sail with as 
many I'ompanions as would no with him of their 
own will. With this license every tniie of .loliii 
Cahot disappears. He may have died iM'forc 
the summer; hut no one knows certainly the 
time or the place of his end. and it has not even 
been ascertjiined in wlmt country this tinder of a 
continent first saw tlui li|rht. " (i. Bancroft. 
Ilist, if the U.S.<f.\m. (Author's lust Hevisiou), 








III. 1. fh. 1. — In Ilia crltlml wnrk mi ttic dini ii\. 
(TV 'if AmiTlrii, piibllshi'il in IMC' Vr lli iir,\ 
11 krriHHc Htjid-H hiMcoiicln^iiinHU'^ t<ittii*('iilji)t voy- 
:i:,'f., iinii on till' i|iii'Hlii>n wliiilicr tin' Ainiriiiin 
.liv iivirirs HiTc nmili- bv .lulm Ciilxit cir liU »(in 
S(l(;f*tiiin, m follows: "1. — 'l'ln' ilist-oviTy nC 
Ihc roiilini'tit of No-tli Aniiric'ii uml tlic (irsi 
Imiiliii;; on it-* cast coitMi wrn* Mi'i-oni|itisliril not 
by«li;in Ciilml. hut by bis lulhir .lolin. in 
\h'. iiMcbr Ibf iiiis|iiri s of Kirii; lliriry VII 
■,' — 'I'hi' lirst liiMillall uiis not Cape Itnlon 
IsIiiimI, lis is strilol in till- iil.'inispliiri' niuili' U\ 
Siliii^tian ('allot in I.Vtl, liiil ( ii;lit .ir tin ili';.'iii s 
liiirlirr norlli. on tlir loast of Ijilirailor ; w liii li 
was ilii'ti raiiL'cil by .loiiii Cabot, iirobaliiy us far 
as CaiM' Ctiinilt'y. -i — Tliis fact was tai'iliv 
ai kti')W lnli;r(i by all pilots aiiil cosnioijraplHTs 
thro;iL'lioiit till' first half of the llltli ci'iilury . 
all'! till' kiiowliiliri' of it i>rii;inati'il with Siba«- 
tiaii I'aliol bimsiif, whatrver may have Im ni 
artcrwanls liis roiitrary stali'iniiits in tliat f- 

sp.'i. I — 'I'lii' vovaiir of 1 1'.IH, also aci i- 

pli-lii'il iinilir till' liritish tiai;, was likrwisi' 

I arriiil out by John CiiIkpI pirsonitlly. Tln' laml- 
fall on thatoi'casion must Im' plitci'it soiitji of tlir 
tir-i ; anil tlu' I'vploration tinbrari'il tlii' north- 
iM«t iiKisI of ihr pri'st'nt Tnitisl Statis, as far as 
Kloriila. "i — III till' vicinity of the Floriilian 
last roast. .lolin Cabot, or one of his liciitonants, 
w IS ili'tcctcil by sonic Spanish vcs.scl. in I4itM or 
ni.i'i (i —The Kn;;lish ciiiitiiiiicil in I.VM. IVIi, 
IVit, aii'l aftcrwaiils. to scml >hips to N'cvvfoiiiul 
laM'i. cliiclly f'lr the purpose of fisheries." — II. 

II irris-c. Till IHnrunry •■]' Smth .Kimrici, jit. I, 
U. s. ,-/i. .-, 

.\ IN : Xiirrntire aivt I'ritienl Hint, nf Am., 
' ■■■<. i-li. 1. Critii-iil /■M,i!/(C. Iti'iiiii') — 1{. Biihlle, 
.l/r ;.■.(> ../■ ■•<> himUii It Vul'it. ch. 1-is. — .Set', also, 
A K llllH. 

A. D. 14971498. — The firtt Voyage of 
Americus Vespucius. — Misunderstandings 
and disputes concerning it. — Vindication of 
the Florentine navigator.— His exploration 
of 4,000 miles of continental coast.— "Our 
iiiruinuiiinn coiicertiini: Ainericiis Vespucius, 
fiviii t lie early part of Ihc year l-liHJ until after 
liisfiiirn from the PortuL'iiesc to the Spanish 
SI r\ ii e in tlic latter part of l."iii4, rests priniarilv 
up' II liis two famous U'llcrs; tlin one a(l(lrcs.s<ll 
t'l hi- iilil jiatron I^.renzo ili I'icr Francesci) de' 
M' lii i la cousin of Lorenzo llie Slau'iiilicenDaiiil 
vvriiirii ill .March or April, l.'iii;!, );ixinu- an nc- 
("'.:iii of Ills tliirc' voya;;e; the other aihlri-ssi-d 
I' 111- "111 seliDol-fi'lJow I'icio .Sislcrinl [then 
(n.Jilaloaiercof Florence ji'iid dated from Lisbon, 
S' litiiiil.. r 4 l."i(l(, ;;iviiij; a brief account of 
I i.'ir I'll. iL'is which be had niaih- under various 
I 'niiiciiiclns ill the cajiacity of astronomer or 
I i"l. riii-se letti-rs . . . lii'calllcspeeililvpopu- 
!r. and inany editions wy.v publislicii, more 
I ;;"'i illy ill France. (Jermany, and Italv, ... 
I i ■ I'Mcr to Soileriiii (lives liu account of four ' 
> }■> ■' s in which the writer took jiarl, the lirst \ 
t ■ " ill ih. -. rvii r of Spain, the ollnr two in the i 

"'■'I f I'oriiiL'al. The first evpediliim sailed ' 

I' 1:1 I idi.^ .May IK, I4!»7, and ri'tiirned ttctolnr ] 
' ■. 1 1'.is. aflir hiiviii'; cNiiliircd a coast so Imi'.; 
^-- '• Ml 111 iini|UestioiiabIy that of a continent. 
I'ii- voyage, as we shall sie, was couierned 
villi puts of Aiiurica not vi.siied iiL'ain until 
lil-iaiid l.")i:. It discovered nolhini; that was 
iilitilated to invest it with mi ch iinportiiiieo in 
op,iiu, liioiiL'li It by no in.ans jiasst'd without 

notice there, as hai* ofton been wrongly Bsaertc*!. 
Outside of Spain It ciunc to attrnct more atten- 
tion, but 111 an iinfortuniite way, for a Hlifiht bill 
very wrlous error in pris.f-rimlinif or tslilinK. In 
the most important of the Ijii in versions, luused 
It after a « hilc to lie practically Identllled with 
the Kccond voyage, made two years later. This 
lonfiision eventually led to iiioiit oiitratteoiis 
impiitalions upon the Ko<xt niinie of .VmerieiiH, 
which il has Imcu left for the present century to 
ri'inovc. The second voyiiL'e of Vespucius was 
that In whii'li he accompanied .Moiiso de OJeila 
and Juan do la Costa, from .May U'll. 14IIU, to 
June, l.'iiHt. They evploi-cd the riorthern coast 
of South .Vnieriia from some point on what wi- 
wciiilil now call the north coast of Ilra/il, as far 
as the I'earl Coast visited by Coliinibiis in the 
preccdiiiij year; and they went beyond, as far as 
the Oiilf of MaracailKi. Here "the si|Uiidron 
seems to have become divided. Ojedii (joint; over 
to Ilispaniola in .September. v»hih- Vispiiciiia 
remaiiieil criiisinir till February. . . . Il is ler 
t.iinly much lo lie regntted tliiif in the namitive 
of his lirst expedition. Vespucius did not liapm'n 
to mention llui iiaiiic of the chief eominaiiiier. 
. . However . . . ht> was wrilinj; not for 11s. 
but for his friend, and he told So<lerini onlv w hat 
he Ihoufjlit would interest him. ... Of the 
litter to .Soderini the version v»hleh has played 
th« most important part in history is the Ijitin 
one first published at the press "of the little 
collei.'e at Saint-Die in Lorraine, April '.'.'> (vlj 
Kl' .Maij). l.">07. . . . It was Iraiislalcd, not from 
iin original text, but from an intennediate Fnnch 
version, which is losl. Of late years, bow ever, 
«c have detected, in an evicssivily ran- Italian 
tevi, the ori;;iiial from which ilie famous l.,or- 
laiue ver.-ion was ultimately derived. ... If 
now we eoinpiire this primitivi' text with the 
Latin of the Lorraine version of l.'iOT, we observe 
that, in the latter, one proper name — the Indian 
name of a |lii( e visited by Americus on his first 
voyat'e — has been altircil. In the original it in 
'I.ariab;' in the Latin it has ticooine ' I'arias.' 
Tills looks like an instance of injudicious editing; 
on the part of the Latin translator, although, of 
cours4', it may be a case of careless prtMif-rcadini;, 
I.ariab is a iiueirlookiiii.' wurd. It is no wonder 
that a schohir in his study anioiii: the nioiintains 
of Lorraine could make ii'otliiiiir of it. If lie had 
liappeiieil to be acquainted w ilh the language of 
the llua-tecas, who dwelt at that time about the 
river I'miuco — !ii rcc and dreaded enemies of their 
southern niiirlilioiirs the .\/.tccs — he would 
have known that names of places in that rcirion 
were apt to end in ali. . . . Hut as such facts 
were (piitc bcvuiil our worthy translator's ken, 
we caniii.t nun li lilaiiie liim if he Iclt that such 
a word ,is l.aii.ili needed doitnriiig. I'arias 
ll'iirial was know 11 to be the iiiitive name of a 
rcL'ion on the wc-tern shores of the .\tlaiiiic, and 
so l.iriab licciinic I'arias. .\s the di-ianic fmiii 
tlie mil' plai c lo lie' c.hcr i~ more than two thou- 
saiiil mills, this little ciiii iiiliition sliiftcl the 
scene of till- lirst voyage liiyond all n 1 igiiiliou, 
and ci-t till' wliole" subject into all outer dark- 
ness while there has been iicicli groaning and 
iriiasliiii- of II eih. .\iiotlicr ciirioiiscirciimsiance 
came in to coiiiirm this CI Tor. On iiis lirst voy- 
aire. shortly before arrivini.' at I.ariab. Ves|iii 
ciiis saw an Indian town built ovi r tlie water, 
'like Venice' Ho count?'! 44 lar^".? '.vmsleu 
houses, ' like barracks,' supported ou huge tree- 


AMKItU'A. 1407 U9H 

AMERICA, l4U7-l4tM 

Inink* mill idiniiinnii niliiu' "iili ''"I' nlliir hv 
liriilL'ii Hull mill. I ii|i in rii»r ii( il^iiiei r 
Tliii iii:iv ». II liiM- I'll II H HJIairr I'f roiiiiiiiiiial 

hiillx^nf till' ClhilllulH I'll llll'ri.;nl iif TlllnW" . 

imi -mil \ illaiTiH "ir.' iifli rwunU wi'ii "ii llii' 

(llllf ••< Mliril :lilHi. Illl'l cillr i>f lllllll HIK lilllr.l 
Vi II' /111 I I. IT ■ l.illlr S'llirr.' .'l IlilllH' »inii' 

»|iri;i.l iivi r iilrrrii.iiy ii.irlj Iwiir us l.-irp' iit 
KniiiiT. Ni ilii' uiiijiliilili'in liiKii ili»rril»il liy 
Vi "pilrill'' ttilHini nlililirlllly llliivnl In Miir!ir:iiliii, 
111 if III' II' ii'ul.l 111' "Illy I'Mi- Mil li pliii I , us if -Ivli' "f il' I. ll-iVl' lillil'llML' lllllll"! lii'iii 

I "1111111111 rii"iii:li ill iiiaiiy lU' - mihI in iiMiiy |i!irts 
iif 111.' I iirlli fi"iii Mill ii nl >" il/i il.iii.l 1.. 111. »1. Ill 

Siillll . . Tlllls ill spill' "I llll' lillilvl.lrS illlil 

liiiiL'ilii.l' s ili-iiiiillv si. It'll liy Vr-|iiiiiiis ill liis 
Irlli r. ili'l l..iri:ill un.l 111.' (illlr H.1...I.11 V.llin 
git -liin.'.l fr.iiii till' IJiilf 111 Ml \iiii 111 llir 1 ";i-i "I ^"iili .\iiiiiii:i . . Ui iiri 

tiil'l III, it ill' t.ll-ll\ I'll I. Ill' li t.. llllVi N.siU'll 

I'mmi ami MiiMiaiii I I'.lT. in iinli r t" i liiilll 

|iri"iii V "VI r t'liliiiiii' IS ii' til.' .li-i .ivtry "f ■ tlir 
rmiiiiii III. Wliiii r.iiiiiaiiit ; Wlini \rs|iiiriiH 
wriiii- Hill li It.r 1.1 S.nliriiii. m i'lirr lii' imr iiny 
ln.iU . 1-. -ii-p' . till IliMt ttli.'il «' ii'in lilll Aiiiir 
ir:i lui'l 111 I'll .lis' Tlii- "iily r'Hiliiniit "f 
wliii'li tliiri' ("ul'l U' imy ipii-ii..n, sii fur as sup- 
phiiiiini; I iilniiilms \vu< i mn rnnil. \mi» .V-ia. 
Hill ill t.'iiU ('"I'Hiiliiis was '," 11' iil'v -iipp.isi '1 t.i 
hiiv ili-i .iMT il Ilii- iiHitiii. lit "f A~i I. liy liis ii. « 
niuti'. ill I 111,' . It «as M. Viinilium'ti who 

llrst liininl iiiipiiry mi llii- -iilijrit in tlii' riu'lit 
( , . . Iliwiii; t.ik' u ii rurn-rt start liy 
siniph t.'ll.iwiii^^ tin- wm-iis of Vrspmius him 
W'll. iV :ii a priiiiilivi tr\t. wilhiiiit rifiniii i- tii 
any pii-iiiiii liviil tliiiirirs iir Irailitimis. M Varii- 
lmi;rii" that Aiiirriiiis in liis lirsl \m,it'i' 
niailr laiiil "ii tli.' nurtliirn mast nf lliimluras; 
"111 11 III' sailiil ariiiiiul Vm alaii. ami limn. I liis 
■i|iiiilir villai:!' "f i "tiiniiinal Imiisis. his littli' n V. nil r, "II till- slmri lit Taliasc.i Tlii-mi'. 
iiftrr a li^liI with tlii' natives in a frw 
t4i\vnv pris.inrrs witi* rapliirnl ami cariiril on till' caravils, Vr-pm ins si-rins t" Iiavi' 
IuIm n a straiirlit riinrsi. t" tin' llna'-li ra i iniiiliy 
hy Taiiipiiii. nithniit tiuiiiiiii:.' at puiiits in tin- 
rririmi nr trilml.iry l.i tin' A/.tii- miifiil 
i-r.iry. This Taiiipim r.nMitry was wlmi Vi'spn- 
(■iii-'nii.l.rsi.i".l i.i hi' lalli'.l l.ariali. 11. ulmiii 
(liM - Ihr ! iiiimh' ililinili ly ami mrri'i tly as ■i.V 
N.. ^iiiil Ii. niriui.ins a fi'W inlrrr^lini; i in iiin 
si:.ii. . s. Ill' saw llir naliM'S ruastiiiL; a ilnail 
fully iiL'Iy animal." nf » liiih In* i:i\.s what 
si' liis iii'lir "an cMrlli'iiI i|is(ripli..n nf llir 
Ij; . ili.l. 111.' ll.'sh "f whi. h is 111 this ilay an ini- 
|i..ii.iiit alli. !•■ .'I' fiiiiil in tri'pii al Ann riia. . . . 
Ati.r l':i\iiiL' this miiiiiry "f l.aiiali th.- -liii.s 
kij'i siiil t'lili' ipirtliwi-st a stn-n ili-i.iii.. . 
an 1 th'ii full. \\.,1 llir wimlin^s "f li.r ...a-l 

f..' s;il l.a;;ii.- \fi. r lra'..rsinL- li. s;ii 

Ii ,..: ii. s ..f I r.' .1 c.'ast. tin: ships ft. unil Ui. ii' 
SI i\.'- 'in 111.' It III ^t liarlnnir in tin wml'i ' [whi. h 
M. Varnh.iL'. n -npp"- .1 al tir-'. I" hav,. In, a 
in ( lii-apral\i' ISay, Imi I- rrai In .1 .mi 
<lil-i..ns piiinlin:; 111 th. m i,:;lili.iulli""il "I ( .ipi 
(ariav. ral, ml llir I-'lmi.l:. . "a-t|. It was in .In II.'. 
1 1'.is. ihiriiin ijimiili^ sin. . ihi \ hi. I start. .1 fh-ni 
Sp:ii!i. . . . 'I'h' y spi III ^r\t 11 aii'l thiriy ilays ill 
II. is iinrivalli'l liarlu'iir. p" parin:; tm ilir limm 
V'.yaiir. anil Imiml llii' naiu.s v.ry li"-pii.ilil> 
'I'll. -.■ i.'l nirn r.iiirtiil llir aiil "f llir whi' 

iliil 11 rtaiii IhIhiiiIii wimr illttumi' mit t<i Ma 

Thi' SpimianlH a){n-ril lo tUv c'\|Mi|ltl ami 

wiiii il liiti ill AiigUKt. Iiiklnjf w'Vi'ii iif Ihi' frirnilly 
IniliuiH fiir Kiiiili'K. "Aflir ii wiikh viiyui'i' 
till V II II III with till- Isliiinln, Miini' |ii iipli "I. iitliirs 
iiniiilialiiti il, I'Viihiitl) tilt' Ikriiiuilus. HilO nilli'H 
frmii t ii|ii' llatli run iw thr i riiw llii". Tlic 
Spuiii.inls lamli'il mi an i-liiiul ciillnl III. anil liint 
11 hrisk l!i:hl rrsnliini; in tin' riiptiirr nf iimrr 
than 'JiHi prisLiiiTs. Srn ii "f tin si- wiri' niviii 
til Ihi' liiiliaii niiiil''". "Il" pailillnl li" Willi 

tll.lll. " ' \Vl' ll\-< [wr.itr Visplliins| sll Hail 

fur !spiiiii. with'.'.'.' prisiinirs, slavr-, ami arrivi .1 
in thr purl uf Caili/. mi llir I'lUi ilay "f < h tiilii i, 
1 1!'"* whiTi' wi' «rri' will rntiMil ami .-"hi mil 
slai - . . . Till- iilisi iirity in » liirli this vi.y 
ii^rr has Ml InnK In in iiiviIiiihiI is iliir i liiilly t.i 
till' fait that It was imt fulliiwiil up till nmny 
Mars ha.I <'la|isi'il. ami thr riiismi fur this in'itlrit 
Inipn— I s iip.iii im furcilily thr iiiipiissihilily nf 
iirlirstamlini; Ilin liisliir^v'nf tin hismvrry nf 
Aiiiirii.i iinliss »r l»iir In iiiimi all thr iittrnil 
uni I in iiinstani'i's. Ilnr initiht at llrst siijipiisi' 
that a Miyai;r whhil Irviali'il smnr 4,11(111 iiiUrs nf 
till iii.isi'i'l Niirtli .\iniriia w.iiil.l liavc iittructi'il 
nunli altriiliiiii in Spain iiiul IniM' Imthiiii' iiltn 
prllur Inn I'ainmis to lit' sumi fnrpittrii. Snili 
an iiriiiiiniiit. Iiiiwrvir. In-i'S sinlit nf the fait 
Unit till SI' I arly vnmiti rs wiru iml trying tn Mis 
cnvcr Ainiriiu.' Thrrt' was iinthing ti> iistiiiiisli 
till ni in till' rxistrnri' nf I.IKWI mill's nf i misi linr 

nil thi- Hi'lr nf thr Atllllltil'. Tn Illrir it 

WHS simply thr cinist nf .\sia. aliuiii whirli tiny 
Kni'W niitliiiig rxcrpt fr mi .Mann I'nlo. ami thr 
natural I'ltrrl ..f a v.iya^c as this wmili! U' 
8iniplv to tliMiv ilisrri'.lit iipmi that travrlirr ' 

— .1 Kiskr. Tin />/«.'"'■<»'// 'ir.l/Kil'lV'/. ••/!. Tir.'.'l. 

Til'' ariruiiiriits a^'aiiist tii-- virw arr set fnrlli 
liv Mr t'lrinriits It .Markliaiii. in a paprr nii'l 
lil'f.irr till' Unyal Crogruphical .'^.K'iriy, in 1^^1I'J, 
as f'.llnws: " N'rspiirri was at .Srsillr nr Han 
KiU'tir, as a pnivislon iiirrrhant. fniiii thr iniil 
llir nf April, 1 I'.lT. tn tlir I'li.l nf May, 1 llli^. as I- 
slinwiiliy iliriillii'ial n Tunis, I'Vainlmil hy Miinn/. 
nf I'Xprnw's inriirrril ill titliiii: mil till' ships fi'f rxpiilitimis. .Mnrnnrr. no rxpnlitimi 
fnr .li-r..v. ry was hy .mlrr nf KIni.' 
Frriinaml in U!'7 , ami tin re is m> alln-imi t" 
any suih rxpnlitini in any . ..iilcinp'Tary nronl 
Tlir inn nil rviilriu'.' av'aiiist ilir mlh ..f th. 
stnrv i- ' .'Il strmiirrr. Vrspm-ci -;i\s that h. 
sailr.l W. -i W. fur nearly UKK) l.'au'iies fnni. 
(iranil Ciliary Thi- wmihl h ivn taken him i ■ 
Ihr <lnll "f I'aria, is railnr ni.ire than !ii" 
|.:i;;n. s W. S, W. (inin.I Canarv. , . . .N 
a ' nal na\iirai"r w.uiM hav., niaile -neli a I'lnn 
ilrr. II'- rviil.'iitly ipiiitr'l tile il.'a.l rirkniiiii. 
fiiim I ip-iia's vnyair''. ami inventnl thr lalitmi' 
lit laii'l'in. . . . Mis stal'inenl that Iir wnif 
N. W f.r s7ii 1, iirins I'.Mlpi niilr-i fniiii a p.i-i 
li.iii in latiMi.l., ■J;!'' N is still imin- prrpn-irnm- 
Sui h a .■'llir-'' iUl'l ili-lamr wmil.l lia\' tak. i 
him riirlii nr"— lln- .'..niinent l.i'.\ In n- i- 
Uriii,li Ci.liunl'ia. Till- itii. f iiirM.'nt- in tl. 
v..v.'i,,:,. 11. 111"-., "f till' III' la viiviije in 1 t'.i:' 


. is ih.' 

\ iU.l-r tiuilt "1 


r- ei.ll'.l l.illl 


,. , . . 

Tin 1' was 111.' 


'iin'rr w iih n 


. in whi 

■li .'11' Spaniar. 

W 1 

•. kill.'l ami : 



'1 rii. -1' nilinl 


ar., r"ll\inein 


'IK r ■ 

(■ U Markhaii 

. < 

■ hiilil,<l» ilii'U 


,-,„■ /•/ 

..,;,ih „:,.-. .<,/>. 




.! \V:!l.-.'..'r. ' .': 


„;,. ,. r.j.i,,,!,,. 

ni.ikr iipiin a I'n rer ra 

■e nf eanniliaU, w Im inhal' 

,-U. l.-i 



Juki) Cltul 

AMKIIHA. UliH l.-><)-, 

A. D. 1498.— Second Vojtgt of John 
Cabot, lomctimei utrribed to hit ton Sc- 

b»»ti»n. — Very •« mi alii-r In* nlurii. .IhIhi 

■,'iili..i | V VII iirw li'ii.-rs 
ji.ttrnt, ii>itli<<ri/iM*; liiiii lii ^ i^H iiu'aiii |{ - i-niut 
Irv vvlilcii In hitil jiHt iliNCiiVi nil. Tin- Kinif 
i.'rii ■ .1 111' rri|iii-»l •in 111! Irilnf I'. Iiniiirv, l4ttH. 
Th ..i'* It" i^nmnil ttliiit.vr fui 'In- ii-HrrtiMH. 
Irt.i{ii( iitl| ri [H.jitt'il. that .Icliii t nbnt <liil ii'.t 
iniiitii. trill this M't'orid I \)M tlil JMM. of it wii.i 
ui«l''rtjiki'ii iftiT liii ilriilli 1)11 ilii c.iiitriirv, 
l*:i"|ilati^'> .mil SniicitlM iiit liliuii liiiii \>\ iiulili- 
I'Vi lii'iii Iv 111 ilif piirlv III "li'iiii lliiiiy VII. 
int. ;i.liil I.I iiltrUHt till- llci-t. 111-. III. ', thin llllli', 
,|n|iii C.iliiil i'lli'iiiily u'liiii'''. aii'l till' 111 >' li't 
li.r» pull lit iiiiiii :iltii::rllii I- 1 In hallux iif Si l«i-tiun 

allil of Ilii lirnllirrs \|iiMii\ir Jullll |.\].i .illl'il 

ill |h THitii tn Siiiiiiiiii 111-* plan-. Iiir till' -*riiiiiil 
Miyi:.'!-. mill .Inly •-!."!. I ll»'<. I'liililii iiiiil Aviila 
iiiiii.iiiiiriil iilllrially til till- Spaiiisli SiivirviiiiiH 
lllll llli' vi-sils liail artilally -<ail.i| .lut 'iiill 
i.tru uilliivrH riitiln Culiill." wlliill llr^tiriptiiill 
lllll.. nut apply il'l'lililily tn Scliastiall, liill tn 
.liiliii Caliiit. H-. »|. kiiii« friiiii riirriiliiinitiVfci i- 
ill nil- alli-aily stiiliil 'rin' fart i-. tlial till' lluliir 
iif ^ilia^tiaii t .ilHit ippi irs in 1 niiiifitiiiii ^vjili 
tli..-i. viiyaiTi'^. fur tin- lir^t tiiin-, in I'l-trr ".iur- 
tvi-S iiri-iiiuit, priiltiil Iwriily yi-alN aftrr Ilii* 
rvi'iit. anil taki-ii frmii Si-liaHtiair-* uvvii lip-t: 
tthali . . iMiiiit a ri'ciiiiiiiii' In Kiil' 
iaii'l, lii-i tianii' n'Vi-aU itsrll us ii'L'anU tlir ili^- 
iii\ir\ iif till' Ni'sv Wnrlil at a -<t'l' lati r iN'ri'Hl, 
ill .Iiiliii "^iiiw'-i t'liriiiiicli', piihli^liiil ill I.Vsti, 
Anil. altliiiiii.'h Imtli that hi-tiirian ami llakliiyt 
ipi.iti' a- thiir autliiiiity fur the stati'iiirnl "a 
III iiiiiscrip' (-'opv of KnlH'rt Kaliiaii's ('liriinii'ji.. 
rviryihiiiL- ti-ml'i tn slimv that tin' naiiU' of 
Silia»iiiii ('allot is a nhfcr intrrp. 'atioii. . . . 
Till I Ajiiiiitiuli WUH niinpoHt'i) of tjvf. vi's.srls. 

lit' I I iiiit at tl .xpi'iiHi. of .loliii ('allot or of hi* 

fiH'inl-i; 'payiii; for tlii'yni ami i-vrry of they in.' 
\V have nut Ihi' I'Xai 1 (iatr wlnii thr tint 
-iiliil Ii «as after April I, \i'.f. as on that 
l.iy Henry VII. loaned /'IW to Thi.iiia.s Hrailley 
aii.l l.iMimilot Tliirkill, 'jioini; to the New 
l-li'' till till' other lianil. I'eiiro lie \valaalreaily 
«i lie-., -Inly 'i't. HUH. that uews hail lieeii reeeiviil 
iif ilie I vpeilition. «liicli was oliliiieil to leave 
liiliiiiil, in Irelaml. one of the ships, owini; to a 
--I'Vire -.torni. The vessi'ls then-fnre set out 
ifniiu liristi)l';i ill May or .Iiiiie I'lielila states 
Ui.i! liny were i-vpeetiil hack in the nnnitli of 

Si pii'llllur follow illL' ■ Oizell ipieseruil veliyilus 

piri il Si'iMiemlire. ' vet the vessils hail taken 
siiplili.-- for one year: * ftieron proinyiias por 
li.ii ifiir We possess no ilireet infonnation 
I 11. ' mini.' this voyai;!'. nor iln w,' know when 
1 1'' '• !■ iiinieil to'Kniihinii. It is important to 
' wever, that the exp<'(litions of 14'.17 anil 
' the only ones whieh in the lifteenth 
saileil to the New Worlil under llie 
111;;, and eompri^', therel'.ire. all llie 
iiilie iliseoveriis made by Caliot U'fore 
r I'lOil. Our mily data eoneirniiii.' the 

Il'.i- ,r 
1 r:,' irv 

Iln y, 

Ill" v:, 

n.rtliui^l eoast. whieh the Venetian navicalor 
i!:iy lii-.e vi-ii(.il in the 1 oiirs,- of hi-. siTimd 
V'v u'l'. are to he fiiiiml in tin' map drawn by 
i. in lie la CoNa in the year l.'ioo. ... In that 
' '' lii'ated chart, there is, in the proximity and 
ui -1 Iif Ciilia, an tmbroken eoast line, delineated 
■'k' a rontiiii'iit, and exteinliiiir northwanl to the 
.:r n,,'* "i" iiir map, tin tin- nnriiieni portioii 
nl that SI almard I.a Cusa lia~ plaeiil a lontinnous 


I. lit) o( BrilUh Units, (-umnii'iiclni; n the soiitb 
with the ItiiurlptioQ ; ' .Mhf desiulmrta |Hir 
in)(lis<s ,' and 1. MiiiuHtliit; at the nniili with 
' Cai* of Kn>.'liinil - (ano I'e ynclao na.' I ii- 
fortuiiiil. ly, those I >'t(ii.'r:i|.|iu ai d e . are not 
^utlliii'iitly preeise ii, einili. n-, ii, .laie iho 
iHiidfalls with adeipiuti' i'xai'iiis.s .N.r is tilt! 
kind of projeetimi adopted, niinoiit ixp.iiit ile- 
{;rees iif latitude, ' f siieh a 1 harai ti i a^ to aid 
us mill h In deii nniiiiiii; |Hisitiiins. We aie 
coiiipi :!nl, therefiin. to resort to infi Tl 111 e-, 
. . . 'I .Uliii,' the ilisianei fnin iln 1 ipiiMr 
to the ixtriiii' iiiiitli ill l.a t nsii s map ii, a 
eriterioii for nn asiirii l- di-i.un is, and 1 in pat in;; 
rilitively the pniiils nainul then in e. ili puiiits 
II" .'Spill ijini; fur the sann hrtiiiidi. ..n niiNlirii 
pi i.pheres, till' last I 'iL'lish llai.'-.tiitr in the 
sou item direction sei ins 10 imlicaie a \ ii inii v 
souih of the t'liroliiias . Ilii- li\ potln tii d 

esilniale llnds a s'lrt of lornll.iry in Slui'iiun 
Cabot's account is n |i.irti'i| by IMi r Martyr, 
In ill viiblni; his alleu'id in.rili west, m iti^cnvi r- 
il ', Sebastian said that ii i In rus Iia\iiii: enin- 
|M'lli il him to alter lii^ 1 niir^c. he -tiered souHi 
warilly, and fnllnvid the 1 .ni-i until he reinhiil 
llb.nit' the latitud" of (illllalhil . , . Several 
years afienvaril- Seba~tiiiii ( almt iipiin im 11 
linni'd the III. liter in his cmiMrsatioit willi the 
Mantua l'i iitli man ; but this time he exi- ndi d the 
expliiiaiinn of the iinrlli »i st cuast livi iii'i;ri'es 
further smith, iianiiii;: I'turidu us his teriiiinus. 
. . , 'I'weiity M'ars afli r . . . Seba-liiin , , , 
declared, iindi 1 nil '.I Is'lorc the ( iiiincil nf thii 
Iliiliis. Dee. mbir .'tl, l.VI.'i, that In .|i.| imt kinov 
whether The mainland cnntiiiued imMliwarii ..r 
lint fr.'iii l-'loriila III the liacallaos rcirii.n ' — . 
II. Ilairi-~i , IHf.,,iy ■■/ Aimiii-.l, jit. 1, bk. i. 

A. D, 1498-1505.— The Third and Fourth 
Voyaees of Columbus.— Discovery of Trini- 
dad, the northern coast of S. America, the 
shores of Central America and Panama.— 
When Cnlumbus reaihed Spain in .luiie. I I'Jti, 
" Kerilin.'iiid and Kals'lla received him kimlly, 
f;uve him new honors and promised him nilicr 
outlits. Knlhiisiasni, lin.tever, had died mit aint 
delays tiwik place. "The reports nf ilie n tnrnini; 
ships did tint correspond «iili tliepieliiris of 
Marco I'nio, and the new biuinl world was 
Ihoiiu'ht to be a very poor India after all. .Most 
pen|ile were of mis mind . thouL'h I'nlumliiis was 
mil di.slieartened. and the public treasiuy was 
readily ipeiied for a third voyap' Cornncl 
siileil early in I P.H with two ships, and Colum. 
bus follnweil with six, cndiarkiii^' at San l.iicas 
on the Until "f .May. lie now discovered Triiii 
dad t.liilyllli. which he named either from its 
three peaks, or from tl.. Holy Trinily ; struck 
Hie mirtiiern cna-t of Snnih An'ieri.a, and skirted 
wliat was later kii.iwn as the I'liilioasl. imint; 
as far as the Island of .Marpirita. lie wnmlcreil 
at the rnarini; fresh waters wliii b tin OrninMO 
piiurs iiitn the (iulf nf IVarls. as i . cilled il, and 
lie half lii'lieved that its exiilsrani tide laine 
from II tirrestrial paradise, lie tmn liiil the 

.snlUie in 1' nf llayli on the ;llllll nl '>11L'1IS1 
llcrealleady hisinlouisls had i'slabli>hi'ii a lin 

titled pn-t, and fniindcd the inwii of S ■n 
Domini;!!, His brother llarilinliiinew had luhd 
ciieri.'eticall.v diirinj; the .Vdiniral's ab-i nee, but 
he lllll lint jirevented a revolt, which wa~ headed 
b\' lliild.m, Columbus on his arrival fnihid the 
insuri;cnts suit tlctiant, but he was able .itter :b 
while bj retoutile them, uud Le even succeeded 


It/ t lUunttiMa 

AMKUICA, 1100 1"MI0, 

in ali.H liiii:,' li'iMiti wiiriiilv ti< lii< liilinst'* I tlotur iikI )>■'>< 

llu- whiTi-H 

.1 ( .N.1^1 itii'il, Ihrll 


,ilm4'iii I' rr>>ni S|iiiiti, li'>»r\tT, lift lii< tiiriirti » Mil ilir iM-tiil of ilif KMtnt to till* north 

h| ri (lilt' UJlllxlll -[inllHi 

:|||i| li 


l|< lr:i< t.M^ 

vuh\, iiiiitl tlit-y ri':ti lull P'irlii lUlln. i\h \sv mil 

niinliiii'iit-r ui'i '*i-nl omt it, uitiri- tlii'v fiiiiiiil Iiimi<m'-i iiinl i<ri liiinU hihI 

Willi iiil.trL'-il iikwiT'*. lAiit wttli aufliitrilv tn 


Ml' I iiiiiiiilii 





il I. II "to till' ririlii-l n|H>t I'f liaMiilti 

.irv «.n Fr nil is 

.1. II.. 

xiiI'TUi:.' ^^ ill 

lii'l, ill I'liil, Miilnl wiKtwiinl 



-I of Smili Aiiirrlrii 

liiiilill.i. Hh.i irriMil :it S.iiii • l>iiiiiiiii."i «iili tMi. , 'I'liiri liirninit liiirk. t 11111111111111 iilii iii|ili'i| In 

!l'i I'f Au-'u.i, I'Hit. liiiiliii^' i fiiiiiiil aiiilmiv at \ rr 

Dil'l."! ill 

iH'iii:.' all' 

lii^i lir.iiliir, Ihr A.liiiiral. 

nil till' ( iislll lliia 

iHiiit. u lirri' siiriis uf ifiilil Mrrr ti iii[»iiiiL' 



n 111-. .1 in 

All Ihsih- ua* 
.1,' 1.1 III.' 

al I. Ill I' iiiaili' 
I iiiiiiiii'4i«ii.ii. r'.. 

i.lil prnMil s.alilv. III.' lialivi'.. Ii. -lili', ami. 

Mt^l. !'■• till ( I'liiiiiliii.. r. iiiriii'il 1.1 ImU'.' till 


llli' Ailliiiral. williilraHili;,' lii-. 




' III' alialiiliihi'.l .111" 

iinii I atcn raruvrl 

.liliiisi If. 



I assiiiiici 

I ilii 

iif til 

III I'.irtii 111 11.1. all.j. rrarllillL' .lillnairil, Ikiii liiii 

111 |ii'o|i. riy Ni.i|i'iill> , limli |i. 

A.linii'il ^ II' 

aiiil ^^ Inn < 'i>liiniliii<. r. iiinii 

si. .11 iif till' twii itlhrrH, A yrar uf (iiMi|iii.iinliin'iil. uri.i. 

Ill' »i'li his l.r. iliir H IS arrrsii .1 an. I |iiit in in .lis 
III 11: 




il, ; ami want f.ill.iHi.l. ( '.ilninliiis rliiii;; t.i his 
WP'.'ki'.l vi'ssi'K Ills rri'W alliTiiati'lv iiiiitinii'.l 
at his', all. I r.iv..| ali..iit tlir IsIjuhI 

slii| aii'l sailnl l..r S|>iiin I'll.' raptain uf { < Ivan. 1. 1. at llls| 

nl ..f IiIh slrailH. lint 

till' slii|i .iiTrri'il t.i ri'in.iM' tit.' ntaninlr 


( '..llllul.llS \\( 

I.. I.iml 

..ill m.t iiirniit it. Ik Iiil' ih lirniim'il 


I.ili.l In >).alii I1..1111.I as li.' was. anils., lie 
Till' .If. .1 .i| his il.'^' uas In his ailvallt- 
aui'. s.iv. r. iiriis ,'inil i.i.i|.li' \vt n- .sli.n'l\i'il at tli.' 
si^hi. ami I'', r.linanii ami Isalniia hastinnl t.i 
iii.ilv.' unii' liy r.'r.i\iiiL' him willi rt'iii'W.'il It « as stMiii a|.|iar.'nt that .'vrrytliiiii; 
rrisLiiahli' W..11I.I II.' irraiil. .1 him hy tht- iimn 
an lis. an.l iliat lit' ttnilil liaM' all hi' ini^'ht \\ lull 
slii.ri t.f r...'i\'inir a ti.'W has.' ..f |i..\\.'r in tlif 
istaiiits. wliiili till' SUM i.'iL'iis wi ri- tit'tt'riiiim'il 
to M'.' |iariti.'.| at hast lii'|..ri' ( '.ilillnliiH shi.illil 
aiiain assiiiiii- t''i'iiim'iil ..f tliiiii Tlii' Ailiniral n..l l.ii'^i.ti. n liis v.nv 1.1 Ilif ll.ily 
>. |.iih lir.' fr.iin ill.- Inti.lri, tint thf in..nar.'ln 
ili.l ii"t a. . .'.il' t.i his wish In iinilrrial\i' it. I>is- 
a|i|i.iint.'.l in this, hi> ]irti[i.>s( .1 a nrw vuyiii:!'; 
anil k'.tliiiu' 111.' n.yal r..iinti'iiaiit'c this 

Sthflll.'. ill' was stllllllil'll with f.llir VfS,S4'lH (if 

friiiii titiy 111 s.'V.'iiiy lulls I'ai'h, , . . Mr Js'iih'.l 
lr..iii t :'.|i/. May !l, l.'iii.', ai|iani.'il liy his 
lii'..tliir'W ami his si.n K.'niaml.i. 
'I'll.' v.'ssi'ls'h.'.l Sill l».iiiiini.'.i .Iiini' '."J. 
il.ilia.tilta,' mil'. if a y.'ar an.l 11 half li.i.t 
III. II an iinhapiiv ..iii', hail u^ivt n place t.i Nirli.i- 
I. IS .1.' Ilvan.h.; :ii|.| III.' Ili'.t w hit h lirmi^'ht th.' 
n.'W i; — wiih M,'., Casas ami 
..tli.-rs - iii.w lay in ill.' Iiarlior uaitinir t.. r.'.'.'iv.' til.' ntnrn v.iya:;i' ('.ililinliils lia.l 
li.'i n iiisini. i.'il t.i av.iiil llispani.ila , Init imw 
til. It ..ii.'..f his vi'ss, Is l.'iki.l, an.l h.''.| t.i 
inalxi' r.'|..tirs, h.' s. nt a I... at ashi.r.'. ast\iiiir p.i- 
inissi.iii I'l . nt. r Ih.' hiilmr. Hi' w is r. tns..!. 
tli.m^li a si..nn was imp. n.liiu' 11.- shell, r.'.l 
his \.--.l- .1, I..-1 11.. anil r.KJi. mit tli.' 
-ill. Til. III. I uhi.h ha.l .111 li.iar.l lt..lia.|illa 
ami It'll m. '.villi lii.''r iir^'..iti n iraiiis, 
wri'ilu.i. iri'l II).'-.' I ninii. s ..f ( '.iliiinlnis w.n' 
ilr.miii.l. I h.' .V' a sin, ill harlmr 
wli.ri' h. 1 iiiill in ik.' his r.'paiis; an.! th.n .lulv 
II, -sail,'.! .i,....\.M'l In liml. as hi' -U|ip..s,'i|. 
thf ri. il. r p.irii'.n- "I lnli.i . . . A l.imlhi:; was 

mail 1 111,' .",,-t ..f ll-.n.ln.'is, .V'ii.'nsi I I 

'riirii' ili\, I ii. r III.' .\i.|.r. rs hiiiih.l airain 
litt.'.ii s t irih. r . 1-1. aii'l I'.nk pnss, ,,i,,ii 
i.f III.' I'niiniry Inr Sj.aiii .'siill tli.y wi'iit ; 
uiul. in jralililiii' l.r sili-lv ali.r a hini' sinrni. 
liny 11,11111 il .1 I i|ii' w Itii II til. \ I.rai ii- 
a Dins— a ij nil.' slill pi.-, rv.'l at Ih.' p.. in! 
wh. r.' Ihi' ...asi nl l|..ii.lnr,is 1.. ;,'ins P. ir.ii.l 
s.iiiihH,ir.l. ( '.iliiinlius wis imw Ivin^' ill nii 
hi. h,'.l. piaij..'! ■'!! .!.'. k. an.l "is hlir ii..' tin..' 
in ri'Virv. 

ly lar.lily an.l s.anlily nliiM.I liini Tin ills 

inlinir.l W'irrllnally hnnihlril, ami . 


p.'il. lii'.i liy till' .Vilniiral's au'i'Ilt in Sni] 
I>..iiiiiiv'.i, at last naili. il liiiii ami^'ht hitii 
anil his t'.iinpaniniis tn ihiit phut', \\ hi-ri' ilviin.l.i 
r.'fi'ivi'il liiiii with tistt'iitatiiiiis kiiuliit'sM, ItitlifiiiL; 
him ill his Ii.him' till I '.iliniilinH ilrparliil f..r 
Spain. Si'pl. r.'. I'Mil ' Arrivinj,' In Spain in 
N.ininliir, ilishr.'irltnitl, limkin with tli«a»r, 
iit'L.'!. .'It'll, It was nut nntil tlir ftilltiwiii); .May 
that 111- hail str.'iiulh I'mmirli t.i jr.. 1. 1 tin- ii.iiniil 
Si.'.i\ia, iiml ilii'iiiinly t.i Iw ctililly riiiiv..! liy 
Kin:.' Kirilinaml ■— IsaUlla l.tin^' iltatl. " Whil.' 
Mill h.i|H' was .1. frrn.l, thf intirinilii's tif iii;i' uml 
II liff uf har.lsliips l.riiiif.'ht ('.iliiinliiH In liiscnil . 
anil nil Asifiisioii Hay, ihf ^ittli uf .May. l'"ilKI, lif 
ilifil, with his will DifL'ii ami 11 ffw th'vnif.l 
frii'iiils liv hin iMitsitlt-." — .1. Win.snr, S'lrrnltn 
.mil I'lili' llhl ../'.t//i , '■. •-'. rh 1. 

AlstiiN, II, II Haiitrofi, //..</ .///.. hiriji, 
SI:it:K, r. 1, i7<, a mill t, — W, Irviiii;, Life uml 
i'lijI.hliHiif r,,hiiiihiiA, liA. 1II-1H(.-. •,'), 

A. D. 149^1500.— The Voyages and Dis- 
coveries of Ojeda and Pinzon. — The Second 
Voyage of Amerigo Vespucci.— 1 in.' .if th. 
iinist iTitrini; ami ri'Milntc nf thf ailvcnIiin'rM wli.i 
at'cinipanif ' .iliiiiihiis mi liin ,Hf('.>ml v.iya::.' 
(in 1 l!i:ii wa. ..i..n/..itlf ( <l|.'ilii i|narri lit .1 
with thf .X.lniir.'il ami rfliirniil t.i Spain in I l!is afl. iw.'irils, "hf was pr.ivi.lfil liy tlii' 
Ilishiip Kniisi'ia, ('..Ininlins' cnt'iny, with 1 
fraijini'iit uf tin' map wliii h thf .\.|miral ha.l 
sfiit 1.1 Ffr.linaml anil Isahtlla. .sh.iwiti;^ tin- tiis 
i.iv. rifs whi. h li. hail m.i.lf in his last Miya^'. 
With this assisiam.' ( Mt sail S.niili 
.Vnifrita. a('('|iaiii.'it hy Ihf pilnt. .Iiiaii ilf I 
C.isa. wh.i hail affniiipani. .1 i'.ilninlins in hi- 
lil'st irr. al v..ya'_n' in Mil'.', an.l . if w linlii ( nlnn. 
tins I'l.inplain. .1 that, 'liiin:: a 1 h-vir man, h. 
wfnt aliniil sa\in:; that Ilf km \v in. iff than h' 
.li.l,'an.| als.i i.v .\in.iiL'.. V.spuiii. Thf v s. ' 
s.iil tin Ihf ■-'iilh i.f .May. 1 lull, wiili l.nir vissil- 
an.l ,'tlii r a p.i.-.saiTf nf -T .lays i.inif in sii'lit fi 
Ihf i.inlimni. '.'nil It airnfs cast ..f th.' < lr..mic.' 
.\t thf .11.1 ..f .Inn.'. tlii'V laml.'.l ..n th.' .' 
Snrin irn. in six tlf^n.'s cf imrMi latilini.'. an 
pnicti'.tin'/ WI St saw I hi' nit till lis.. t thf I'lssf.inih 
mil (Iri.mi.'.i. I'assinir th.- lima il.l llr.ii:.. .. ih.y . ..ast.'.l wist wartl till thf y ri-.'iflit 
Ihf Cap.. .1.' 1 1 V.'la in It in ih: 
v.iyau'.' thai was tlisiDVf nil tin- (Inlf t.i win. ! 
llji'ila i:a\i' ilif nanif nf X'fiifznfl.i. nr Lin' 
Vcnif..; III! aff.iini nf •!.•■ cabins Ijuilt un pih - 

Slill thf loastfil suiith." | nvcr the water, u lumlc nf life which l)ronL,'ht 1 





"/ IV»;iMr(HJ 

AMKHICA, l,VX>-ir.H. 

liU mlnil llip walir rlty at \\i,- A'lrluilt Knmi 
lli>' Aiixriiiiii roiiMt lijcilii Hint ii> ilir ('iirililKi' 
Uliiriil''. uihI iin tlii' llli of S< pit iriln r riuc linl 
V<i:!<iiitin, In lllNpniili'ta. win n- tif r:ti«u'it ii 

Miirtlii). iKit loiiMiitlnK i<i lium»ii llir [iHlliina. he 
-> iilli iiuii'il liU mill ilmi It iiiii«i,|r:ii V wm 
r<>rtiir<l iii;iilii>t him. jimt lii' u;i< iniirili n illii lila 
l»'i| 'I'lir riiiiiwmil ViiMi. Ncifli/. |.l, I!,iIImiii| 

....^ 1.. •1.1... Ktl 1 .1 1. . . .' 

t. >,.|t iii,Miii»t llir uiilli"r(ly i.f < .liMiihu, Hit «..< Ill Dili i \|Hiliti.,ii. ami lli.' kinmliilKi' lii 

[ l,M«, Im.vmh r. wi rr, .1 l.y IC.>l.laii uii.l ! truliiiil lliiri' liu.l Ilir ^rri iiti-l IiiIImiiih' i.ii llir 

|;-«nl,)if, Ilir iM.itiilir< i.f (■■iliinil.iiH. mill lir Mil, j fotiiiii.i i.r iili \:iriii| mill rvinlful Illr "-.Sir 

, ii,|i. Mill III wiiliilraw fr.iiii (III- i.liiiil. (Millii' | A llil|ii. .n;,i„i./i r,.„Y.„..r ,<. .{m M ,1 ,/, 1 

,'li 1,1 Filiriiarv. l.VNI, In- r.hirniil. iarr\iii!i i .\i.mi in .1 i; Kolil lli'l -.f il„' I>,«-''i,ru ..f 

Willi liMiit" <'aill/. ail iiiiiiiIk r uf I ,V./i/i,, ,/,. ."i -II. |l|,|,||r. \l,„i.,ir ..f .n/«i.^,i), 

►I.1M>. Ili'lli wllilll he n, all/Ill illi I li..rilliiiiH »illll i ('.(/../, hk V.'. 'h ;l ." >ir aNii .Sl«HilMi 

ifiiMiiiy Al ilii' iHijiiirilif,' i.f Di.i miIk r. inili. ' \\\\i A. I» I'ml I'l;-" 

III. siiiii' y. ar ill » hii li I ij. ,lii .M t ..ill oil hi, la.i A. D. 1500-1514. - Voyage of Cabral -The 

i.yi.;.'. aiiMili. rri.iii|.iiiii.ii nf ( ,,|,iiiil.ii,. |ii hi. Third Voyage of Americu* Veipuciui.- E«- 

iii-i \,,,-. \niiiir ^afii/ l"ln/..ii. S.1II11I fn.iii ploratlon of the Braiilian coait for the Kinf 

l'al,~ «ai till lir,l III .ri.s. 111.- li thi. of Portugal. -Ciinoiii evolution of the coiiti- 

.\iii. 11. Ill 111.' Alliiiii.. ail. I ..11 ilii' ■.'ml, nental name "America." ■, ii.,u l.i- 

. f .l.iiiiiiry. I.Vni. ilw..viri.l Cai.. ,st .\iu.i.iiiir, , . imr 1 iiri..ii^lv . |.li. ai. .1 Klll^' ICiii.uiii. | ..1 

t.. »liM li 111' L'av. till' iiaiiii' i.f ( at... .Saiil.i \I.iria | I'l.rliiL'al liii 

1.' li c.iii-.lai ii.ii. wliinri' ri-Iiiriiiii;,' ii.inhw.inl , llir 1 in .1 

111' I .||i.«i.| III. wi'.li riv inii.lini; i.i.a,!. an. I w. | ii|i Ihr w 

.li,r..\Mi.| 111! iiiiiiitli i,f llii' .\iiia/ will, h III' I fiii'»i- I, 

iiaiiii.l I'lri. iir.i. Wllhin ,1 iiii'iiili afli r hi, il.' ! Thi, II, 

|.irtiiri' In. Ml I'al..,. hr was |.'ll,,wiil fn.iii ihi- i im n, , ■, , .|„ 

-.LlM.' pi'It all.l 1. 11 III.' ,.1111.' ri.lll.' Iiv I'iiu.i il.' 

I.. |.. >\li" «,is till' lifjil»i..M r. al'lhi' III.. 1 11 1. 

I II,. iir..n.K'.i, hy mraii, i.f a 1 |..,i-.| v. -1 I. 
ulii. h ..lily iipi iii'il nhi'ii il narlinl llic li.iili.iii 

"t III.' u.iti T. thai, at a .|.|.tli ..f liL'lit falhiaii, 
ii.i'l a liiir. till' iH.i lii«,~i |alli..iii. Hiri' »all 
v>aii r, I. Ill all aliiivi' wa-i tn-li, l.i'|ir aU.i 
III, ..l,«'i'».i;i.,ii that iH'yiiiiil c.ii,,. SI. Aiiftii,iiii.', 
»l,i, Il hi' .I..11I1I11I, as Hill II, I'iii/on. ilii'i.,i,i 
"f lii'.i/il'il M.iiihwi',1 " — It. II. Maji.r 
/,;; ,f /',,,,', //, „,'v,yy',„'/,„,,,/. ,./, ID 

,\i-.i IN \V lr\iin,', A,/,' ,(,.,l r„,v,(,-.i <■/ 

I ■ ■"'. '■. 4. I'/,. l-;l. Si;iir., ill - ,,, i,„,|^ r.iriii'il 

A D isoo.-Voyages of the Cortereals p.. i.,ii. 1,1 , ■ -al aii.l„i'it 

to the far North, and of Battidas to the (i,i,|.ar ih, i.,, ,,1,,^ 1,,, K m 

Isthmujof Darien.-"Tlii I'lirniL'ii.M' ili.l i„,t ^ |.M..,ii «iii, H „, , i;, \|,,v ',- Caliml 

.->.rl",-k III,' M..rili whili' iiiaMii- Ih. ir iiii|,..rlaiil ■ hiI-Ih-.I ai.. Ilt aii.Ui I hi' ihi- i -.ip.- ..f (i,,iHl 

.Ii-...v.ri,,l„ilii's.,iii|,. Twii v,',-i I,, : II.. p.-, . ( ahral 1 :,ll. .1 ih,' l.ui.l I,.. |,a.| haiml 

in till' >piii,- 1,1 1 iiHi. „,.n. Mill ,,i,t ,„„|,.r ' \ iia ( in/, a iiaiiii' n hi. h pri siiiilv 1,. , aim .Suilii 

>.i-l',ii- I ..ri.iial. N,i ji.iirnal it i hall iif thi' j Criu. u h, 11 l.iiii.., arrivi.l in |.i-l.,„i uiili 

•..,\ 1-,' Hii.iw 111 (■xi,liiiii'. Ill llir litil,' i, known , Ilii' now, hr ha.l w iili him ,,.1111. -..r .,,11, i,,ii,. 

'1 11, ohjiit or ri',iill<. Mill iii,.rr iliiii i, a ipii Is. ami anion- iln i'arli,',i iiiiin. , ..n .,1.1 n, ,p, 

I'l'. vi.ri, voya-r aw rihr.l liy lonhirii to ,I,.A,, i of ihr lin/iliaii i'.,.„i \u- lin.l ' l.'iii.l .,| i',ru- 

\:,/< .riirial. taihiTol (;a,par. . . . T..111 liiiii,- ,|iirls' an.l • l..,ii.| ,,| Hi,' llolv (To-,' Tlir laiiil 

It tl.r A/.T,.,, (.aspar t'orlirral. |„,„il,ly loMow. I.iv ol,vi,ai-lv ,.. far I,, il„' 1 ;„| that Spain roiilil 

|ii.' il„.t MharN. Mriiiktliri'.,a>li,INrwl.„ii,it. 1,.,! ,1. nv Ih'.it .n la-t ih.rr w.i, ,..ii„ ,|iiii', for 

,""'"'■"'" ';'l"' '**■'•■ '""' ^'i -' I""-"' l'.,ilii--al . ,1,1 in Ihr ■..,,, ,11 M.I ■ .Mil, Il iniTrrst 

.I1-. "V.ri'l a laiiil which h.'calh.rrirra V,i h', wa, I, Il at l,i.!„.ii. Kinj laiiaiiin 1 lii-.m |„ 

l"i'ii|'-t.r,inlaii,l, liiii wasMoppiil liy i, r at a prrpair an , Ap, ,liii,.ii |..r , \i,|,,riiii: Ihi, m w 

ii'T " hriiaini'il lii.i Nrvailo, l,„a- i,,.i,|, an.l wi,|i..l I,, ,1 ,iiri' tlir ,rrvi,r, ..f v.nir 

i'iii-imkti.,wii ('orlrrral rrlurnr.l to l.i,l,on ,111111,1,1 pil,,i an.l r,„ni,,L'rapli, r fiiiiiliar with 

l.l'.ri'l!,. ,',,.1 of i.MMi_ . . . |„o...,|,|.r of this : II,.. „,.,,,.ni witrr,. iHrrtiir,,, wirr inailr to 

-lui.' i„„|rii:,,,|r I,a,ii,la,,ail,,| In.iiiCailiz Am, ri, 11,, a la, 1 whi, h provr, thai h,' h nl 

.u ii l«o V..M.1,. iomhin.irlh,. ,,|i,,r,., ,'r.S,ailli ^ alii .i,lv H,.n a lii-li r, piiiatioii Tlir ,.v, rt.ii','S 

M'"!! 1 11,, .r 1,1a \rr,li', whirh li,., I„iwri.ii »i r,' a, n pi, .1. |,.r whal n a„>n w,. ,1, ii,,t kii.,w 




All- II 
m,.|i,li 111 

Si i;liro ill 

I', ,li,, .Mvariv ,||. ( al.ral 
,r l|iii,|i,Maii, III |..||,,w 
,.i mill I 111, I' h a I',, rill 
ot ar ,.,,a,l 

111 i.'.'IN) 


■.".', lor 

,lliv, 11 

' ilni, 

iilllii a 


, afiir'a 

' mil, , prr 

Ula/il not 

. p"'. . . 

. I, Il .,iirr 

I ih, papal 

\, al rorlii 


'I M- 
. I ,1 

il lo .1 

'■"'." !"■ •""1 Ih,; [nam laiul. h,' lolh.wril ih,. .iii.l ,....11 ati, r hi, niiirn from Ihr ^,,va -,' with 
' '1-1 w. -iwanlioK Ki'trrli. orpirh.ip, Nonilirr, pn.h.ililv in Ihr aiituniii o! !.Viii .\in, 

■:■■ li", ,,n Ihr |,ih„,ii, of |(.„. „ al„,iit !( i 111, p:i-.,l fiiiiii Ihr Mfvhi of sp.iin int., 

■ 'I ii.rth atitiiilr. Krliirniii;; hr wa< wmkril ' r..riii^il. . On .\|av II l.Mil V,.-|,u, ii 

"' f:"l" """■"'■'llh,',n,|,.f|.an,l rraih.'il who wa, ,'V 1,1,1, tlv prinripai pilot an,l •■uiilii, 

'•1/ 111 ,pt,nil,iT. l.ii|.,' Ihis lirinL' Ihr iir.,t ,piiii in tin, vn a:;,, iiial, r iinkn,,wn ,ki|., m I ,ail 

,iii.,m ,^r liv Kiirop,.aii, loilir irmi'iry from l.i- 1 with ihr, ,■ laniv.l,. It i, ii,,i ,p,ii,. 

i''r.,u ,l,l,i„,| a.i Ihr I'ai in,. .Slalrs. siiili i,,, i- , 1, ar wli,. w.i,rlii|.f raptain. lull M Varnli i-rii his 

II 11' r.?"i. I,"",",","''.' !"' A'''''" '"■'■'•^il" ■•.■ - f.Min.l r.a,.,n, lor lirlirvini: Ihat it w „ a 1, rtaiu 

; ,7 .,'■ .'•"'■ '•'"* * ■>■*:«" aiitliiirily for s.iv- Ihr .Vlruaii i,'.i,l at Capr Vinh Ih,' lir-t wrrk 

- .. It 1^1,11,1.1, wa.< a hiinmnr man lowani 111,, i ii .Inn,. Vftiriir, lavs, ,f ■ ihr vil,,| wrathrr 

0.0,11-, Iti.|,.,.,l, hr iift,.ru.,ir,i, I,.,t hi, !:!;. hv I rvrr ..i.!:'. \:v r.'.-.rr. ' :\.. v r. .. '....I it , .r 

"iiiiamiy; fur, wliuu govrruor of Santli | Braiil in 1 


ilitiuir ;ilM>ut .'i' S.. (Mi Hi 

If t'vcning 

AMERICA, 1500-1514. 

Saming of 

AMERICA, 1500-1514. 

of tlic intli cif Aupusl, the fi'stiviil day of San 
Riiiiur. wliiiw iiiiiiH' was ariciriliiii.'ly u'ivcii ti> 
till' lapr 1" (•Tr wliicli llicv ilro|i|ii'il aiicliiir. 
From llii^ ipioiil lln y ^lc>« ly fdlliiwfil tlirmast tn 
the MMiihwaril, sto|ipiiii; iiiiw and thin ti> ixani- 
ini' ihrcoiiiiTv. ... It wuM nut until All Saints 
dav. thf' cif N'civcinlHT. that thiy reached 
the liav in latitude VP S . which is still known 
liv the'naine whieli thev K"^'' ''• Haliia de TinIos 
Hanlas. On New Year's day, I'ld','. tliey arrived 
at tlie n.ilile liav wliere ,14 'years later tlie iliief 
eitv i<! Brazil was I'.aind.d. Tliey wnulil seem 
It) have niistalien it fur tlie mouth of another 
hujie river, like some that had already tieen seen 
in this .strange world; for they eaMed it Uio de 
janiinMRiverof .lanuary). Thenei' liy Fehriniry 
15 they had'd Cape" Santa Maria, when they 
left the coast and took a aoutheiisli rly rourse out 
into the oei'an. Amerieus t;ives no satisfactory 
reason for this change of direction. . . . Per- 
haps he mav have looked into the mouth of the 
rivtr l.a I'liita. which is a hay more than a hun- 
dred mills widi-; and tin" .su.ldc-n westward 
trend of the shore may have led him tr> supposi' 
that he hail reaeheil "the did of the continent. 
At any rate, he was now in lon^riludc more than 
IwiiilV decrees west of the meridian of Ca]ie 
San Hoque, and therefore uni|Ui-~tioiialily out of 
l'oriui;u(se waters. Ch'arly there was no use in 
j.'oin>; on and discovering.' lands v hieh could 
IhIoii); onlv to Spain This may account. 1 
thinl., for the ehaiiKe of direction." The viiva;.'e 
soulheastwardly was pursued until tin' liille 
Meet had reached the iiv and rm ky coasl of the 
islend of South Ceorjiia. in latitude .')4' S. ^ It 
viras then decided to turn homeward. ■■ Ves- 
puiius . , . headed straiu'lit -N. N. F,. throuu'h 
the hufie cK'ean. for Sierra Leone, and the dis. 
tame of more tlian l.OtK) miles was made— with 
wonderful accuracy, thouiih Vesiiicius K;iys 
nolhini; alioiit tli:il— in ;i:l days. . . . Thence, 
after some further delay, lo l.i..Uon, where they 
arriMil on :lie Tlh of slpleniU'r, l.WS, Anionj: 
-.dl the Miya>;es made during' that eventful 
period there was none that a> a feat of navi- 
gation >urpa^.M d tliis third of Viw-pucins, and 
till re was none. lAci pi ilii- tir-l of t'olumhus. 
thai outranked it in hisiorieal im|u.rlaiice For 
it was not only a \o\aL'e inio the remoti'st 
>iriieh.s of th.'- .'Sia of l»aiKni-s. hut it wa- 
pn I iniai nlly an incursion iiii , lie aiilip'Hlal 
»,iil,l of the .><ouilern hi-nil^pliere ... A 
ii.a>i .'f eoiiiininlat i .\ti tit. In L'iriiiTiL' so Tiear 
till Tie lidiaii of Till- (ape Verili i-.|;iTiiis aTn! run 
niiii: -.,'illiwe-ii rly to latiludi ;!."i S and pi r 
ha]!- liiyi'iid. did not tit into iiiixli'ily s m In iiii- 
of tliinl'^. It Wiis land uiikiinwii !■> the 

al.i ii Tit>;, and Xrvpucius wa^ ri::lit in sji\iiii; that 
hi' li;id liilelil thin thinu'^ li> the tlioiisallil 

wliiih l'liii> h.iil Ill-Mr niiiitii.iied li wa 1 

dtran::e that In ~li,,iild i nil ii a 'New \\orld.' 
iihd ill nieiliiiL: wiih thi- plii.i-i. on llii'- IIt-i 
iK-(a>ioiT in whiili ii appears in an> doeunii nl 
with reliriTiie lo an\ pan of »'e now call 
Aneriea. the nadi r luu^t l« careful not toclollii- 
it w itii the mi aniiTL' which it wears in our iiioii 
erTi CM s. Ill usiiijr the i \pre-,ioTi ■ New World ' 
Vi spill ill- ua- liiil lliinkili:; of the Florida coasi 
whii Ii III hail vi-iiid on a loriner voyairi nor ol 
tin- Inlands of hiilii ' ili-( om n d li,\ (oluTTihus. 
nor CM Ti of the I'earl Coast wliiih he had fol 
lowed after the .\diniral in i\plorin>r. The 
i'\|ire~-ion occurs in his letter to Lorcnzij 

de' Meiliii. written from I.ishoTi ill Mftrch or April, 
l."iO:i, relating solely to Ihlsthird voyap', Theh't 
ter iHniiis as lollows: 'I have formerly written 
lo you at sulliiieiit leni.'lh alioiit niy reliirn from 
thiise new couiitrii- whieli in the .--hips and at the 
i-xpense and i oinmand of the ino-i '.'racioiis KinL' 
of I'lirtimal we h.ive -oiiLdil and found. It is 
propir lo call Ihema new worid. (ihsirve that il 
is onlv llie new count rii s \i,:lid o:i this llilnl voy- 
aL'e. the eountne- trom (ape >aii Itoqiii- south- 
ward, that Ve^pui ins thin k~ il proper to lall a new 
world, and here is his reason for so i-allinv' them 
• Since amonir oTir aiTcestors then- was no kiiow- 
li ,L'e of them. aiTil to all wholnarof thealTnir it 
i~ most novel. For it transcends the ideas of the 
aTTcienls. -inee most of them say thai beyond the 
eipiatorlothe-oiilli tliereisTioeontiTTent. hut only 
The sill which they call the Atlantic, mid if any of 
tlicTTi asserted the exisieiice of a (ontinent there, 
tliev foTiTid maiiv reasons for refiisiiiir to consider 
it a" hahilahle country. Hut this hist voj-.l'" of 
mine has proved that this opinion of tlnirs 
was erroneous aiTil In every way eonlniry 
to the facts." . . . This evpresdoii ' Novii- 
Miindus' [New World |. thus iKaurrinj; in a 
private letter, had ii remarkahle career. KiiHy 
In June. l,")lia. ahoiit the time when AiTiericus 
was startin); on his fourth voyage, I.orciT/o 
died. Hy the lieKinTiini; of, a Latin 
TeraioD of the letter [translatitl by Guivamii 
Uiucuiiilo| was printed and published, with the 
title 'Mundus Noviis ' . . . The little four 
li-HVed tract, ' Mundus Novus,' turned out to 
tM> the v'reat literary success of the day M. 
Ilarisse has deserihei'l at h a-t eleven Latin eiii 
tions probably published in the course of b'lO-l, 
and by riim not less than ei,i;lit edilions of Cier 
man versions had been InsuciI. Intense curiosity 
was aioiwd by Ihis aiinoiini'enienl of the exis 
tenceof a populous land beyond the eipiator and 
unknowTi (could >uili a thiiiL' be |iossiblci to tin- 
aiuienN," — who d;d know sometliiiiir, at leasi, 
about Ibe e.-i-lern parts of the .\si;iiic eontiiienl 
whieli Cobiinbiis was supposed to liine reached. 
The •■ Novus .Mundus," so nann d. bciian soon to 
Ih' ri picMiited on nia|is an.l L'lobi ■-. f;eTieTall\ a~ 
a irreai island or ipiasi eoniinent lyiinr on and 
iK'lmv the eipia'i r. " F.urope. .\sia and .\friia 
were the Ihree parts of the earth |privi.iusly 
known], ami so This oppositi' region, hilherlo 
iinknoHii. liiit mentioned by Mela au'l inilicalid 
by I'toli-iny, wastlic Fourth I'art. We can now 
bi-i.'in to Understand the intense and wildlv 
ab-.orbinir inleresi with which people read tin 
brief story of the third voyii'.'e of Ve>pueius. 
and we can see that in the n.alure of tliat inlere-i 
there was nothinncali iilaled tobrini; it iTTlocoTii 
liarisiiTi wiih the work of ( olnmbns. The tw" 
naviiiators were not regarded as r- -i in doinu' 
the s:iine tliinf;. but as men who I . done !»■ 
veiydiirerent things; and lo givci redittoone wa- 
bv "no means eiiuivaleiit to withholding iredii 
from the other." In l."iiiT, Marlin Waldsei 
mllller. professor of geography at Saint -Die 
published a small irealise entitled ••('osino 
gniphie IntriMluclio. ' with that second of the tW' 
known letters of Vespiiciiis — (he one addres.-.i,l 
to Soderini. of which an acrouiit is given abiu' 
(A I). 14H7-14iW)— apiK'iided to it. "In tlii 
rare hook o< curs the tirst suggestion of the nani- 
America. AfUT having treated of the divisi. r 
of the earth's inhabited surface into three p.MS 
— Europe, Asia, auJ Africa— WaldBeeinlllli : 




AMERICA. l.'.0»-l.'ill 

•prak!) of thp dlsMovrry of h Koiirlli Pan," an<l 
Bays: '• ■ When-fore I ilci iioi sn' i< riiililly 
to hinder us from ealliiif; it .\ini riire nr .Xmcrica. 
i. e . the land of AimriciiK, aftir ils rlisc.ivinr 
Aiiierieiis, a man of sairacioiis iiiiriil. sine i' both 
Eiirn|)i' and Asia have v'l'' tliiir nanus from 
women ' . . . Siuli wire tiiewin:;!.! wnnls hut 
for wliiih. as M. Ilarisw reminds us, llie wistern 
hemisphere niiiilil liave e<inie to l)e liimwii as 
Athmlis. or llesperiilcs, or Santa ( ruz. or New 
India, or perhaps Coliimbia. ... In alHiut a 
(|Uarterof a reiitury tin' first staj;e in the devel- 
opment of tlie naiuin^' of Aineri. a had Ix-en 
eompleted. That staue eonsisted of live distinct 
steps: 1. Anierieiis called tile regions visiii'd hy 
liim iM'Vond the e<|iiator 'a new world' l«(aiis<' 
tliey weri' unknown to the ancients; •.'. Cioconilo 
niude this striking,' pliras<' ' .Mm 'us N'ovus' into 
:i title for his translation of the letter. ..;:!. 
the name .Mundus Xovus i;..! placed ii|)oii sev- 
(i:d maps as an ((luivalent for Term .Sanct.e 
( rucis. or what we call Itrazil; -1. the sujrfji's- 
tiuii was made that Miuidus Novus was the 
Koiirtli Part of the earth, ami iniirht properly he 
n:imeil Amerien after its di.siiiverer; ."i. the name 
Aniciica thus got placed upon several maps |the 
first, s,, fiir as known. U'lnir a map aserilred to 
l/-oriMp|o da Vinci and pidilishcd .iliniit l.ll-l, 
and the se<oud a nlolw made in l.ll.") hv .lohanii 
Schi-.ner, at XuremlHT):| as an c(|uiv'alent fur 
nliat we call Unizil, and somc'tinics came to 
uliind alone as an eijuivah'nt for what we call 
Niiilh Anieru'a. hut still sii;nilieil only a part ol 
llie clry lanil lieyond tin- Atlantic" to which 
('.■lunihus had Icil the wav. . . . This wider 
iM.ioiiMi,' lof South America] bei.imc- all I lie 
In.. IV linnly established as its narr.iwcr ineaniiiL' 
w.cs usurpeil liy tlie nami' Hrazil. Thn-e ecu 
lnri(s iM-forc the time of Colundjus tli.' n-.l 
(lie woihI called hrazil-wiKKl an article of 
crnmerei-, under that saini. name, in Ilalv .■in. I 
Spiiin It was on., of the v:ilualile ihinir- 
hr..ii,'lit from the Kast, .in.l when tlie Portii- 
^'ii.M- f.iun.l the same dye w.m«1 .iliunchint in 
th.iv lr..pieal forests that had seemed so heauti- 
fid !■. Vespuciiis. the name lirazil s.>..n liecame upon the country ami h.lpc.l to sit 
Ir.',' the name America from its l.ical as,socia- 
ti.'ii.., ' When, in time, ami liv slow de.;rics, 
til. irrciit fact was learned, that nil tli.. 
t..un.! hiyond the Atlantic hy C.ilumlius ami 
Ills ■.iiiirssors. f.irnicil pari of one contineiilal 
M-'. Ill, .111.1 were all t.i h.- cndiraccd 
"p'i'ii .f 1. Ni v; World, the name which ha. I 
I.....1I1.- swionym as with N.-w Worl.l was lien 
ii.-.|i:illy exteii.lco to the wliol.- Tlii' cvolu- 
'i"!.:iry process of tin' naming' of the wesicrii as a whole was thus ma.h- complete 
1" i"ill. hy Mifcalor. who sprei... the name 
All., liiii in lari,'c letters upon a -I. .he wliidi he 
..ii.-iriirted that year, sothut part of it appearcl 
III'"" 'lie northern an.l purl upon th.' 
'..III III. Ill _,I. Fiske, III, l)iKroi;rii„f.\„„ri,;i 
'■' T ... 'i), 

■\i-oiN: W. B. Scaife. .Imee/.v- ■ //,.',■,,„/,■„,,/,- 
>■'' II,..l„ni_ „v/. 4._|[, II M„j,„., /,-,, „,■ 
'■"••• Jl.i.n/ nf l\irl'i-/,il. ,■/,, lit — 1 Winsoi^ 
A ' r./ri.v ,„„/ ra7/,v,/ ///,r „/■ .1,,,., ,., .,1, r/, ._. 
"■'■'— II II. Bancroft, i/int. of the hieilir Stul,^ 
•' '. /v iw-ll-j, ,iud 1',';M'.>.t 

A. D.1501-1504.— Portuguese, Norman and 
Breton fishermen on the Newfoundland Banks. 

^ c >l.WKOlKUL.\ND: A. I). I.IOI-I.JT.S 

A. D. 1502.— The Second Voyage of Ojeda. 

- The lirst voyajre of Alonzo di' Ojeda. from 
N.liich he ntiirncd to Spain in .liine I-IUO, was 
pr.litalile to notliini.' hut his n lUitation as a hold 
I and cnterprisini; explorer. Bv way of reward. 
1 he was Kiveii 'a j.'rant of laml iii Ilispaniola. 
I and likewise the trovernment of Coipdhacoa. 
w hieh |ihici. he had discoyend |an.l w liieh he had 
, called Vi.nczuela|. lie wasauthorized to lit out a 
iiumlHT of ships at his own expense and to pros 
ecute disi'ovcries on the coast of Terra Firiiia. 
... With four vessels, Ojeda set sail for the 
Canaries, in l.'iirj. and theme |iroceeded to the 
(tiilf of Paria. from which locality he found his 
way to <'cn|uiliaeoa. Not likuu; this poor 
country, he .sailed ..11 to the Bay .d 
nhere he determined to I'oun.l his sittl.incnt, 
whicli was, however, destined to he .if short 
duration. very soon U'came scarce; 
ami one of his partners, who had l«in sent to 
procure supplies from .lamaica, f.iih-il to return 
until Ojeda's foll.uv.Ts were almost in a slal.' of 
miiliny. The result was that the whole col.iny 
set sail for Ilispaniola, takinjr the (.'overnor with 
them in chains .\ll that irained hv his 
expedition was that he at li-nu'lh came otf w'iiiner 
in a lawsuit, tlie costs of whicli. howev.r. left 
him a ruined man."— 1{. (J, Watson, Si^,„Uh ami 
t'ortiuni,^, s. .1,,,,, l.k. 1, ,•/,, 1, 

A. D. 1503-1504.— The Fourth Voyage of 
Americus Vespucms.— First Settlement in 
Brazil.'- In .lune, \M.\, ■■.Vmeriiro sailed aL'ain 
In.m l.islioii, with six ships. Tli,- ohjeci ,,f this 
v.iya^'c was t., ilis...vcr a certain islan.l called 
.Milclia. wliich was siipposid to lie west of Cali- 
cut, an.l to lie as famous a marl in tli.' commcrei- 
"f the In.lian w.irl.l as Ca.liz was in Kiirop... 
They imi'le 1 lie Cape di' Vcr.1-.. ami then, con- 
trary t.i the jiidirmei.t .if Vc-»puc.i ami of all the 
Ih-el, ihc ( omniand.r |iersiste.| in stan.liiii: for 
Sena l.eoa," Tie- Commaii.l.r^ -hip was lost, 
ami Vespucci, with v.-sscl, ..iilv. nache.l the 
i.iast of the N.-w \\'orl.l. lin.lin:,' "a p..rl which 
is iliouirhl t.. have liecii lialiia. 11. n- ■ th.'y 
waitid tw.. months in vain exp.cMiion .if 
lieini: Joiiieil hy the r.-st .i|' ih,- -.lua.ln.n. Ila .'inir 
h'-l all hope id' this tli.v ca-ted oil for -'(iO 
hinrii.s to til.' S..utliwar.l.' an.l i.iok p.-r 
iiirain in Is" S. :i.-i W, ..(' th.- ii..rii|i:in of 
h..n. II. Ti' they remaine.l live moiulis. upon 
u'ilhI terms with ilii' natives, with whom some 
of the parly p.ncinitc.l fi.rtv leairucs i.iio th.- 
iiitiTior; an.l ili.y crecii d a fort, in which 
they I, n -J I III. II who liii.l liicn save.l th.' 
C.iinmaiiiler-. -!,ip Th.-y trave tin m \l ;r||„s 
hesides oih.r ariu-. an.l pr.ivisions for sis 

months; tin n loa.l.-.l with lirazil |w I], -ailc.l 

home.vard mi. I n-lurned in safii\ . The 

honour. Ih.r. foiv, ..f liavini; lorinc.l tli.' tirst 
setllem.nt ill lliis country is due to AmeriiT.i 
Vcvpiii.i. Ii .lois not iiiipear that any further 
alleiili..u was as this liui.. pai.l to it. .' . , But 
the car.'.i III' l.razil which Vespinii ha.! Iirouu'lit 
home t.nipl..l private adveiiiiirers, wli.i wer.' 
coiiicni Willi pcMceful grains, to tra.le thith.-r f..r 
that valu III.- »,.o,|; an.l this trade In-, am.- so 
well kiL.wii, iliat in .■..iiM-.|u..n,i. th,- cast an.l 
the whol, i.iuiury ol,taiiii-.l III,, name of Brazil, 
ii.itwiili-i:iii,liii:,' th.- holi, r appellation [Santa 
CnizJ will, li C:iiiral had t'iv.-ii it."— 1! Soutliev, 


..(■ v.. 


, „ -. Expeditions of 

cuesa to the Isthmus.— The Set- 

A. D. 1509-1511. -The 
Ojeda and Ni 

I* ■! ;! 

AMEKICA. 150V-1511 

Setttrinent at 

AMEKICA, 150»-15U 

tletnent at Darien. — "For wvcral y<'»r» aftiT 
b\» rnlnuua, tlioiigh siiKTssfiil lawsuit, we lose 
all trails of Alonzii ile Ojeilii, cx<i|iliiif,' tlmt we 
an- ti)l(l lie inmli' miottiiT v<iv:i;;i' to ('<>(iuilm<ia 
[Veni-zuelii], in I.VIS. No rcci'td rciimins of tins 
cxprilition, whlcli sitiiis to liavt Ixen iciually 
uuprotittttilf with tin' priTiiliiii.'. for we titul 
him. in IWis, in ihp isluinl of Ilis|mnii)lii iw poor 
in pursi-, thoiiv'lia« proud in.'<piril.:iaivir. . . . 
."loul thi< liniL' the rupiility of Kiiiv' K.nlirianil 
was .Tt :itlv iliil bv the a. iciiun liy Cohun- 
btisof IliiYMl.i iniiiis"of VcMi-Mia, inwliich tin- 
nclniiral faricitd hi? had discovrrc d thi' Anna 
Cliirsoiusus of tlip nncicMit^, whence Kiiie Solo- 
mon procured the (fold uwd in buihliivir the tem- 
ple of Jeru>ialin>.' Siib.seciueiit voyiifrers had 
ii.rrohoraled the opinion of Coliimbut as to liw 
irinerul riehi's of Ilie roust of Tirra Kirma; Kui>,' 
Ferdinand resolved, therefore, to found regular 
I olonies aloMi; that coast, and to plai e the whole 
under some capable connnaiidi r." ()jid:i waa 
reconnneniled for this post, but found i. cmpeli- 
tor in one of the p^ntliiniMi of the SpaTiisli court. 
Dieiro de Nicue^a. " Kiiii; Ferdinand avoided 
the "dilcinnia bv favoriu); boihiiiof indeed by 
furnishini: them wilh sliips and ni'mey. but by 
irmntinf.' patents and diiri^lie-'. wliidi cost notli- 
iiu;, awl mii-'lit brinj: rich relnrns. Ile ilivided 
that part .if tlie continent wiiieii lies alonj,' llie 
l-tlunus of Marien into two provincis. tlie 
boiMidarv line ruiniiiu; throuirli tin' tlulf of 
I'mba. 'Tlie eastern part, exbndini: to ( ape do 
It Vi'la, wasi-allcd New \ndabisia, and tli.' p'v- 
I rnment of it eiv. ii lo < (j. da. The otln r to th,. 
west [called C.isiilli.del ( iro|. incluain^' Vi raunia. 
and reachiuL' Ui (ape tiracias a l>i"s. was a^- 
si:;ncd li. Nicuisii, Tlie i^laml of .lani.iica was 
i:\\-vn tilth'- two ^'overuors iu curnnion. as a pl.ii e 
wlience to draw supplii s of provision-.." Slindi r 
lii.ansfor Ilie eiiui|iruilit of Oj.da's ixpidiliuu 
ui re -niiplied bv till- vilirati pilot. .loan de la 
Cosa. who ,iicon"ipaniiil liiiu as his liiiit. liant. 
Nieu'i -a was mure amply provi.lnl. Tin- ri\al 
armaments arrivi d at ^an lloinini:i> ab.n'.t tlie 
same time liu |."iO'.b. and inui li cpiarrelinL' be. 
tween the two ciinuiandi rs endued. ' 'jeda 
found a leiiarv in >an Domiii-o. M.irlin Fi r- 
nandc ih I'.iii iso. who had nenny wliii h liec.m- 
Niitcd lo invi ~t in ihe enierpri^e. and \\\fi prMui- 
isiil to follow liim -.villi an addili.'Mal >hip-I.'adof 
n-iruils and -iippliis. ruder 'his ariaim. rm lit 
Ojidi made realv lo vail in advaiidof 
petil-ir. embarl>irii.' Nuv. lu. I "lUil. .\moii- lle've 
wlio ,-ailid "ilh him was Fr.mii-cn I'i/arro. 'lie 
future 1 "iHiui ror. if l'(-ru. <ljiila. by liisiii. r-y, 
iraincl lime i-nnui.-li to ne;irly ruin hisexpi-'liiiuu 
heforc Niiuisa n ai In d tlie sun.-, b.r. liavinLT 
Inndeilat ( arilia-i na. Ii ide iqiMn llie na- 
tives, piirsiii-l ilii m 11 1 Uli "iy iiiiu liu- if 
Ihe (oiintrv. «ilh To men. and v. as um rwlii Imid 
by the ill -pi rale sivairi >. c-i apiim wiib only om- 
companion Iri.m Heir p.-i-.iiii d nrvw- Hi- 
faiihful friend, iln- pilMi. .loan de la Ci-a. was 
Hmoii.' Iln- vlaiii and ( Iji d.i him-i If. liidinL' in tlie 
fon-I. wav ni iiK ill id i.f liim-. r and exp.wiin- 
when foil. Ill and' hhu. d by a searehim; parly 
from his >liip« .\l tliis inin inre the lli el uf Ni- 
luesa made \u appearand- .h-alou-ies wi M- fur 
jrotlen in a co union raL'i aL'ain-i Iln- iialivi-s and 
Ihe luo eX|iidiiions were j-iinid in an aitai k un 
the Indian villau'es which span d nolhinu', Nii 'i- 
eaa then priM-ei-ded lo Veiaf-'iia. while Ojula 
founded u town, which he called Sun Sclrastiiiu, 

at the east ind of Ihe Qnlf of Iriba. Ineessantly 
liara.i-si-d by tlienatives. terrilied by the elb-eW of 
the poison which theso used in their warfare, and 
threatened with. starvation by the rapid i-xhanstiim 
of its supplies, the N-lllcm'ent lost cuurap'aud 
ImiK-. Kneiso and his promi.scd sliii> w .-re waited 
lor in vain. \l Unt'lh there cunu' a v. ss.-l which 
c.rlain piratical .■tdvi-niurers at Ilisp.nii.ila had 
stoli-n, and which broU'_'iit .some wilmuie jiro- 
visimis, eaL-erly Iioul'IiI at an e.xorbiianl price. 
(Ijida, half r.'cover.-.l fr.'iu a puison. .1 wound, 
wlii.h h(i had inaled In mii-ally wilh n-d-hot 
])lali-sof iron.en^a-e.l the pirali-s to convey liim 
to lIi>p.-iniola, for Ihe pr.icuriiu; of supplii-s. 
The vova^e was a ili-asirmis one. resnllini; in 
sliipwrei-k on the c.u-i of t'nba and u inonlh of 
di-sperale wan.!. -rill i; in theiiora-s.-s of tlie island. 
Ojeda survived idl Iln so perils and sulTi-rin^s, 
made his way to .lamai.-a, and from Jamalia to 
San llomin:.'.), fuunil that lits partner Km is.) had 
saili-.l for thecoli.ny ImiL' bifore, wilh alnimlaiit 
sii]i|ilii-s, but (oulil learn notliiuK umre. Nor 
colli. 1 he obtain for himself any m.-ans of return- 
im; to San .Sebastian, or of .li-paleliinil relief to 
th.' pta. I'., p.-imil.-ss an.l dishi urti-ned, be 
Went inti> a i-.mvent and died. .Meaniime the 
il.-spaii-ii...; (..!.. nisi sat San Sebastian waited until 
diaili li if m.-i.le tin in f.-w in.niL'li to be all taken 
on biai.l of Ihe two little briL'antiiics w hi. h were 
hit to them; tiien thi-ysailid aw.-iy. I'i/arro in 
C'lnmiand. One of Ihe liriL-antincs .s...iu wei;t 
douii in as.piall; tlieolhi'r made its way to the 
harli.irof farlhajciia. wln-re it loiin.l Ihe tardy 
r.ii. is... hin^' b.r his ...lony. laicis.), under 
his i-.immis.sion. 'i .w to-.U (-.unman. I. an.l insisted u'liinL' toSasi Sebastian. TIn-ie the ol.l ex- 
jii-ri.-nc. s were S".'n ri-n.-wid, and e\.-n Kuciso 
w;is t.) tin- deadly plai-e. The 
l-itiir hail briiUL-lil wilh him a nei dv cavalier, 
Vasei) .Nufn/. de li.ilb..a — so n. . .Iy llial he 
simii,'L'li-.l him-ilf mi board Km ship in a 
cask loesi.ipc liiseredil.irs, Vas. .. Nuni v., who 
ha.l (-oasi.,1 this ri L'iou with llasiidas, in laiN'. 
n.iw a,lvis,-.| a rem.ival of the colo.iy lo Darii-n. 
on Ihe opposite coast i..f tin- (iiilf of I'raba. Ills 
a-hire, whirh was |..|l..w.,l. pr.iv.-.l (.'".hI. an.l 
the hi.p. si.f the .settli-rs were rais. .1 ; but I'.ni's 
m.iilesof L'.' proxed irks.. me to them, 
'i'lii-n lialboa (-ailed ati.rilion to the fa. t thai, 
win nlhcv cross, d the (!ulf of I'raba. tiny passe.l 
out of liu- t.-rtii.-ry (-..v. re.l by the inli-nl; tu 
(Ijeda. uii.l.-r wlii. ii Km i-o was coiiimi-.i.ined. 
and iiilotli.-it uroilcl l-. Ni.nesa Onlliissuj 
L'.s;i..n Km iso was prumpily d. iios.-.l aii.l tw-. were eleili-d. lialboa bi-imr one, Wliil. 
evi Ills ii: on., c.irni-r of Niiin-sas domain weri- 
thus esiabli-liiiu; a colony birilial amliiiimis jrov lie hiuisi-lf. ai li ihi r iNinniiiv of ii 

was farin- liailly. lie had sulTi-ied li ir.lships, 
separalioii from 'most of his command and loin 
abaiiilonni. lit on a iiis..l,iie i. i-i; ha.l rei..ine.| 
his f.illou. rs ali.r irreal snlT. i iiiL-. onl> t.l^nlr.I 
VI till. Ill- ill tin ir lompanv, nuiil k ss ihaii oin 
iomdn-.l reniaiaid of Iln- ;utl who sail. ,1 Willi 
him a few months bi-lore. The sel'k-meni a' 
\i rau'ua Icel b.-i n d.-si Me.l. an.l another, iianii .1 
N.imbt-e di Pins uinlerlaken. wilh no improve 
men! of (in umslami-s. In this siinalioii hewa 
r..j..i.i-d. Ill last, bv 111., arrival of one of his li. n 
lcnaiits.'i;...|-ii.'.i lie Coliiien-iris. who (-ame will, 
suppli.-s. ('.ilmenaresbioiiirlil li.liuL's. nmreovi r, 
(.f Ihe |iriispi-r.ius colony at Darien. which he ha.i 
discover.-il on his way. with an invitation to 


AMEKICA, 1509-1511 

fharorery nf 
!*<• I « ,fir. 


Nicinsa tocomi-aiKl nstiiiiiie tiv irovprnnii'Dtof it. 
Ill' iiiirptcd the invitutiiiii v.ith (li'li^lit; liut. 
al:i<t! tlie i'(>niiniiuity ut 1>iiricii liuil rt-pt^nttnl of 
it l"-f<iro he rf:irlie<! tli'-in, unil tln'V rt'fii.MMl 
ton > ■ ivi Iiim wlu'H liearriMd. IVriiiittiil liiiiillv 
t[i !ai}'l. .':e was stizid liy a tn'ailirnms party 
urni'iin the cohinisls — to whiiiu Itallmu Is said 
Ut Imvc iiii|m>s«mI all the resist.-tiu-e {ii his pftvvcr — 
\v:is put ipii hciani nf an olil anil irazv liripmline, 
w iih M-vi-nt«?rii of h\H frirnils, uml . (inipctleil to 
t,i!%i- an oath tli:;t he wuiitil sjiil htraii;ht toS[>aiii. 
■■ riie frail hark ml sail on the lirst of Man li, 
l."ill, ami stiiri'ilMiro>sthi' CarihlKaii Si a for tlie 
i-laiiii of lli-^paiiiola, htit wa.s never srrn nr hi-anl 
i.f ni.'re." — \V. Irving', /.(/iin.</ l'"i/,i;/i.i<i/Ci;iii/i- 
I'lin if >,'t lis ('■tmjiinl'fnH, r. ;(. 

\i>i) IN H. II. HanerofI, Hist, of the P.irilic 
'•,.,, t 1. f/i. 6. 

A. D. 1511. — The Spanish conquest and oc- 
cupation of Cuba. Sir (.1 i!.\: A 1>. 1111. 

A. D. 1512.— The Voyage of Ponce de Leon 
'n quest of the Fountain of Youth, and his 
Discovery of Florida. — " Whativi r may have 
Imn tile Southernmost point retuheil hy Catnit 
in coastiriL' America on his return, it is ci rlaiii 
ti' It he iliil nut land in Florida, and that the 
i inur of tirsl exploring that country is due to 
J ti I'lUiee de Leon. This cavalier, who was 
i ■ . rt'iir of Pturto Uieo, induced by the vairue 
11,1 liliiins circulated by the natives of the West 
lMilii>, that there was ft country in the iiiirlh 
piK^issiiiir a fountain whose waters restored the 
UL'id to youth, maile it an objeet of liis ambition 
to be the first to dis<'over this m irvellous resriun. 
Willi this view, Ue resipned the governorsiiip. 
iml sit sail with three caravels on the ad of 
.M in h loli. Steering N'. i X., he came upon a 
eouinry covered with flowers andvrrdiire; and 
lis the day of his discovery hap|>ened to be 
I'alm Sunday, called by the Spanianls 'Pasqua 
11 riila.' he gave it the name of F'loriilafroin lliis 
1 in umstanec. lie landed on the M of April, and 
toi'k i>ossession of the country in the name of 
the kill!.' of Ca-stile. The warlike people of the 
mist of rautio(a name given by the Inilians to 
all the country lying Intween t'af)e Canaverd 
ind the southern point of Florida) fionn, how- 

■ M-r, cri.npelled him to retreat, and he pursued 
Ills exploration of the coast as far as 'AP H' north 
lutituile, and on the 8th of May doubled ('a|ie 
< ifiaveral. Then retracing hi-t course to I'lniio 
Kill), in the hopeof linding the island of I!iniiiii. 
u liii h he Mieved to be the Land of Youth, and 
il' siribed by the Indians as opposite to Florida, 
li ■ iliseovind the liahanias, and some other 
i>l Hills, jireviously unknown, liad wealliiTcom- 
I ' lliai: iiiin to put into the isle of (Juanima to 
n pair daiiiaL'is, lie despati hid one of his cara- 
vi Is, uniiiT the onlers of Jaun I'lnz deOrtubia 
I id of the pilot Anton de Alaniiiios, to gain in- 
1- nuation n^lpi-cling thedi-ind land, whiih he 
:: id as yet then totally unable to disiover. lie 
i.tanirdto Puerto Hieo on the 'Jlst of .Siptein- 
'" r; a few days afterwanls, (Irtiibia arrivid also 
»:i!i Mews of "liiniini. Uen'porli'd that he had 
i-,|.|ond the island. — whiih he disiribid as 
lirrr. well wooded, and watered byniiiinrous 
':ri:,ins, — but he had faiU'd in diseiivi ring the 
1 inlain. Oviiilo places Himini at 4il lea'.Miis 

■ 1 -t of the island of lialiama. Thus all the ad- 
' inla!;es which P.mee de Jjoii pnunised hiniself 
In III this voyage turned to the pnilit of ceotrra- 
\iliy: the titli.> of ' Adilantado of Biniini and 

Klorida,' which was conferred upon him, was 
purely honorary; but the route taken by him in 
onlerto return to Puerto Kico, showed the advan- 
tage of making the homeward voyage to Spain by 
tlic Dalianut Channel," — W. B. Hye, IiUrod. to 
" Dinevrery ami 0/!iyuf»t of Terra FUiriia, bg a 
genlkman of Klnis" (llakluyt Soc., 1S51). 

Also IN O. U. Fairbanks. Hist, of Florida, eh. 1. 

A. D. 1513-1517.— The discovery of the 
Pacific by Vasco NuHez de Balboa.— Pedra- 
rias Oavilaon the Isthmus —With Kuciso de- 
posed from authority and Nienesa sent adrift, 
Vasco Nufie/. de lililboa seems to have 1 a.sily 
held the lead in all lirs at Darien, though not 
without much opposition; for faction and turbu 
li iic(! were rile. Kneiso was permitted to carry 
his grievances and complaints to Spain, but Bal- 
boa » colleague, Zamudio, went with him, and 
another coninde prixecded to Hiapauiola, both 
of them well-furnished with gold. For the quest 
of gold had succeeded at lust. The Darien ad- 
venturers had found considerable quantities in 
till! possession of the surrounding natives, and 
were gathering it with greedy hands. Balboa 
had the prudeiiee to establish friendly relations 
with one of the most important of the neigh- 
boring caeiques, whose comely daughter he wed- 
ded— aeeonling to the easy cu.stoms of the 
country — and whose' ally he iH'came In wars with 
tiie other caciques. By gift and tribute, therefore 
as well as by plunih'f, lie harvested more gold 
than any befon' him had found since the ransack- 
ing of the New Worhl began. But what thcv 
olitained .seemed little comjiared with the treas- 
ures reported to them as existing beyond the 
near mountains and toward the south. Due In- 
dian youth, son of a friendly c.uiiiue, partieu- 
larlyexcited theirimaginations bythe tale which 
he told of another gn^at sea, not "far to the, 
'.iU the soiithwanl-slretching slion's of which 
Were eountries that teemed with cverv kind of 
wealth, lie told them, however, that they would 
need a thousand men to tight their way to this 
Sea. Balboa gave sueli credenre to the story 
that he .sent envoysto .Spain to.solieit forces from 
the king for an adeijuate c.\|ii diiion across the 
mountains. They sailed In ()■ lolur, l.'il'J, but 
did not arrive in Spain until the lollowing May 
They found lialbo.i in inaih ilisfavorat the court. 
Kneiso and the friends of the unfortunate Xic- 
ni saliail luiiiidly ruineii him by their eornplaints, 
and the king caused criminal pn.eeedings 
iiirain^t him to be coninieneed. .Miantinii', some 
iiiklin;: ol llnse liosiiliiies had ri ached Halboa. 
hiiii-i If, I oiivi VI d by a vessel which bon' to him. 
at tin same time, a commission as eaiitaiii-gen 
era! fnimthe autlKiriliesin Ilispaniola. lie now 
resolved to bi 1 wine the discoverer of the 01 ran 
whieh his Iiuliaii frii nils described, and of the 
rich lands bonli liiig it, before his cneniii s i ouM 
iiili rlire wilhliim, " Acionlinu'ly, early in S.p- 
teniber, l."i|;{. he set out on his renow ned cxjie- 
ililioii for liniliiig 'thcolhrr sea.' aee"iiip,iiiiid 
l.y pdln.eii wi II aniied. and by i|o-,'s, whiihwere 
of more av:iil than men. atid I-y Indiiin slaves 
to carry the bunlins. He wi nl iiv .sea to the ter- 
risay of lii~ father-in-la", Kim,- Can'la, by whom 
hewaswell reeeived. -iiid aeeonipaMied by whose 
Indians he moved on into tii'ritory." 
t^uiiliiiir the fe.irs of this caeiiine, he passed liis 
loiintry without IlL-htinL', The ne-Xl chief eneoun- 
ti n d. naim-d (Juarequa. altiiupted resistance, 
bill was routed, with a Klauiiliter of his 


AMERICA, I513-l.)17 

FindiHtf of 

AMEIUCA. 15n-15t» 

people, and Biillioa piiHlii-d on. "On tin- 2r)tli 
of Si'ptenilicr, 15i:t. iw vnmv near to the top of ft 
mountain from wliiiici' tlic South Sia was visi- 
ble. The ilistanic from I'onihii's chhf town to 
this point was forty liaKiies, riikoned tliin si.x 
days' journey; l)ut Vaseo NuiVz uud his men 
tiHil4 twenty -live days to iioeomplish it, »9 they 
sulTered mueh from' tlu) roughness of the ways 
ami from the want of provisions. A little In^fore 
Vaseo Nunez reached the heiijht, QuariMiua's In- 
dians informed him of his near approach to the 
seft. It nasa si^ht in heholdinif winch, for the 
first time, a'lV man would wish to 1m! alone. 
Vaseo Nunc z )tiu\e his men sit ilown while he 
as<ended, and Ihi'n, In solitude, hioked down 
upim the vast Pacillc — the tlrst man of the Old 
World, s<) far as we know, who had done so. 
Falliu); on hiskni cs. he gave thanks to OikI f(ir 
the favour shown to him in hi" IwinR permitted 
to discover the Sea of the South. Then with his 
hand he beckoned to his ini n to come up When 
they had come, l)oth he and they knelt down and 
poured forth their thankj to God. He then ad- 
dressed them. . . . HavinK . . . addressed his 
men, Vasi'o Nuilez pr<x'ecde<l to take formal 
possessiim, on hi'half of the kings of Castile, of 
the sea and of all that was in it; and in order to 
make memorials of the eviiit, he cut down trei>s, 
formed cripsM'S. and heaped up stones. He also 
inscrihed the nana s of the nionarchg of Castilo 
upon ureat trees in the vicinity." Afterwards, 
when he Imd descended tin' western slope and 
found the shore, " he cntenil the sea up to his 
thighs, havinir his swonl on, and with his shield 
in his hand: thin he c.illed llie by-stiindera to 
witness how he touched « ilh his person and took 
pos.session of this seafor the kinirs of Castile, and 
di'Clared that he would difcnd tlie of 
it again<t all comers. After this, Va-sco Nunez 
niaile friends in llie n.sual manner, first concpjer- 
Ing and then ne^'otiatin;.' wiih " thesevend cliiefs 
or caciipies wh.ise lerritorics came in his way. 
lie explored the (iulf of .S.iu -Miguel, finding 
much wealth nf pcails in the n'giun. and re- 
turned to Daiiin liy a route wluch croswd the 
istlmois n.iisiiliialily f:irtlier to the north, reach- 
ing Ids c.iluny on the '2',lih of ,Iaiiiiary, 1,">I t, h.av- 
ing ht en aliscnt nearly live umnths. ** Ilia men 
at Daritn n-ceivcd him with evultation, luid he 
lo^t no time in si'niling liis news, ' sue li signal 
anil new niws,' . . . to tlie luiiir of S|iaiii, ac- 
cominoiyiiig it witii rich presents. His litter, 
wliirli ^;;cve a ili taili d accnuul of his jiiiiriiiy, 
:inil winih, fur its 1. iiL-th, coniparcd liy 
I'etcr Mu'yr to the i 'Mir.itid lilii r tliat came 
to the ^' I lie fniiii Tilierius, ciiiil[iiiied in every 
p.-iire lli;i:.h> i,i(l"il that he had escaped frniu 
■.mil i\:i\>j.< r- and laliours. linlh the letter 
and tlie pri *• iil-. were iatrii^ted to a man named 
.\rholiUitiie. wlin'i: ji irted from I>arii ii aliotit the 
I'eiriiiiiing of .M in li. nil. . . . Vasen Nui'iez's 
iiu --• ii:.'er, .Vrli'ilat'.i ii' , reaclied t!ie cnurt of 
Sjiain too late f-T !.i^ iiii-t'f's interests." Tlie 
IiiliT had already I'l I 11 s ipi rsedid in theCmv. 
ui^ir-iiip, and ',!- ye, ii -^.ir was mi the way In 
t.i'o' Ids .•oilliiiri'y li 'III hiiii. 'liie lew guver- 
nor was Mill' I-'eirarias Me.Vvila, or I>avila, as 
the aaiiie is souieiirii'*s wriftt n , — an envious and 
iii:di:;iiaiil old niaii, under wIh.m' ride on tlie 
i>tliiaii^ ih< di stnii 'i\ e t neri.'\' of Sjiaiii^h con- 
4Ue>t ro.,e to its nii .iin >t and ino,,t heart Ie--s and 
iTiinle-s ileve!o[(nieMt. ( 'on-piciloiiv)y expos., I 
IS :;. A I- to Hie ji aloiisy .111.1 lilt red ol I'edra 

I rias. Vaseo NuBez was probably doomed to ruin, 
! in scane fonn. from the first. At one time, in 
I l.TUl, there S4'emed to he a promise for him of 
1 alliance with his all-powerful enemy, by ii mar- 
! riage with one of the governor's daughters, and 
j he rcceiveil the command of an eX|H'ditiiai whiik 
I again crossed the isthmus, carrying ships, and 
higan the exploration of the Pacific. Hut rir 
eunistanees soon arose which gave Pedrarias ar 
opportunity to the exphirerof treasoimble 
I designs and to accomplish his arri'st — Francisco 
I Pizarro being the ollinr fitly charged with the 
execution of the governor's warnuit. Brought 
in chains to Ai la, Vas<o Nuilez was summarily 
tried, found guilty and led forth to swift death, 
laying his head uiwrn the blixk (.V. 1). 1817> 
"Thus perished Vaseo Nuilez de liiillma, in the 
forty-second year of his age, tlie man who, since 
Ihetime of Columbus, hadshownthe most states- 
manlike and warriorlike powers in that part of 
' the world, Imt whoso career only too muc h rc- 
I semblcs that of Ojeda, Nicuesa, arid the other un- 
fortunate commanders wiio devastated tho.-w 
b( lutiful regions of the earth." — Sir A. Helps, 
^Syw/fli'nA (^ont/uutt in Am., bk. 6 (r. 1).— *Mi I 
have applied strong terms of denunciation to 
I' is because he iimiuestionahly 
deserves it. He is by far the worst man who 
came olllc iaily to the New World during its 
early government. In this all authorities ai'ree. 
Anil all airrce that Vaseo Nuilez was not deserv- 
ing of ch alh."—H. II. liancroft. Hint, of the Pact- 
Jic Sf:it,H, c. 1, c/c. ml3(/«)f-n<'^'. p. ^W). 

Also IN W. Irving, Life and im/aget of Col- 
umhua and hin Coniiktni'*nn, r. 3. 

A. O. 1515.— Discovery of La Plata by 
Juan de Solis. See 1'.mi\<ii ay: A. D- t.ll.V 

A. D. 1517-1518.— The Spaniards find 
Mexico. — "An hiilal::c) of Cuba, nanii'd Her- 
nandez de Cord va, sailed with three vessel.i on 
an expiclition to one of the neighbouring 
liahanui Islands, in cpicst of Indian slaves (i'lii. 
y, l.~)l"). He encocintere.l a succession of heavy 
gales wliic h clrove him far out of his course, and 
at the end of three weeks he found hi'iisc If on a 
strauL'e and unknown coast. On lanciiiig ancl 
a-king the iiameof the' country, he was answered 
bv die nali\es 'Tectii.-m.' iiicaning *I do not 
uniic-rstancl you.* but w Iiicii the Spaniards, mis- 
inter|iretitig into tlic^ name of the' place, easily 
corrupted into Yiieatau. Some writers give a 
dilTiTent etymoloLTv. . . . Bernal Itiaz sa_\s the 
word came from the vci.'cial)le 'ycic:>' . d 'tale,' 
tlij name for a hillock in wliicli it i-'ed. 
. . . M. Wilieek finds ,1 niucli more ilie 
derivation in the Indian word '0;i\ om U.itan.' 
■listen to wiiat they say.'. . . Conlova Inid 
landed on the iiortli eastern 1 tid 1 f tlie peninsula, 
at Cape Catoelie. lie was astonished at the size 
and solid 111 iteiials of the liuildiii_ s < ini-li'ilcted 
of stone and lime, so clitT' rent trom tlie frail 
ti nenic Ills of recils ancl rnsjic s wliii h loriiiid tin- 
h .hit iti'iis of the' islaiel: rs. He was sttiick 
.■i!-o, ',1 i!li il»> hiLiier c'ul;' .iiion ot" the s- !, uin 

wiil Tlie lelicati- texture ot tlie e,. •!,.., j .p,., lit. 

and i;'>M omainciits c 

r i he 1 

■di-i ■. 1- 

\ct; tliin 

in .ientc d a c i\ ili/ali' 

^ !:ir ^ 

■:|.. t. 


Ii.' had l.e f,,re wiiiic - 
r,v the. c'v iileii. e ol 

-.1 in t 

, cli'V, 

,.■ New- W 

■rli. 11 
■lore over 

;i tl;e (V.llIiKe sj,;,i| 

if tl„. 1 

I'.le.".' \ 

. UiiiT. 

1 .1 ■ tl„v l;cnclc-,l the 

\ w . 1 i 

1 ■,. t wi'li 

I'le 111 

il, Hilly hi'isti'ity. C. 

■doM, ' 

iiiis'l:, 1:; 

of !■ 

AMKUICA, ir)17-l51«. 

i 'il/lltff of 


A>1£HICA, lSl»-li;i4. 

>kirmiiihc8 with the Imlinnn, rfci'ivi'il niori; lli;in 
;i ilci/in wiiiiiiils, iinil Diic iiiily i.f his purly 
i-(M|«'ci mihiirt. At hiiL'lh. " wh,n hi- luiil 
I. tinted the |iriini.siila as t;ir as ( ;ihi|ii ;ii hy, hi' 
nliiriii'd to *'iiha, which lir riMiinil iifri'r nil 

:li»sirirr of SCVtTJli Illnntlls . . . 'lli,. ri jmrls 111' 

hiiil hniiiirht haikof thr iiniiiln. and, si ill more, 

till* s[n-till»llS (if rurinllvly wri'lluht L'"ld, cnll- 

\iii(id Vi'lasiiMi'/. [^'iinTiiiir iif ( uf llic iiii- 
|.Mri;iiici* of this discovery, and hr pri-jiat. d 
with ;ill dispatch to iivail' liiiiiwlf of it. lie 
Bciordint'ly lilli'd out a little si|inidriin of fi.iir 
Tt'SM'ls liif the newly di-rovered lands, ami 
pl;icid it under the coinnianil of his iiepheH, 
.luiii de (iriialva, a inau on whose jiroliiiy, 
lintilcnee. anil altaehinent to himself he knew 
he ei.idd relv. The lleet left the i>..rt of St. ,Ia'_'o 
ill- ( iilia, jlay 1. ir,l». . . . Crijalvu soon 
itiv-eil over ti> till' mnlinent unil coa-led the 
piniii~nla, toiiehiiiK ill the same places as his 
priiieii->or. Kvcrywhere he was struck, like 
iiini, wilh the eviilences of a liii.'her civilization, 
Kpi'i ially ill the urcliiti'cliire; as he well :ni'_dit 
he. since this was the region of those extraordi- 
nary remains which have Income recently the 
Milijict of so tnui h speculntion, llewasuston- 
i-lied, also, (it tlic si),'lit of large stone crosses, 
ividinily olijectsof worship, which he met with 
in various places. Keniindcil by the.s<' circum- 
viancisof his own country, tic gave the penin- 
■iila the natne New Spain, a name since ap- 
lirnpriated to ii much wider extent of tcrritorv. 
Wherever Grijalvii landed, he experienced tl'ie 
::iiie unfriendly reception as Cordova, thouirh 
It sutrered h'ss, 1h ing better prep,ireil to meet 
it " He smieeded, howevi r, tit last, in opening 
a friendly confentice and tr.itUc wilh one of the 
1 hill's, nn the Uii) do Tabasco, and "had the 
-:iti-l:ii lion of receiving, for a few wnrlhlesii 
tn.\s and trinkets, a rich treasure of ji'Wels, gold 
eniainents and vessels, of the nmsl fantastic 
r 'rnis anil workman-hip. (irijalva imw lliou'.'ht 
iliat in thissiiccesstultrallic — siicr. s.fiil bevonil 
Iii'J most sanguine expei lalions — lie h: 1 ai'ci.m- 
|i|i<liiil the chief ohjicl of his mi--ion." iln 
lliiri fore dispatched .Mvanilu. one of his cap- 
Liiri- i.i Velasipie/, witli the treasure acijuired, 
:i;id '"niiniie.l liis voyage aliiM; ihe co;ist, as far 
a- llie priivinie of I'aiiucii. returning' inCiiliaat 
III!' I ad nt alioui six innnihs from hi- dc,iarture. 
I In ri.iihinv' the Island, he was surprised to 
li ira dial another and nnire f .rmidal'le anna 
meat liad l«en lilted out to folloiv uii his >\vn 
i!i-rivi ries, and to liad orders al llie same time 
friMi the L'overnnr, couehed in no very co'irieoiis 
iii]-ii:iL'r. to npair al once to Si .hiL-o lie "as 
n I rived liy thai personage, not merely wilh ci nl 
iirvs, liiit Willi reproaches, fur havinlr neirlei ii d 
-" I liv 111 oppiiriunity of estalilisliiiig a colony in 
-11 I 'iiiirv lir leervisilid ■ — W. II. I'resi'oll. 
' ■ /■■--' ../■ 1/. ..■•., ;'. -J. ,•/, I, 
A^-ilv <■ M .1 \':uvnt:v-, /l,\t. '4' V"'--!! II.. 
I -' 11' iKal 1)1,1/ ill I r.i-iiilo. M,',i,.,irt>. i\ 1, 
".' I'l 
A, D, 1519-152.V The Spanish Conquest of 
Mexico. ■•■• Ml Ml I, A I" \:,v.\ |-,,M 

A. H. 1519-1524.- The Voyage of Magellan 
■ -'i Sebastian del Cano. The New World 
■ "issed and the Earth circumnavigated. The 
'. on,^rebS at Badajos, - Fi rn uei.." I.i-i ..r 
' i-iiiie-, Mas ■■.\ ili.^atTei led l'ortiii:ue-c 1.0 11- 
•'■ I!, l.ii had -l■r^l•l| hi- 1 .luiiiry for live years 
Irili'- under Allm.|ii,r.|ii.' and understood 

well the M'cretH of the KHStern trade. In 1817, 
conjointly with his geographical and Hstronoml- 
cal friend, Kuy Faleriii, anoiher nniei|uited Por- 
tuguese, lie oifered his serviies to the Spanish 
court. At tlie same time these two frienils pro- 
|ioseil, not only to prove that the .Moluccas were 
within the Spanish lines of demarkation, but to 
di.scover a imssage thither dilfcrent from that 
used by the Portuguese. Their schemes were 
listined to, adopted and carried out. The Straits 
of Magellan were di.scovered, the broail South 
Sea was crossed, the Ladroni s and the PhU- 
liliineswere inspected, the .Moluccas were pa.sscd 
through, the Cape of (JoihI Hope was doubled 
on the homeward v..yage, and the gloln- was 
lircuinnavigatcd, all in less than three years, 
from \rA9 to l.V.;2. :Magellan lost his life, and 
only one of his live ships returned [under Sebai- 
tiandelCano] to tell the marvelous storv. The 
magnitude of the enterprise was enualled only 
by the magnitude of the results. The gUibe for 
the first time liegan to iissuine its true character 
and size In the niinds of mm, and the minds of 
men began sixm to grasp and utilize the results 
of this ( irciimnavigation for the enlargement ot 
trade and commerce, and for the benetit of geog- 
raphy, astroiioiny, mathematics, and the other 
sciences. This wonderful storv, is it not told in 
a thousand books V . . , The Portuguese in Imlia 
and the S|iiceries, as well as at hnnle, now .seeing 
the inevitalde conllict approaching, were thor- 
oughly aroused to the importance of maintaining 
tin ir rights. They openly asserted them, and 
prononuci'd this trade with the .Moluccas by the 
.Spanish an encroachment on their prior discov- 
eries and posse—ion, as well as a violation of the 
I'apalCompad of 1 till, and prepared themselves 
energetically for defense and olTcnsc. On the 
oiher hand, the Spanianls as openly declared 
that's lleet carried the lirst Christians 
to th(' .Moluccas and by friendly inlercourse with 
the kings of those islands, reduced them to Cliris- 
liin subjection and brought back letters and 
tiiliiite to Ca'-ar. Hence these kind's ,-ind their 
liiiiple came under the protection of CliarUs V. 
l!.-ides this, the Sp.iTiiards (l.iinied that the 
Miilueeas wcri' wilhin the Siiani-li half, and were 
ilnrefiire doubly theirs. . , . Mailers thus \va.x- 
iiig hot. King .iolin of Portii-al lu-jeil Chail.s 
V, ti.dil:i\ di-;ialehini.r his i,ew lliet until the 
di-l'UNil -inlsdiuld be di-ill— 111 and settlid. 
I h.uli -, 1 lio b..a-ieil il,,it he had ralhi r be riLrhl 
iliiiu rii li, I'le- nil il, and the ship- were -laid. 
Tlie-e two Ciiri-tiaii prinns, who owned all the 
newly iii-iiivi red and to he discovered parts of 

the wh.ilr world belweiTl tllilu by deed of i;ift 

of the I'ope. ai;reiil lo meet in Coiiirress at 
liadijo-ln ilieir repn-si'iilalivcs. III di-eii-s and 
seiile all ni.iiii I- in ilis|iiite alioiil the ilivi-ion of 
their pairiniiie\ and lo deline and -lake out 
Iheir land- ind N^alrr-, Imlh parlii- airrceiii:.' |o 
aliide l.y ll. d, I.f llie (■.,n;:lv— .\ccoril 
inL'i. . ill 111" I ir:\ -prill:.'- ol I "I'J I i;p went I.- 
I'l'i'di r l"« 11 f'iir and I'.ii-nU wi-e 
lie ri .il.ouls, I ho-i-ll liV eli h 







'iiii|iri-ii| Ua- tir-i jii'L'i -. law >. ;-, malh 

e-. i-'i iniir-, iii-Tn'i::ra|i|ier-, n.ivii.'- 

I !'ih>!-iir the lin.l. aiiii-n:: w i;,.-.- iiani 

d n. 



Ilii .:i. Hib 

pro. I edi- j-"f ihi- 

Marivr. 1 iviido, 11 



n — mil a- Ki r 
Ci'io;. |-:-ievin 
Till d, ball -and 
iporiid liy i'l ler 
ll ,1 ry amusing. 

If t 


foy„^,a/ AMEUKA. 1523-1534. 


but no rcciiliir ji^iiit ili( imi 

lllil hr TVM]\ri\, 

Iho l*nriuiriirH' (ti clitunc tn suttstTilM' to \Ur vrr 
dill of till' S|iMiii:irils. ina^niiii'li i.i it ili|'ri\icl 
thciii of Ihi' Mohiri;i». S.MMih party |iiil>li^lii il 
Hiul pr.i, laiiiii'd il« own ili( i>ion afii r thi' ('Hi- 

, l.rol, 
lil.iv, IV.M. 

(■ lip il) inritu^iori on 

It «! 

. lj.o\. 

the la>t ilay of 
itlv iiiidcr-OKMl 

timt thr MmIuiiuh fi II lo Spain, h 

li'ilc I 

ra/il, ti 

tlic I' of t«o liuiiilnd linL'iiis from Capi 


iwrvi r, inurli L'ood rrs-i 

f,ll to II 



'lltlM ft. 


>liii :il I'Mniiri- 

I \ti Mt anil lircaillli 

f th.' I'aiiiif will' appriiiati-.l, aii<I Ih.' inlliiiii 

ti>«ar(l tliP w<--t. attinliicly cxaiiiiiiini' tin- 
purls, rivirs, iiilialiilai>l>. ami cvirytliiiiir il-r 
tliat Miiiiiil «ortliy i4 niiiirk; ami (»pi-iially 
noiiiiiii; the \a>l voliiiiic- of vvatrr Iproii^'hlilioMi 
l)y one V( ry laru'i' striaiii. At last tiny caiiir 
upon tlir Iraik of Corli-i ni-ar Vira t'ni/. . . . 
Tlif raniully iliawn map of tlic piloti hliowrd 
ili-tiiHlly till' Mississippi, wliiili. in this earliest 
antlii-ritic tract 
the I'Npiritn SanI 
of the "' 

of its 

nllit. III 

ilir ii.'inii' of 

Iliil (iirav lliiiii-'hl not 

Missis-iiiiii ami its \,illi'V: In 


to till 

allli of ,\l.-\i 

ami, in lo«:t. 

1,1st f,.rtnm' ami lite iriL'l.Tionsly in a ilisput. 

of the Ciimri ss was : 



•,l map: 


inafliTs.iii in llif u-riatly I »itli Cortes for tlie t'ovi rnmenl of tlie euiiiilry 

anil I'liarts 

-II fte 


14.Vi-l.".;ll). — •■F,.r 

three nioiillis ami t"iniv ilays lie [Mai.'ellan| 


tlic I'; 


lanil. lie «:( 
the jiieees 
rii.'L'iiii; was 
in till 
water, so as 

aeilie ami never saw in 

mipelleil liy famine lo strip olT 

of sl>in ami le,ilher wherewilli liis 

lure ami tliere lioiinil. to soak them 

ea an.l tlien .s,i|!, n tlnni with warm 

to III. ike u wri 

tilleil f 1: ti 

at till 

sweepiiiL's of the sliip aiel oilii r loathsome mat- 
piitriil liy kiepinu'. anil 

to liriiik water 

yet lie re-"lllte|y helil nil his I'olirse, tleiU'.'h llis 

men were ilyiiijl' il.iily. ... In tlie whole his- 
tnrv of hiimiii iiiidi rtakiniis there is iioihiiii,' that 
e.Meeds. if indeed tie re is aiiytliiiiL' that npials, 
this voyaire of MaL'ellaiis. That •<( I oliiinliiis 
dvviiiilles ,away in 1 "inparison. It is a display ol 
8U|ierliiinian " e.viiriL'i . sijp.Thiimaii persever 

„„, e ■ -,I. U'. Drap. 

Mai;elliin| , ! . was 
of iiaviu'.ition that h 
uothini; eiin he in 
it exeept a joiirm 
not the iiiiiipi 

aL'e of Coin: 

str'ams of li 
sillee the (i 
nieiit ill oeea! 
hii- -ink.s ill' 
alio 'ii'ii 111 
pas- 'ly I' ■! 

the a.: 

. kn 

,'nt r- 

, — n. 

, U i ' v 

ih. !! 
telil 1 






\\ r 1 ■ ■ 

1. wi. < 

Spi ..Ml'. 


tors. ., 

I'lsi.., yv„ 


//.../. .'f II,,' I„l,l!,,-I, 

111 —■■The voyaL'i^ [..f 

III. ss the si f. it 

.r heeii performed, an.l 

! that would surpass 

other planet. It has 

?ii.>n of 111.' first vi.y- 

roiiirht toirelhir two 

had liiell dis|..iniil 

Hut as all ai liieve- 

ihat vi.yme of Cihiiii- 

iiee liy the si.le of it, 

H seii'iiil time till. .111- 

'ish sail r of his aL'.', 

a.s w, 1 .s the tliller- 

..U re : ,.! the liilli- 

Wli -vc ( r 

the i;i -ura!.!.. ex 

. '1 Miat weri. 


on th. 




hri.iiL'ht the Spaiiiari 
A ei.mpaiiy 

Is In l."i2ii still f.irthir to tin 
of seven, of whom the iieist 

ilislilii;llishi.d was l.lleas Vas.pi. /. ile Aylloll. 
lilted out tw.i slave ships from M. KomiiiL'o, in 
ipiist of laliorers l'..r their |ilaiiiali..ii» an.l mines. 
l.' Ih.' Ilahaina they l.i Iheeoasl 
of Soiiih Carolinii, whiili was lalled Chiiora 


imhahee river rei 

liM-d the nam 


.Ii.r.lan; the name ol St. ILLiia. win 

day is 

the l-<ili 

Aui,'ust, was civen to it eapi 


lielollirs to the sollli 

1." Liiriii;; a lari: 

niK'rof till 

iilidin.i; natives on Imarl their 

ships the ailvenliirers treacherously set sail wilh; liiit one of the vessels louiidered lit sea, 
and most of the lapiives on the other t-iikened 
and died. Vasipie/. ile Ayllon was rewiirded for 
his tre.iihcrous exploit liy li. inn auliiorized luid 
a].p..iiit...l to iii.ike the" eoinpiest of Chieora. 
'. this lioM..r ciili rpri^e tlie iinderlakir 
waste.l his forluiie in priparalii.ns; in l.V.',"i his 
larL'i -I ship was straiiihd ill the river .Jordan . 
iii.iin of his 111. 11 wi n^ kill..! hy Ihe nali\i s; ami 
h.. hiiiis. If esiap..! only lo siilTir from the eon 
seiousness of havini; done iiolhiii;; w..rlliy of Yet il iii;i,'- lie thai .ships, sailiii!; iiiidir 
his aiitliorilv. 111 i.le the discovery ol the Chesa- 
peake an.l iiame.l it the hay of St. .Mary; and 
p.rhapsevi 11 1 nil nil the liay'of Iielaware, which, 
ill Spanish L'ci'L'raphv, was calle.l St. Christ., 
pliers,"— C., ll.nt. „f !!„■ V. .<., ;,^ 1 
ch. ■,'. 

Also IN II. II lialieroft. nut. •■/ the r.KUfi. 
<t.ii,>. r. 1, f!i. II. ,if„l i: r>,eli. (i-7. — \V. ti 
Siiniiis. !l,sl.„fS. r.,,;,lii„i, U-. 1, th. 1. 

A, D, 1523-1524, — The Voyages of Verra- 
zano. -First undertakings of France in the 

,,.^. New World, — ■■ It iseoii-iaiiily a.liiiiil...l inom 

,:i;i;i.,ii ill !ii-i.,rv that .mr kind's paid in. aili iiliim to Ann r 
. i.f iiaviL'a i, .1 1,1 lor.. 111. year l.'i^J:!. Tin 11 Kiaii. is I, w i-'. 
I A.'ii, ri,''i. ,■', 7 . ini; to 1 xi ite the einill;itiiiii of lii.s Mil.jiils ii 
If .ii ^ reuanl to ami ci.iiiiiieice, as In' lee! I. r.l Siaiili v of .\ erl. v, 7'/.. /.'■>(' . ulready so sii. . 1 ssfully in r. :'.ii.l o. the si ii m . - 
r„, ;,.../ I',. Ii ','/ ill-ii. ,-i' .s.. . . IsTli- : ami I'lii.. art-, or I1T...I .l.ihn \ . la/aiii. w ho was i;i 
H 'k.'rr. '.'■■ ' ' r....e,..«, • lo. 1,1s s. rvi.,, t.i ro and e\pl,.r. th.. .N.w I.ani!-, 

A, D 1519-1525. -The Voyages of Garay , w hi. ii li. 11.111 to lie much t. ilk.. 1 of in Fram- 
and' Ayllon. -Disovery of the mouth of the . . V. la.'.iiii was in 1 ,.riliii-ly s. nt. hi l.-|.':i, w 1: 

Mississippi. Exploration of the Carolina ' f.ur sln|.- to disn.vir .Notili Xiinrii a ; lnil o'.' 
Coast In I'd'-t l-i.oa :-i .1 lie (lllav , ;; .vi iii-.l I hi-' -ri.ili^ h iv sp.iU. iil! io~ lir-l ix pi-dlln .!■ 
,,f.||,. 1,.;,, iv I, , ii 1.1 I,, ra i.i,.- ..f II.- |..,ri aii.l we -1; iild he in i- in .i .'.i .' .d' i! liuW. h.. . 
.if I , iiiiliii, , 'i,-, s.-'-ii,i \,,\:ij. Ii.iviiu' j lei i;.illii.-i.. pr. -. ri...! in I, s -r. .1 . nllii I !• .11 :. 
hianl I.f llie r M.e- , a: .1 l....iiitv ..f V'e ,..l.|ii. ' 1. li. rof \, I 1/ mi hiiiiselt. .1 ! I'.|.ssi..| I .l.'ialiii- I 
111 his i.wii • oai'L'.. -. It ,.'i' f.'.T ,l,i;,s w,|l I •Hid il.Oid |.i. pp., ,lii!y s. | ■,.'(. In 11 he swi 

eipiipii'd. Hill viiih L- .. 1 r..l'.!~. .i!:-!. r III.. C.,11 
iiiaiid ; All irez Al.ii- • |.. rill .1.1. liis pi I- 

I.-ss,.,l ...,|... I H.iS !•■ - II, Il (i.r -■111. sii,;:, «..,! 
.'f I'l iii.l I. V- III. h "*- 111,1 Ml ..l!aili!\' kliie,Mi 
!■. ■i.rm a piirt .f Hi., ci.iitinin' Tlie slrail 

1" ii.rni a p. 11 1 'l 1 in 1 en n. i ...- s. j-,. .. .,..,...,,...,_,,.,-., . ■ 

h-iviu.; 1" . 11 si.UL'lit III van. hi^ dii.'s turn. ,1 I . -iiip-. I li.^ Dauphin, • and lln- Niiriiiaiid.- 1 

puses t!i.. kill, alie.i.h- iiit,iriii...l of the sui 
and il I .lis ,,f the \iiya.-|., -n thai he ciiiil.!.- 
hillK. 11 Willi st.itill:,' Ihal leMiiidlP'in Diep! 
ill ti-'ir vi .-, 1~, ^ili. h he sal. ly lirmi-lil ha. 
ti, tl.-i ]i,,rt. la .lallil.iry. I'l.'l, hi s.iilidw; 


AMEiUCA. 152^1524 

Oucorrry of 

AMEHICA, 1534-iri.». 

I ruise ugalnut tliu Spiiniiirds. Tuwanls the rinse 
lit' I lie Kiiiiic Ycor. or curly in tin' next, hi' iit.Miii 
littiil imt till' I>aii|iliiiir, on uhii h, ciiilnirkijiir 
with ■'HI Mii-n itiiil provisiniiN fur I Ulit iiiniiths, hi- 
nr^-t •*tii!i'«l til llii' islnml of M;ul*-in(." — Fiiihcr 
( Imrk'viiU, Jfii>l. of .\<ir Fruinr UniiiM. In/ J. II. 
S/i,.i). hk. 1 — "On Ihe 17lh nf .Immiirv, I'.VJ^, he 
I Virniziinol iHirti'il from tin' 'l^las ili^ ' u 
wi'll known litlh' (rriMip nf i-hinils mar .Miuli ini, 
unit Sillied at lirsl westward, niniiiiii; in ','."> rlam 
■VKI h'au'Ucs. «i'li a liL'hl and pliasanl eaNlirly 
liri-e/e, alont; the tiortliern Imrder ipf the traile 
wiinN, in aluiiit :io^ \. His track was eonse. 
r|iM iitly nearly liki' that of ( oluiiiljiis on hix lirst 
\.nai.'e. I)n the 1 tth of Kcorii iry hi' nut ' with 
as \iolent a hiirrieanf ns any ship ever cn- 
loiiiitered,' Hut he weathered it. and pnr^iiid 
hi,svoyai:e to Ihe west, 'with a littli* de\ ialion 
1.1 tlie noilli;' when, after havini,' sailed'.'l days 
iiini4'HtleaL'ue«. he dcM'ried a new euiiiitry which. 
as he suMpiiM'il, iiad nc\iT liefore liceii heen 
I itlnr liy iiuKh'ru or uneieiit iiaviiiators. The 
ioiinir_\ was Very low. From the above des- 
crip; ion it Is evident thai Verra/.ann came in 
m;Ii1 of tlie e.isl coast of the I'nited State.s alioiit 
the mill (if .>t in h. l.Vil. lie iil.ices his land fall 
in ;it X., which is the lalitiuie of Cape Fear." 
Iletirst sailed southward, for ahont .'H» leat;ues, 
lie slates. liHikiii); for a harlior and findiiii,' none. 
Ill then turned northward. " 1 infer tliul Verra- 
/.ino saw little of the coast of South Carolina 
arid notliin^ of that of (lenr^ia. and that in these 
ft .;i"iis he can, at most, lie lallcd the discoverer 
iiili of the coast of North Carolina. . , . lie 
r. undid Caiu' llattcras. and at a ili.slaiiee of alioiit 
'lO Laijuea came to another shore, where he an- 
I lion d and spent several days, . . , This was 
tlirxeorid [trincipal landini^-plaee of Verraz;iiio, 
It' we nrkon 50 leatiues from Cape Ilatteras, it 
would fall somewhere upon the east coast of Del- 
aware, in latitude 3H^ N., where, by some, it is thoimht to have been. Hut if. a.s 
!i|i|i' .irs most likely, Yerrazano reckoned his dis- 
I iiif c here, as he did in other oases, from his last 
itiirhoriiii:. and not from Cape Ilatteras, we must 
I' ■ok for his second landjiii^ soniewliere south of 
Hie entrance to Chesapeake liar, and near theen- 
'niae to AllK'marle Sound. And this better 
:i,'niswith the 'sail of 100 leairues' wliich Ver- 
ri.'.iao says he made from his second to his third 
I i:i !iMu' pl'iee, in New York li.iy, . . . He found 
i' '1:1^ third lauding; station an exciilent birtli. 
« he came to anchor, will proiccied frnni 
;'i" winds, . . . and from whi.h he asi ended 
■'i" riv, r in his boat into the interior. He found 
'■'',' -h"ns very thickly wttled, and as he [lassed 
ii;' liaif a jeai^iie further, he ili^eovered a most 
'" miiful lake . , , of three leaiTues in circuiu- 
1' ir lire, 1|. re, more than 1(0 canoes came I'l him 
«;'li ;i iniillitiide of people, who w cmed very 
'!;■ 'e!!y, , , , This desi riiitinn contains si'Venil 
e .'!N which make ii slid more clear that the 
!'■ if Niw York was Ihe scene of these occur- 
^'■'■""- "— Verra/,t!io':i anelioratie havin:; been at 
'OH' -end liay. ihe river which he enure. I lieins; 
'' N irr'.ws,"an.| the lake he f.iund lieini; Ihe 
i ■.■■■■r II irli,,r, I'rom New York May Yerrazano 
- 1 :. 1 i.i>lwunl, aL.tiir Ihe southern shore of 
l-""4 I-lind, and following.' the New laiifland 
"■ ei, t.. tie! It 111^ at or (iCMTibiiur poini^ \^ liieii are 
i !■ r,;,;ie.l w eh NarraLeuiMit liay an. 1 N.wport, 
I'.leek I>Iaiid or ,Marilia s Vineyard, and Foris 
-1" :Ui His coa-stinf; voyage was pursued as far 

ML* •'(0° N,, from wliii \\ |Hiint he sailed homeward, 
"He entered tlii'|niitof Dieppe early in July, 
l.VJI. His whole i.tplorini; expedition, from 
Madeira and back, had aiconlinLdv lasted but 
live and alialf months "—,1. (1 Kohl, llhl rflhe 
JJi«-ui, 1 1/ i,f MaiM {Ml . Hint. S„: i;,ll.,3<l Sri^,, 
r, li, ch. 8, 

Ai.Mi i,N O. Di'.Mer, Curtrrml, V(rr(i:,inii. Jr. 
(.WirnitiK and Cnth;i/ J/,,.1. ,■/■ .1,,,,, r. i ,■/,. I). 
— Iklatina of V.rr.K.uo, (.Y J'. Ili^t. .•>,-. ('..«., 
r I, iiiol \ >'. ,-. li, — ,1. C. Uri vimrt, \%iiamno 
tin- yitri'/ttt^'f. 

A. D. 1534-1528.— The Explorations of 
Pizarro and Discovery of Pern — ■ Tin South 
Sea haviiut been iliM.iM red. and the inhabitants 
of Ticrra Firun havinj; been conipiere.l and 
pacitied. the (iovcrnor I'cdrarias de Avila 
founded and settled the lilies of I'anainii ami of 
Nata. and the town of Noinbie de Dios At this 
time the Caplain Francisio I'izarro, -on of the 
Captain (ionz.alo I'izarro, u knii;ht of Hie city of 
Truxillo, was livin;; in the city of raiiania; 
piisM'ssiiii: his house, his farm and his Indians, 
as one of the principal people of the land, which 
indeed he always was. havinn di-tini;iiished him- 
self in the lumpiest and selUini;. and in the 
service of his .Majesty, Beini; at rest and in re- 
pose, but full 111 zeal to C'.nliniie his labours 
an.l to perl. inn other more ilistinf/uished servicea 
for the royal crown, he s<)U>,'ht p. rmi.ssion from 
I'cdrarias to discover that coast of the South 
Sea to the eastward. lie spent a larije part of 
his forlune on a koikI ship whicli he built, and 
on necessary supplies for the voyaL'c. and he set 
out from the city of I'anama on the 14th day of 
the iiionlh of N'.vember, in the year 1,V.;4. lie 
)i,id It'J Spaniards in Ids company, besides some 
Indian servants. He commenced a voyage lu 
which they sutlered many hardships, the season 
beini; winter and iinpropitious. " From this 
unsuccessful voyaL'e, durim? which many of his 
men died of hun:;er and disease, ami in the 
eourse of wliiili he found no country that 
tempted his eupidily or his ambilion, I'izarro re- 

tur I after' months to "the land of 

I'atiania, landlni; at an Indian village near the 
island of I'carls, called Chuehama. Thence he 
sent the ship to I'anama, for she had liieonie un- 
seaworthy by reason of the teredo; and all that 
had befallen was rep.irted to I'cdrarias, while 
the Captain reiuaincd behind to refresh liiniself 
and his e.'uipanions When the ship arri\ ..1 at 
l'an,ima it was found that, a few days before, 
the Captain Di.';;.) de Alin.ii;ro had' .saih..l in 
search of the Captain I'izarro, his eotnpaiiion. 
with anolher ship and TO men." Alniairro -iml 
his party billowed the coast until they lauie to 
a ; liM-r. w liieli ihey raUi-d San .Iiiaii |a few 
mills ii.irih of ilje port of Ituenaveniiira, in N. w 
(tranad,il , . They there found si^iis of irold, 
but there beini' 110 traces of the Captain I'izarro, 
the ( apl,iin .Vliuairro returned to Chin liaiiia, 
where ill' louii.i bis e.imradc. Tli.-y aL'reeil that 
the ( apMiii .Mniasro should j;.. 1.. l'an,iiii,i. re- 
pair III.. -Iii|is, cllecl more men !.> e..|iliiiue the 
enierpri-e. and defniy the e\p. ns. ,. whi.h 
aliiounli.l 1.1 iiiiirc Ih.ili lo.iHH) ca-li llanos. At 
I'aiiain.i inueh obstruction was ciuse.t by 
1'.-. lianas and others, who said that the \..y.ifi:e 
slioulil not lie persisled ill, and that his Mapsty 
w. ill. I iioi be .servid by it. The Captain ,\luia- 
f^ro, wi'll the authority i^ivei: him ii\ liis i 0111- 
rade i\ .1- very constant in prosiautiu;,! the work 

= %?-1 


I I. 


t'ttrti^r in tkr 
St lAiwrtner 

AMKRICA. 1584-1585. 

he hud rnninirnriil. itml . I'lilriiriii* wii* 

fnnril to iillnw hliii Id iM>.'iiC<' null 111' wt mil 
friini Patmiiia uilli I III iiiiii . iiikI »i iit tn tlii' 
(ilmi- wiuTf I'i/iirrii wuiird with iiiiiitlnr 5<» iif 
the llrxt III) who -^liliil uitli liiiii. anil uf l\u- 70 
wlio iwciiinpiinircl AliiiuKm wliiii lif Wfiil In 
>4sr(li. Till' .'tli«r i;til win- .hinl Tin- two 
iiipliiiiin, in tin ir t«ii Blii|w, Kiiliil with ItKl nnMi. 
luil (im^iiil aluDjt till' I.iihI Wliin tiny IliiMinlit 
llH'y "iiw Kitriis iif lialiiliition^. Iliiy wi ill lui 

^boVi- ill Ilirif m » liny liml with Hum. mwnl 

bv (III iiirii. ami sii tiny wuiL'lit f'T priivi»icni» 
Tiny roiiiiiiiicil til Kiil in tliit way fur tlinr 
yearn. »iillrriii),' ^rrcui lianl»lii|is friuii hiiiiKrr 
iinil mill Tin' ^irtalir (lart iif tin- in wmUiiI iif 
liimniT, insiinmrli that tliro' win- nm .Mi siirviv 
ill).', iiii.l iluriiiK all llmiM' tlini' yiars lliry ili'* 
icvinil nil j;c Kill laiiil. All was Hwaiiip anil in 
iiiiilali'il rminlry. witlniiit inhaliilants Tin- 
jiihhI 1 imnlry liny iliMiivirnl was as far as tin' 
rivir San .liiaii. wlnrc thr Captain I'i/.arni n- 
maiinil with thr IVw siirvimrs. Minliiii.' a r.ip- 
lain with Ilir sniallir sliifi In ilisi mi r muiii' i;ikk1 
lainl fiirllii'r aioii); thr rnasi llr '.iiil ihiiilhir 
ship, with llii' t'aptain Diru'n ilr Alinairru to 
Panama lo jril nmri' iinn." W thr inil nf TD 
ilays. tin' rxpliiriiii; ship rami' Inn k wilh jidikI 
rrpiirts, ami with spiiinniis of l'oIiI. silviT ami 
ilolhs. foiiinl in a rmintry furtlnr soiilli ' .\s 
soon as ilii' Captain .Umai;ro arrivnl from 
Paiiani a with a ship lailiii wilh nn n ami horsis. 
till' two ships, with thi'ir loininainli Ts ami all 
their pi'iipli'. si't out f'oiii tin' rivir San .lii.iii, to 
fio to that iiiwly ilisrovinil laml. Hut thr 
iiiiviLMlion was ili'llliiill ; liny Hirr ihlainril so 
Uintf that till' prinisions win- ixhaiiMiil. ami Ilir 
pi'opli- vvrri' olilii;.-.! Ill i:o on shorr in siarrh of 
.>upplirs Thr ships narliril llir hay of San 
Matro, anil sonir vilhiL'i'S In wliiih llir Spaiiiarils 
);avr thr naini' of Sanliairo. NrM Hiry ramr to 
thr villaL'i's of Taiainr/ [Alaraiiir^. on Ihr roxst 
of moilirn r.iuii|or|. on Ihr sia roast furl In r 
on. Tlirsr viilaL'rs wrrr srrn liy thr Clirisliaiis 
to hr lari.'!' anil will pi'o|ihil. ami whrn IW 
Spaiiianls hail ailvanrn! a lra,;.'iir Uyoml thr 
villai;rs of Taraiiir/.. iimrr than III.IKHI Imlian 
warriors nn onijiirnl Ilnni; Inil sii ini; that Ihr 
Chrisiians inlrmliil no rvil. ami <liil not wi^hlo 

lakr tin ir L'lKsls. hilt rallliT lo Ihrm prarr 

fully, «iili iiiin h loir, lln Imlian^ ili^islr.l from 
war" 111 llii~ laml Ihrrr wrrr alnimliiil Mlpplir>. 
mil Ihr pioplr Ir.l wrllonlrml livi^. ilir \ii 
l:iL'i~ h.niii;; ihrir sirirK ami siiniii-. i »nr 
\illa-. Iiail than :i.lllNI holier-, ami olhrrs 
wrrr -.iiiilli r ll smnnl to llr rqilailis ami to 
Ihr oilnr spuiLinls iioihiiiL; i"iilil I" ilonr 
ill that laii'l h> iras.iii .f thr sinallin— of Ihrir 
nunilii r^. wiiii ii r. mli ri'l tin in uiiahlr lo r..|ir 
Willi Ihr Imiiui- So liny aLTml I.. I>.:rl Ihr 
-hips wilii llii -iipplii- io hr toiinil ill Ihr 
vill.iL'r-. ami lo n I'lin l.> an i-laml mlli'l li.iilo. 
uhn-r llii-\ woiiii! In -,!. uiilil lilt- -lo;.- arrii. .1 
a! I'.iiiuila » illi III' li ■>- "! » 

1. 1 |.. 


>.| I.. 



l.l!l> \- I- 

: li 


1 IT'I- 


,;.- 111. Ill 111! 
,1(1- Tin 

■.M-lir.l I.. 


. rii. .1 

. r< 1 'luliii.! r. ■! liii' 

Ml. wliUe tliiiw wini ilinin-il to I'lintiniie the i\\* 
luvrrirs wcri' at lllHTty to ri'iimiii. Sixteen men 
siavi'il with I'i/.arrii. ami all the ri'Ht wrni Imck 
in ihr ships 111 I'aimiiia. The Captain ri/.iirn> 
was on that Ishiml for the inonllis. when one of 
the ships ntiinnil. in whieli he conllniieil the 
ilisioverles for a Immlri'il IraituiH further iliiwn 
till roast. Tiny fonii.l maii^ viiiajfeH anil ((real 
riehes: ami tliev linnmhl away more »|M.elmenii 
of Kolil. silver, ami ilotlis than hail iM'en fiiiinil 
hrfoH'. whlih were pnsinteil liy the iiativeii 
Thr Captain rrlurneil iMcausi' thi' time (trantiil 
liv the v'overmir hail expireil, ami the last ituy 
of the prriiHl hail Imi n rearheil when he enlerisl 
the port of I'aiiama. The two Captains wen- wi 
riiineil that they emilil nii longer prosieule their 
nmlertakint: . . . The Captain Franeisen I'lzami 
was only ahli' to Isirriiw a little more than 1,1100 
I astellanos aiiioiii; his frimils, with wliiili sum 
hr went to Castile, ami (,'ave an arciiunt to his 
Majrstv of the ^reat anil sinnal wrvheslie hail 
prrforinril."— -K ile Xrrrs iSrr. of I'i/.arro), ,|r 
,„ii(it of the I'mriiii-i i'f Cii:r<i: Ir. <liut nl. by C. 
It M.irUi,iiii(lhl.hiiil S,r. WTi). 

Al.«> IN VV. II. I'resiolt, Hint, of Out Coiuiuett 
,f Ihr'i. I,k. 2. rh. iA (r. 1). 

A. D. 1535. —The Voyage of Gomez. See 
C.\naiia(\kw Fkasiki: TiiK Nameh. 

A. D. 1526-1531. — Voyage of Sebaitian 
Cabot and attempted colonization of La Plata. 

.Sir I'vllAlit AV: .V l>. lal.'l l.'l.'lT 

A. D. 1538-1542.— The Florida Expeditioni 
of Narvaezand Hernando de Soto.— Discovery 
of the Misiiisippi. Sn- Fluiiida: .\ I) I.VJh 

A. D. 1531-1533. Pizarro'i Conqueit of 
Peru. Sir ('Kill : A 1) I.VJH^l.Vtl. ami l.'htl 

A. D. 1533.— Spanish Conquest of the King- 
dom of Quito. Sir Ki I Ainiil. 

A. D. 1534-1535. -Exploration of the St. 
Lawrence to Montreal by Jacques Cartier. - 
■ W. last, tin yiarsafirr (Ihr vovatfes of Vrrra 
zanol. riiilip t'halsil, .\ilininiliif (''ranee, imiuceil 
the kiiiK' [I'V.inris 1 | 10 rrsiinn' thr projiit of 
foiinilin^; a Frrui h loloiiy in the New Worhl 
whriirr llir Spaiiianls ilaily iln'W surli rnat 
wrallli; ami hr prcsentril to him a Ca plain of SI. 
Main, hy name .laiipirs Cartirr. w hosi- imrit hr 
knrw. ami whom that pritirr atrrptnl, Cartirr 
ha vim.' nriivril his iiisinirl ions. Ii ft Si. Malo thr 
^'il of .\pril, l.'i^lt. wilh two ships of tin Iom>, ami 
!'J'.i imii. Ill- slrrrril wrst, iinlinini,' slii;hllv 
north, ami hail sinh fair wiinls that, on ihr loili 
of May. hr imnlr Capr ISona\isIa. in NrwIoiiMil 
laml. at Hi inTIh Cartirr fouml Ihr laml tin o' 
>lill lovi nil with siiow. ami ilir -liorr friiiL'r.l 
with ii r, s" that, hr roiilil not or ilanil not slop 
ill' r.iii ilown six ilrtrrrrs sonlh ^oullnasi, ami 

illtrn il a port to whi< h 11.' J.'avr Ihr liallir of M 

Caihariiir Tin iirr hr iiiriiiil l.ark lorth. . 
.\rii r inakiii:; aliiio-i llir 1 in nil ■<'. .NrwIimiHi 
laml. Ilioilirh wilhoiil hi iliu' ahlr lo sali-fy liiih 
-.If ilial il w:i> an i-laml. hr look ,1 -oiiihiii. 

i..ill--r rni— 111 Ihr 'Jill!' :i|.|.r"a. ll.-il III'' r..nli 
II. 1,1, ami ' nil r. .1 a . . r .- .1. • .1 li.iy, '.» In 1. 1.. 
-ulliri.l -jnatU fn.iii in. 11. >\ In m r hr i.iili.; 
il ( Il ,li :il- liiv II, V. 1- 1 liarinr.l wilh ll; 
111 :i HI) .1 till' 1 .'1111 1 ry. ami w. II plra-nl wilh Ih' 
IlltKlll- liitl in- nirl ami wilh who'll in- i\ 
iliili_'i.l •■"III.' l:ooi|- I'lir- , i hi lia\iii,; 
llil- li.iv. ( irliir \ i-ili ll .1 _' I pi.rl of lln- 1 .ii-'- 
.ir'.'uil Ihr .'lllf anil look p.. ■>-M — lull ol Ihi 10.1: 



























re 11 









T ^^H 


I ^H 





















, ll 




1 :il 
il n 

( ir 
!i 1 

1 f 




AMKRIC'A. 1334-1333. 

AMKUICA. l.MI-lfl03. 

rry In llic niimr i«f llir mixl f'lirl^liiin kintf. m 
Vi'rarnni Imil ilom- In nil tlir iiIikih wliin* hi' 
liinili'il III' W't hhII hkxIii i»> III!' t'Vli nf AiiK<i"t 
liinliini ti> FraiHf. nml ntirliiil St Mnio wifi'ly 
on till' "iih of BfpU'iiiU'r. . . . On tlu' ri'imrl 
whiili III" nimli' of Ills viiyiiKi'. H"' rmirt ion 
I liiili'il Hint It wiiiilil Ih> iiM'fiil III Kmiiii' lo liitvi' 

:; : '.t!' l:il'!:t !tt t!"'* fi'trt itf \(iw>rti->t ; l.tit [jn (ii„ 

loik thin HlTiilr nmn' In lirarl timn tlir Viri' 
Ailinirul Clmrli'Kili' Mony. Siiiir ilv In MiiilliTiiyi'. 
This iii'lilr iililalniil ii ni'W riiiiiiiiKfiini fur Ciir 
tirr. iiiiiri' iini|ili' lliiui llir llr«l, iinil ciivr him 
thrir »lii|M will n|iil|iiMil. TIiIh llii I wiis nmly 
alHitil till' nilililli' iif May. unci Ciiilirr . . . iin 
Imrkril im Wi'ilnrwiiiy thr llllli ' Ilix Ihnr 
hvsiIh witi' wpanitiil liy viulint sionns. hut 
fi'iiiiil oiii' iiniitlii r, mar tlir i lusr iif ,liily, in tlii' 
fnU whirh wuh thrir »ii|><<liilril plari' nf rinili/ 
\ims. 'On I III' Ntnf Aiii/uM hail wi'atlii'rilr'ivi' 
liini li> taki' rrfUL'i' In thr porl nl ."<t. Nirhiila'<, at 
ihr iiiiiiilh iif till' riviT nil till' iiiirtli llirr Car 
III r |ihinlnl a criisx. willi tin arniiiir Kninrr. ami 
ri'inuiiiril until tlir Till This |H>rt is almnHt llii' 
iiiily s|Mit in Canaiht that has ki'|it Ihr nanii' 
LJiiii hy Cartiir. , . . On llir HMIi Ihi' Ilini- 
vis'jIs fi'i'nlinil Ihr >.Milf. anil in hnnor of Ihr 
saint wliiwt' frast is crli'liniti'il on that ilay, Car 
lii r L'avi' till' irnlf Ihr nami' of Si Lawninr; or 
riilliir 111' Kiivr it to n hay Ivinj: hrlwi'cn Anti 
icwii ami Ihr mirth »liori-, whrmr it i'\ 
Iriicliil lo thi' wholr gulf of «hirh this liay is 
pari, arnl iKiausi' Ihi' rivrr. Intori' that laMril 
Uivir of C'lnaila. i'in|>lirs iiilii thr saini' irulf. it 
iiisiii*ihl\ aripiiri'il thr naini' of Si. I,au rrnii'. 
MJiic h il slill hrars. . . . Tin' tlin r vrssils , . . 
UMrnili'l Ihr rivir. anil on thr Isl of Siplrinlirr 
llirj c niiricl tin' river Saiiui'miy. ( artiiT iin n ly 
M'i>niioiiii-nl llir mouth of this rivi-r, nml . 
Iiii-iiiuil lo silk a iHirt wliiTi' his vissils miiilii 
wiiitiT in .sjifily. Eltrlit li'au'urs alKivi' Islr au.v 
Ciunlris hi' foiinil nnoiliiTinui h laruiraml haml 
soini T islanil, all riivi'ri-il with triis anil vims 
II' r:illiil it liiiK liiia Islaml. hut tin' nnmi' lias 
111 n rlianiri'il to Islr ill Irhans. Tin- author of 
till' nlali'in lo thi.s voyai;i-, prinliil uinh'r tin- 
iianii' of Carliir. pri'ti'mls that onlv Inn- Iin 
n.iuiirv lii^ins lo 1k' talli'd {'nnailii. ' lint lir is iiiisiaki'ii; for it is irrtnin that from ihi- 
i:irlii>i linn-s Iin' linlians t;av>' lliis nami' lo Iin' 
wlii'lcronnlryalonu llir riviron h.illi ^illl■s. from 
'•< nioiiih lo ihi' Sairui'iiay. From Itm rliiis 
l^iiii'l. Curtiir priKi-i-iliil to'uliiili' rivir 
i« I' II |i aL'in s olT. mill romrs from tin- norlli, lir 
' il:' '1 il liivir-i' ill' S:i' Croix. iH'r.iiisi- In iiili n-.j 
I' "II 'In' 1 nil of Sipl.uilw riKra^l of il„ lAMlla 
'i' ;" "I Iin- llolv Cros-l; lull it is now r,.llllii"hly 
' lil.'l Itiiirrr ili'.l.iri|,ii'sCarliir. Tlii'.hn afOT 
M- ■iiTi\:il hi' riniviil a vi~it finm mm 'linli.oi 
' U\: f iKiii]. il Doiiii.n .ma. « 'fui Ilii- aiillnir nf tic- 
' li'i n of III, I v.iy.i'.'i' siylrs l.or.l ..f ( iuia.l.i 
I I'::, r iiv.iti.i Willi ihi, riiiif l.v iiiiiois of iwo 
!■ 'iin^ vvhi.m 111- taki'li lo l-'rainr Iin- \.ar 
' '•'' o"! wlio km w a lillli Flilii h 'rinv 
: '■"•! Ii.'iniii ,,ii:i ihiii ihc -,tr:iin:irs wi^licll 

' ■ Ii"' 111 I U';i. W III. h Sllllnil In IrnllMr him 

■'i- 1 «:i-,i iiriliy lariri' tin\ii. -iiuali-il mi 

' ' I 11' « kii.'.vn unili r llir naiiii- of I...|.inil nf 

' " il I iiliii' hail Inanl murli of it. .mil 

■liinnnini In |"|:oiri- Willinill -..ill;: IL 
' ' ' "H Whyll.i- VnV;lL'|. irniiM. .1 I)..iiiiaooiia 

>' 111. |.1..|,|. ,,. ■ll,„h. l;,;,.;, w.r.'.if :i liif- 

■ ilinii I1..111 his. ami llnil In- Wishnl In 
■ '.I'lsivily hy ihi- .l(lvallla:.'i-s wliiih II. 

hnpiil to lU'rivi' fnini Ihi' «tay of Ihr Kniiih In 
hiM OHintrv." PriMiiilliiK with om' vrsml u> 
l-aku Ml. I'trrri', anil tliinir in I wo iKiats. Cur 
tier li'iu'lii'il llfxIirliiKa Oit. ".'. ■Thr hIiiiix' of 
thr town wan niiinil. anil thnr rows of palisnilr* 
Inclosi'il in it almiil V) innnri hIuiihiI i alius. 1 lU'h 
ovir .V) parrit Ioiik iinil 14 or M v i Ir It wan 
rnirrril hv 11 Kiniilr nn\v. nlMivr w liii h as will 
an aloiiK lln' llrst palisailr. run n k n ' '' ilrry, 
ri'iiihril hy hulihrM, am! hi' i with 

pii'irs of roi k ami prlililis fir ' of thr 

plair. Thr iiiliahilanls of ,ioki' tlh' 

lliiron lanRuatfr Thiy n.. . r Krrnrh 

vrrj Kill. . . . Carliir Visilril 1: iinlaiii nl 

thr fool of whiih Ihr i.iwii lay. ami l'.ui- ii llir 
iiamr of .Mont Itoyil. .v hii ii has Ini oiiir iliat nf 
thr whoh' Isliiml |Moiilriai| From il hi iIIh 
lovrrril a (Tfi't rxli III of rounlry. Ihr siiiiit of 
whiih I harmiil hiin. . . , Mr lilt IIih In laira on 
Ihr .llh of OrloUr. ami on llr lllli arriviil at 
Sainti Croix ' Winlrrinit al this plair. wlirrc 
his in w» KUlTrrril Irrrilily from thr lolil anil 
from sinrvy. hr rrtiiriiril lo Franmlir followini; 
spriiu:. "Somr niMliors . . . pnliinl Ihal Car 
tirr. ilisirnstrcl with Canaila. ili-suailnl Ihr kiiiK, 
Ills niaslrr. from fiirtlnr iIioul'IiIs of it, aiiil 
Champlain srinis to liatr In 1 n ..f Ih.ii opinion. 
Hill this iliK'S not airnr wiih what Carliir hin|. 
hilf .says in his im innirs. . . Carli.r in vain 
rxtollril thr rounlry nhiili hr hail ilisiovrrril. 
His .small rrlurns, ami Ihr wntrhiil mmliiion In 
whirh his mm hail hrrn rriliii 1 il hy rolil ami 
sriirvy, prrsiiailiil most that il wcnilil m-MT N- 
of any' to Framr. (inal sirrss was laiil on 
Ihr fart that llr nowlii rr saw any appral.ilirr of 
minrs; ami llirn, rvni iiiorr Ihaii how. a siiantsr 
laiiil whirli priuluri'<l nrilhrr j:oli| nor silvrr wiia 
ni konril as nolhinir." — F'ailirr Chailrvoix, Ilinl. 
i:f Stir Fniiir,- [IniiiK. /.(/./, II. S/,,,n, l.k. 1. 

Ai,s<iiN: It. Ki-tr. (niiinil i;,ll. ,-f \',.i,,i,i,m /it 
-'. M, ■,'. .'/.. I'J (r. «). — F. X. (iarinau', //-W. „f 
r,i,i.ii/,i. r. I, .'/, ','. 

A, D. 1535-1540.- Introduction of Printing 
in Mexico, s. . I'iuntim;. iVr .V I) LVm 
1 711(1, 

A. D. iS35-«550. -Spanish Conquests in 
Chile. Sri Ciiii 1; .\ l> 1 (.•|0-i;-j| 

A. D. 1536-1538.- Spanish Conquests of 
New Granada, n 1 (01 .nun w m mi > .vj) 
l,-.:lii 17:!1, 

A. D. iSdi-1603,- Jacques Cartier's last 
Voyage.— Abortive attempts at French Colo- 
nization in Canada. — .hin Fiainois .1.' la 
lin.|ii.'. Inr.lnf Knl'i r\:il, M !.'• Ill Iciiiaii of I'iiarily. 
was III!' iiinsl c iini ~l an. I 1 11. rir. lir of iln.s.. w ln> 
.1. sirnl 1.1 inl..iii/r Ihr laiiiis ilisioviriil hv 
.l,.i.|U.s c.irii. r 'I'lii' liilr ami auilmiiiy 

.'f li' .ll.lialil ■,< Inral was rnllfrrrril llpnli !iim'; 
his niir In .AI.iiil OMT Cam. 1:1, I In. 11. 1,1 LM. 

SaL'inn.iv. Nr.i t. nimllriiiil, lli 1!.' I-I. , (,ir|i..n, r, l.i (irnnl lia\.. an.l l!:ii r,ila..s, willi 
111! ilrl. J,,'. 1 lijiil- ,11. 1 p..Wils.,f Ih, Cl-nWli. 

This pi'. Ill » IS ihiii.l 111.. l,"i;l, if .lanuirv. 
l-'ilii .l:ii.|iirs ( irii.r was iiaiiiiil SI,., ml in 

1 'illlllllll.l. , .l:|..|ll.s (ir'l. r s.lili.l nil Ihr 

■.':i.l nf Mn, l.V.i iiaxiiii: pi..x io.n. .1 hi- llrri 
Inr i"n 1 ■ 11-. ■ II'' r.iii liih .1 .11 tii.' Si. Law- 

p.,,.' 11 

nil 111.' 1 

nil. .v.iiiu' . 




- \ iiiil_\ 

Inr III.' 

,i!.!..l v(.- 

lllh nf 111. 


.1 . 

t S: 

LTili iiav. 


!il.' Ill, 

:,iii- -!i-n 

1 ' 'v 


. Illl 

.1 111 "a 


..,- hn- 

iliH. ,U;. 

1 ■- 





>> .luiiii 

' liir w,i 




.■i> ii;-. 

1 .Mir:iL-' 

• lallil . Ii- 

Ml-Ir.l.h,. 1 



-.1 h 

- 1 m!.i 


Ihiykin* (infl 
lltr Shin Trtlilr 


tiiklnir I'urly In ilir »iiiiiiiii r of IMJ. iin^l williil 
for liiinif In 111!' riMiil of SI .lolm ». NrvUouiiil 
IiumI. liiriiir mi.i his t:inl> i liii I l(ol»rMil. Jii>i 
iiiniinij I.I jciill him. I'lli m luTsiia^iMii luiiM 
Iiic|i|.i' ih.' ,'li>a|)|.4.iniiil lAjilori r lo luni Imk k. 
"To iiv.ii.l III' I liiinii' of ill! ..|H II ni|.tiirr «iih 
KiilHTViil, 111.' liciili iiiiiil sill iiiU ».i!.'li. .1 Ml" iior 
iliiriiiir ihr iii'.'ht, iiii.l iiia.l.- all ».iil f..r Kraii. •■ 

Tliii nmlorimis wiihilrawal fnuii tl iilrr|iri«' 

imnih/iil Uoliiivals |..i«iT. aihl .h fi rnil thr 
IMTMiani lit sclllriui 111 1.1 (all .'la |..r ■. ii. rall..iis | 
tlii'ti iinl...rn .Iac.|iiis I irii. r ila.l ^.".ii iifii r 
liUnliini 111 Kiir..|.. ■ lt..l..rNil |ir..c i . .Ir.l i.i , 
Cunaila, l.iiMl ii f'.rl at M.< r..i\, (....f hau'inx ; 
wisl I.I I'll. uiH. «■ I.I l.ii k t\v.. i.l his Ihri'i' ships j 
III t'riiii.. anil iiniainni ihn.iiL'h thr HintiT i 
with his I. .1.. II.. h iMiii: a ir..ul.liil 'im"' 'I'l" rr | 
is MO 1. It.ilil airoiinl ..!' til. 1 ll.liiu' of till rllliT 
|iri>i\ I. .11 it 1 in'ir. l'"..r li.ilf a (iii 
tiir> .ili.r« ihcri' « i~ iiill.' iilit iii|.l iiiailc- 

I.v'iIm- Kri-ii. h I :in\ |.art ol Niw j 

Kran. .-,;h thr Kr. n. h ti^lnriis oii tin' Niw- , 
loim.llan.l ll.iiik aii.l in Ih.' (iiill ..f ?*l. Iji«r(ii(f | 
\M If sti i.lilv L'ro"iiiL' ill aiiiwiv iiiiil iin|.orl j 
ancf ■■ Whin, atli rliH> y. ars ..t i ivil sliitr. thr 
^Ip.ii,' aii.l wise s»a> .if ll.nry IV. rcst..rr.l 
ri'Hl lo troiililiil Kriiiii.-. tin- s|.irit of ilivoviry | 
iijriiin arosiv Tin- Maninis .Ir 1 1 IC.chr. ii itrctoii 
p.iitli iii.iii. tin kill.', in l"i!l«. a I ixr.inliiiL' tin- -inn' |.o»irs that itolM-rval 
liu.l |...s>i-,Mil liul l,a Uoi hr s iiiiilrrlakinn 
iiroMil iiiorr ilisastroiis than Uohrrval's lia.l Incti. 
Vi'i. IhiTi' ha. I liiiii iiioiii:h of sin cisofiil fiir- 
Iniiliiii.' ..|..iii-.l I., siiinnlali- i iih r|irisr. (h-|iiti. 
the-.- inisforiiii.i s, ■ I'livati- a.lvintiirirs.iiM|.r.. 
Ifctr.j l.v any s|«c iai |.ri\ ilriri'. IxL'aii I.. I. art. r 
for llif li. h' I" lirirs of thr ('an.nliaii hiinii rs 
A wialtin 111. nhaiit of Si .Malo. iianiril I'oiit 
irriM'-. w.i-. 111.. Ik.I.I.sI aii.l Minrssfiil of 
Ihisi' Ita.lirs, hi' inaili' sfvir.l voyauis In Ta- 
i|o.i..sai'. at 111.' ino.iih of Ihr Sai-'iiiMay. liriinrini; 
hack lai h liiii. a ri. Ii rai;;o of r.ii.' ami' 
furs." In Itiim. l'..nti;iM\i' iITi ilcil ii jiartiirr 
«lii|. with on.- ('Iiaiuin. a naval lapLiin, »lni 
ohlainr.l a paliiit from tin kiiiL' ;.'i\iiii.' him a 
niono|ioly of thclra.l. lull Cliainin .lio.l in IHnJ 
wiihoiii haviiiv' sin .. i.l. .1 in' iv. ii a 
Ira.lini; post .ii r,i.l..ii-sa.-, !>.■ Cliatlr. or \>r 
Chasti's. iji.v. rnor of Micpp. , sii. .-..■.li-.l I.. Ilic 
pri\ilr;:is ..f Chainin, ami f..uii.|i.| a i..nipany 
of inirihaiils at l!..ii.n I li'.li:il I.,'riakr thr 
ili-v. |..piiiini of 111.- r.-s.,iirr.-s ,.f Cmaila. It was 
mill. |- III.- a. lupins. if tlii> i-.iinpany that Saininl 
Chaiiiplaiii, till- loiili.l.-r .if N.-w F'ralnr. (-aini- 

upon ihi - - — K. Warliiirli.n. //n r.,/,i/,(,..^ ..;■ 

(■„ ■,■'!■' I --A, ■-'•:, 

Ai.-o IN 1-". r.iikinan. I','i„,f .-/ h'i:ii„-r ,u 

own haixls . . Ah 
. L'li \t mil niiilllpliril 
-il III. 

siilisiili-il, llir Knirlish vovhucm to AniTlni hn.l 
iKnoini' fi'wir mill (.»ir iiinl m IimbiIi i-niiM.I 
iillo)j|itlicr II Is .asy to iii.ount for llil- 
Tlii-ri' wiw no opi-iiini; for rouipiiitt or pliiiiih i 
for lliii TiiiliirH wiri' al |i<-ii(.i with thr Spanlsl, 
-ovinlifiis. anil tliiri' (iiiil.l \« no li rriioriai 
...lUpiilion. thr I'apiil till, .'f >ipiiiii ■in-' 
l'orlii»;al l.i thr » lioli- .'f thr i" w r..i'iiiii. 
loiilil not Ik .ll« l>y Ciilliolii- li laiil 
No Iraili worlli huvlnu i-\i«ti-<l willi II" n..-i 
anil Spain ililil roriilk'ill l>i P' '1"' 'r'"''' ' 
' iii-ir own w-tlli-rs in tli. 
till' plalilaliolis in Ann-ll' , 
tin. ihiimiiil I L.-jTriHs r ipiilly iiii ri-ii»<i- 
Spiiiiiarils ha>. no Afric-un s. ill. iin ills, l.iii ih. 
I'or'nu'm-si' hill inuiiv. iiml. with tin- aiil ..I 
Ki mh anil l.tulisli iiilv.-nlnn-rs. liny pri«-iiri.l 
lii.iii ihi sc .1 tili-ini-nts slavi s i-iioiiali tosiippl\ 
1.. !h thi-iiisihrs anil 11" spaiiiaol-. Hut Ih. 
llia/ilian plantiltioiis ^r. w so fisl, iiIh.iiI 11.- 
iniililU' of till' (iiitiiry, that liny alis..rlM-il li.. 
ditiri' Mippiv, mill lli<- Spiini-h ro|..iiists kn. » 
I1..I wlirn- 111' look for iii-^'ri«-s This i.i tiiiiy >■'■ 
slaMs in thr Sp.iiiish Inilirs iH'ramr known i 
till- Kni;lish an.l Kn-in-li (aptains » ho fn-i|iii nt. 
tin- (iiiiiit-ii 1.11-1. iinil .lohn lla«kins, wlm lu.-l 
lici-n i-niriii:<-.l Ifiii IniyliiKsl in ihi- IraiU' wiili 
Spain mill tin' (■aiiiirii-»." ri-s..|( id in l.Ml'.' lo lak. 
a rar;.'o of wgro kIuvi-h to llispmiiolii '11. . 
littlr siiuailroii with wlihh hf i-\ciiili-d tin 
proji'il was thr llrst ^;ll^'lisll wpiailroii wlij. h 
iiaviu'iili 1 Ihr Wr-t Iiidhin was. 'I'liis vova;. 

opi-nr.l lli.isr M-as to thi' Kll):lisll. Kllfllallll lia.l 

not \i\ l.rokriiwilh Spain, mill thr law rxi-hiilin. 

Knuiisli vi-ssi-ls friiiii Iriiilini; with thr Spatii-1 

roloiiisLs WHS til I strictly rnforrnl, Thr trail 

was protitiilili-. ,1 Hawkins foninl no ilillU-uln 

I in ilisposiiiL' of Ins ramo to (in at a.lvanliinr. A 

in. a^Ti iioir fr.iiii thi- |K 11 of llakliiyt (-on 

I tains all that is known ol the first Ainrrir m 

I voviiiir of Hawkins, lii its ih-lails it imisl hiiM 

■ n-srnililril thr sri- 1 v.iyai;r. In tl. 

first voyai.'i-. howrvrr. Hawkins liail iii> miasii u 
toiarry his wans furlhrr than llirrr ports . i: 
(In- iiortlKni siilr of Hispaniola Thrsi- pori 
til awnv from San Dominjio. thr lapilal. w. : 
iilriailv will known to thr Krcin h ainiijrt'li rs. 11 
.li.l ii.'.t v.-ntiii-r inio thr CanlilH-an Sra; ai, ; 
having loaihil his ships with ti.iir r. iiirn rarL' 
hr inadr thr liist of his wav liink. In I- 
srronil Mivau'r hr rlltrrril tlir (aril. I'. 

Sra. still krrpili::. howrvrr. at ll sa:r ilislal. 
from S.m 1>. niiiu;:o, anil sold his slav. s 
niainlaii.l. Th's voviL'r was 
.si-alr. . . Ilium; 

ll„ .\."- M. '-' '■; 


I ;; 

A. D. 1562-1567. -The slave tradine Voy- 
ages of John Hawkins.- Beginnings of Eng- 
lish Enterprise in the New World. - " I Ir 

liis|..r\ .'1 la.^'i-h .\iii.-n.a 1.. irii.s wiili tiii- 
tliri-i-'sla\. Ir.iilii.i: Mi\ai;is.if .I..I111 llawkiii-, 
Miailr in ih.-'. IVil iiml \'>'>' Nolh 
ilik' that Kiiirli-liiii' 11 ll .1 iliiiM- ill 1 onni-rli.iii 
with .\iii.-rii -1. pn vi'iu-l\ in tlm^.- n.iaL'.-s, ha. I 
am- i.^ult w.irth riiiii.liiiir Ijii'lainl lia.l 
kill oMi till- Nrw W'.irl.l li. irU si-vi-niy yrars. for 
.lohn CalHit r.arhrd it sli.irtl. afii-r its .liMovi-ry 
liv Ciliiiiiliii^. aii.l. as ll.i li'liii-- of 111.- .lis 
rov. r\ spri-ail many l;ii:;li-li aiKriiliiri is lia.l 
rros«',|lii, .\llalltii- to till- .\lii. Ill an roast. Hut 
as years and thr rx.iti-inrul of iiovrlty 

III u iiiiK h latL- 
.old his slaM s ill Ihr roll! 
lirlit.i' ports ISuilli .Villi liiali|. and loa.h-.l ' 
vrsM U with an.l oth.-r i;.««ls ln.imht wr 
Ihr prinliii. . Haw-kills .Irtrriiiinr.l In strikr ou- 
in w palh iii.l siiil with thr (illlf stria- 
whiih would rarry him northwards past 1 
sl,..rrs of Kli.rida" Sparkr's iiarratiyr . 
prov.-s thai al i-u r\ p.iiiit ill tlir>.- r\p<-diliiilis ' 
l-'..;:lislinia!i was following; in ihr trark of - 

l-'i. lull. 1: ha.l Kti-nrh pilois and s.-am. 11 
h.ialil. :;n.l ihili is littlr ilolll.l Ihat olir at I. 
.if ihi-r had alri ady lirrn wi'li l.aiidonnii' 1. Till- Ki-.mIi M-ani.-u ruidid him 

l.aii.|oiiiiii'ri-'s si-itli iiii-iit. whri-i 
most opp.iriiiiir Thi-v tlini \>- 
way liy till- .Oils! of North Am. 
MisalU know ill Ihr liias> a.-. N 
Ni-wfounillaiiil. and llirinr, will 

arrival him : 
!. a. tlii-ii li 
w- KniiH 1 
Ihr pr.-\ 

iii.i: wrslrrly winds, to Kuropr. This "as 


li I 

AMF.RirA, IVia-lMT 

AMEHICA. !»73-I.V» 

|.iiin«T T(>)BK'' iiumI'' ''V KnirlWiini'ii alnnif viijragi' of plumli r in ihi- Amrriniii «i»uii In 

ii.iu.l'i nftrrwiinlx fiiiiiim* In lilMnry thn'tiKii ■luiy, 1%7'.', In lurprlMil ilic Spnrii^li inwii nf 

Kriitli»li iMlcmlMlluii Till' < liilir . Nniiiliri' ili- IH.k. hIiIiIi «iii iIm •.|ii|.|>iiii; |H.n 

i-tiiiL' iiiirnillvr . . . given , (rum llir |iin I on llii' north- rn » ..f 'lii- Nlliniii» f"r the 

,1 l.lin .S|>»rki', line of ll»wklni' tri ntlinien I tri'iiitiiriH of I'l rii lli< nun niiuli' llii ir »iiy 

ioiii|<iuiionK . ciintiilnH tin' llr-l iiiforniulion j Into Ilii- mjMl tnu'iin li"ii«'. ulurr liny liii.l 

M till rnliiK Aniirliu uml In ii.itiviH whlrh wu« j Immli on a liniii of liiir>il\ir. T" tut .iii: HI 

|iiiIiIIm1ii'iI In KnKlHU4l liy <in Knt'llali cm wit { »ii|i ami In liivli . 'm I'raki' liiinoi It lia<l n 

iiix lliiwkliw pliinniil a tliinl Mivaiic In | i.luil n i- mnil hI. Ii ronii" Hi d iIm piratic to 

TitKl lail till' ri mon»tranii -. nf ihr SpaiiUli kiiii; i ritnal « I li no \,t\ lirci- part of tin ~|.|i uillil 

u-iil liiin to lK'«lopp<i| In ilir Knu'lMi coiirt 
III -int out hU uhlpi. Iiowim r. iial lliiy i ami' 

I: .Mil- in line li rlihli fnirliti il, -~ from «liat 

Miirir U not kiiiiBii. Ill aiiotlirr y. ar s liiiii' 
Mil' aipirt of IhlnuH liail i liaiiiri'il ' I'.tiL'lanil 
»:is Miitiiriii:; Into war u llh >piiii. ":iiiil II ih 

liooly III Ihr wliiti r of r'iM. with Ih Ih Ip of 
tilt- runaway hLim^ on tin- Ntliiiiii-*, kn vwi im 
I'linarroHi-s. In- itoihiiI iIh' loliniiiH. liK>kril on 
till' I'm itir iMiali. approai Ih'I wii!iiii hiclil of 
till' I Ity of I'aiiania. ami «a\ lail a Ir iii-porlat{oii 
p'lrly ronvcyiiiir l'oI'I to \oi ir .|r |iio«; hut 

kill-" » 1'. now alili' to i'\i I iiti his plans willioiil i wa> ilisappoinii i| ' I' hi-, pn \ \.\ tin i'\rlli'il i on- 

risiraini. Ih' loiimliil a iiriiiaiicnt fortilliil j ilmi ol mmim' ol hw iin n U Inn lir «:i« . on thin 

l;iili.rv on till' (iiilnca loa-t. w hrrf nmriH-K I iina-.iiin, tin- tin at miaii li.>oiii| llio l-il s, 

iiii/hi" In- iiilli'itiil all the yiar roiiiiil 'I'lii nri' ; llnikr linn ami iliirr ri-olvnl to hi- ihi' 

III Niiji'il for till' Wrvi I'liiliis a llilnl tiiiii'. I piniiiiTof Kii;.'laiiil ill tin- I'liilii . ami on Mii^ 

V^'iMiv' Fvamis DraKr »iilliil with him :ii i oiu j iisolulloii In •...linmly l«',iiiiL'lit tin' l.|l•^-ill:,' ol 

iiiiiiil of till- '.Iiiclilli,' It -mall M-sixl of tlfly j <!i»|, Nruli four year- ilipTil iMf.ii' ir wan 

ii ii~. Till' MAa^r liail a pros|«roiis U'^'iiinini; i I'M'iiitnl. tor it was not iiniil Novi ml" r. I'lTI, 

luil a ilis.isiri'iis riiilim;. Altir ilisposiii:.' of '■ that liraki i mharkiil on his fiiniini ■ mi\ iij-r. in 

iiii'-i "f tlii'ir slaves, they win ilrhi ii liy storms tin' roiir-i' nl wliiili In pniposnl tu plumlir I'l rii 

111 i.iki' nfiu-e In till' Mi'siian |iort of \'i ni iisi If 'rin- I'irinian imrls win' iiiihirlillnl 

I'm/, ami tin n' tliiy win- iiiiarkiil In a Spanish 'I'lir Spanianis kmw tlniii In Iw hy iiatun' ahso- 

lli'i. I>niki' in till' ".liiililh ami i'lawkins in liiii ly sniinil Imm ailaik on iln iiortli ami 

:i?i":lnr small mssiI esiapnl lliil tin- liHii- liny invir ilnaimil that tin l;n::li-h piritis 

'A ,v i.'.iTiTowili'il with mill mil olili-i'il 1.. iiiit Hoiilil III' ihiriiiL' inoiiiili ti j.ass tin- liiril Ir 

I. '! It till III asliiin' on till' ,M. \ii'.iii I oast Tlii' sHails of Ma/i Han ami attai k tin 111 liolii the 

li.ijiiriiy of tliosi' hit on Kiianl, as Will as a smith Mull was the plan of Draki . ami it whm 

ii,!]'rii> of Drakes iniN.ilnil on Iln- \oya!.'e iMiutnl with eompliii' -mn'^s ' He sailed 

1:' ■:'■ ami it wa- a iiiisi ralile reinnaiit that ; Ir.aii I'lwnoiilh. I>ie i;!. I"i77. \\iili i ii 1 1 of 

1 l.'l in laiulaml. in .I.iiiiiarv. hVill - K .1 ' lour m --.• N, ami a pinnaie, Iml l"si ,„„ ,,t ihe 

l',,i \';i/'i:/" ■■/ thr l-:i'-..''^ili.{n S,, ,111,1, ^■ ' >liipH Mill r he hail elilin i| tin I'ai Itli . ill a sl.iriil 

.1 ' l' i whtehilrove him smilliw anl. anil whiili made 

\' i\: ■/■/.. Jl,i,rli„„ \ i/.i, ,,„:,. I l.ji i\ I! \ him Ihe ilisiou I'l r i.l ( ipe ihaii. Anoiln r of 

V" ' I," {11,1.1, nil S«'., .\", '"iTi - H Soiiihey, ' his ships, separaiid tiom ihi' sipnelriiii. nlurned 

I, ,i,/f'„ HkIi,/, .|.//ioi'o/», r :t ' j home, and ii iliiid. while aiti inptiiiL' to do the 

A. b. 1572-1580. -The Piratical Ad»enture» same, was lo-i in tin river I'l, iii Ihiki, in his 

of Drake and his Encompassing; of the World. own vi—il. tin C'ldin Hind pmi 1 ■ di d 1 . the 

I'r nil is lirike. the lirsi of the l-jiL'lish Hue I'lriniaii eoa-ls, w In n' he enii-i d uniil In hail 

' iL. 'Ts, «;,, I. In ,,f the twelve iliildnn of lal t ikell and pllimlind a s,,,|.' nl >palli-h ships. 

' rl Dr.ike if TavistiMk. in l)eM.ii>iiin', a , ■ l.adeii w illi a rieli hooiy ol r.riniaii tnasuni 

■ niin ii I'mtesMiit, who lied his milive ' he ih eimd it uiisale to leiiini hy tin- w ay that Im 

i' i" 1. ,1'. old pi rsi I mil III, and had tin 11 liKome , eaiiie lie tin nloie n'suhi d to si 1 ike aems- tin- 

1 -hip. I li,ip! nil, I'niki, like ( oliimhiis, had , I'ai ilie, and h r this purpo-e made the laliiinh' 

I'l- 11 1 -' iiiiaii hy priifi'ssioii fniiii lioyhooil ; ami in « liii li tliis \My,i::i wis usually pi rf'irnied hy 

hi'i s, r\i 'I'as 11 yoiuiL' man, in eoinmaml the Spaiiisli i..,Mriinn 111 m ssi Is wliiih saili d 

'I •!.' .Iiidilli under Ha kills , , Haw- annually from .Viapiilio m tin i'hilippines. 

ki:: Ii id loiillned himself ii. -iiiiii.'i.diiii.' : Kiake Krake thus nailnd ilie mast of California. 

'.'iv 1 1 from this III piraey. Tills praetiie when' the Indian-, ih liL:h1i d I" yoiiil iiieasin' hy 

vi- auihorizid hy law in the iiilddle a^'es for pnsiiits of eloihinu' and trinkets, invited him to 

•a' purpose iif reeineriiiLf- dilits or daiiiairis , niiiaiu and rule o\ir tinm, lirake i„k pos. 

Ir 111 the siilijiets of amiili. r iialion. The Km'- : session of 1 he 1 'aiiit.y in Ihe name of iiir (^m en, 

H ' i-iiiiially those ot the wesi 1 oiintry, wen' and nliiii d his vi s,-. I in pn'|iarition tor the 

: .'1 iMriiiidalih' pirites in the world; and imkiiow n p. riU of tin- I'ai ilie. The plaee when- 

" ilinl, iiilinii was hy this lime MUsi'd aLTailist he liiidi d must have Ikiii lillnr Ilie ^nat hay 

s, .ill, in 11, 11-11 pnilee of Ih' rullili ss war wimd of >an l-'raln i-eo |p. r eoiilra,. see (Mil OHM v: 

:.;ii:i rioiisiaiitisiii in till Neilnrlaiid- hy .\, 1>, I'^Hi- I'-i;] or the -mall hay of liodr.-a, 

1:, lip II lirake hail iiieoiinls of his own to wliiili lii - a fi w lei^'es tiirthi r north Tin- 

■'I"!, \iili ili(> Spaniards, Thoiiuli Kli/ahetli iinat s. iiiiaii had all' idy ma-lid liM' deirnes 

l.i'l ii 4 i|ril,inil for the n Milled St,ite-, and iiior. to ihi norihward In hae lindiii.- a siiiialile 

; 1 a -liiltiiiir imlii y , her iiili n-ts and harli.nir He helieved lnm-elf to he tin lir-l 

I! '.M ri idi'iitieal: and it w is with a view lairMpe,in who had eoasti d tle-e -lion- , hill it 

ii I'l'iiiu- iiir those siipplii- o| i:old and silver is mm well known that Spanish e.yplon r- had 

!! Ill \ riea whiili eiiahled I'hilip to hrihe pnieded him. Drakes ein iimmn iiratioii of 

1' iiiiiiiiis and pay 'ildii r-. in piir-uil of his the i;lolie was thus no deliheraie feat of .seaman- 

i'iiiy of ai;L'n'ssion, thai the famous voyau'e ship, hut the meessary nsull of c inunistances. 

V . autlmrized hy KiikUsIi siaiesineii, Drake The voyage iniuk' in more than one w.iy 11 t-'n'iit 

' ncintly niaile inon' ■' ui one successful epoch iu Kuglish nautical history," Dnike 




I I.I 






jS -applied IN/MGE Inc 

■t. -6^ 

AMKKICA, I."',' ir>S(» 

Firat Colony. 

VMEHUA, 1584-1588. 

rra( liiil I'l,' in.nith mi lii^ niurri Sipi. 2I'>, l.l'^ip. 
— E..I, l';i\iif, Vxii'i'it:* of the Klh't/'itftiiit Satmn, 
pp. lll-U':! 

Ai.s.1 IN r. i-'ictciiiT. n, \\;.rhi /;/,<•.. ,«/7„.,.„,/ 

by Siv h\ hr.ii:,- (ll.iUnil S..\, IN.M). — I. li.irniw. 
Lif, ff /)r.a;—\l .S.Hltlicy, lion uf ISritiah 
Afhiiir.t^^. r. 15. 

A. D. 1580 —The final founding of the City 
of Buenos Ayres. Si r .\i;i;h;n iim: Kki'IHI u ; 
A. I>. l.-i-^ii ITTT. 

A. D. 1583. -The Expedition of Sir Hum- 

Rhrey Gilbert. — Formal possession taken of 
fewfoundland. — III l.'iT'^, Sir iliiinpliicv tiillnri, 

HTl IjllzHsll ^cnllcIIKIIl. of I>( \i'!isllilt'. wliO^i' 

yiiiiiiL^tT lia'r-brnthcr was tin- iiiori' l■aIlloll^4 .sir 
Waltrr llik'iirh, ohiaiiicil fmiii (Jiinu Kli/abtlh 
a ciiariiT ('inpowrriiii; liiiii, f-T tin' lU'Xt six 
yt'jirs. to Uiscover "such remote heathen and 
barliarmis lanils, not netiially possesse'l liy any 
Christian iiriiiee or jieoiile," as he iiiijjiit be 
shrewd or fortunate eiioii;;h (o liud. and to oc- 
cupy the siiuie as their proprietor. <iilliert*8 first 
cxpeilition was atteiupted the next year, with 
Sir Walter lialci^h associated in it; but misfor- 
tunes drove back the adventurers to port, and 
Spanish iutri/iue preveiitetl tlieir sailing acrain. 
" In ,June, I')'*:!, Gilbert saileil from Cawsantl Bay 
with five vessels, with the jrencral intention of 
discovering and colonizing tlie northern parts of 
America. It was the first coloni/.inp expedition 
which left the sh, res of (in at Hritaiu; and the 
narrative of the expedition liy Hayes, who com- 
maiKled one of (iillK-rts vessels, forms the tirst 
pa^e in tile liistor\ of Kncrhsh cohmization. 
(lilliert iliil no more than l'o tlirouirh the empty 
form of taking pos.session of the i>land of New- 
foundland, to which tlie KnL'lish name formerly 
applied to the continent in pnicral . . . was 
now restricted. . . . (Jilbert dallied here too 
long. \Vhen he set sail to cross the (Julf of St. 
Lawreuce and t.ike possi'sviDn of Cape Breton 
and Nova Scotia tlie seasc.n was too far advanced \ 
one of his lari^est ships went down with all on 
board, incliidini: the Hiiii;:arian scholar l*ar- 
meiiius, who had ( onio out as the of 
the expedition; the stoics were exhaii^Ied and 
the Clews di.-pirited; ami (lillv ri ri~oherl 011 
sailing' home, inteiiilinij ttt return and prosecute 
his discoveries the next spriiiu. <»u the home 
vcyaL^c the little vessel iu wliicii he saiiiiiLT 
found' ri d ; and the pioneer of Lni:li-Ii coloiiiza- 
tioii toiiid a watery L"r.i\e. . . . (Jilliert was a 
m.iii of iiiiiraire. piety, aiul 1. ariiiriu'. He wa^^. 
howesir, fin indilfeniit -eainaii. and i|uite in- 
conipr!' lit li.r the task of ci^lotii/itinn to which 
he had >' t hi-, hand. The mi^fortuiics of his ex- 
pedition iiidiic. i| .\inadas ami Barlow, who fc.l- 
lowiii in his ,!. ps. |,> ali.-iiidiin tlie northward 
vciyafre and ;-:dl to tlie sleTi s iiiti-mled to be oc- 
cupied by the 1 ii-ier hut more circuitous route of 
the Canaries and the W'e^t Indies." — V.. .1. 
Pavne, Vi.ii.ii;,!, ,.f l\, r'JiZ'i'ftthd}, Siiniih, ji/i. 
I7;i-1TI — •■(In .MMiiday, the !IIh of September, 
in till' aflcriiiiMii, the lrii:.itc [the 'S,|uirrcl '] was 
near cast away, opprc-sr 1 liy waves, yet at that 
time recovered; and j;i\iii;; f^rth siu'iis of joy, 
the ceiieral, sittiiiir aliafl with a book in his 
hand, cried out to us in the • Hind ' 'so oft as wc 
did approai h within hrariiiLM, " We ;.re as near 
to heaven by sea as liy 1 iiid.' leiteratiu),- the same 
«|iee(li. well beseemiiit; a .-oldier re..olc.te in 
Jcsa; Christ, .is I 1 an testify In On the 
same !*"'inday night, about twelve o'clock, or not 

loll LT nth I', the friL'ate beinu' ahead of us in the 
'(iolden llind.' suddenly her lights were nut, 
whereof as it were in a moment we lost the 
sJLdit, and withal our watch cried the (Jencral was 
cast away, which was too true; for in 
niouient the frigate was devoured and swallowed 
up by the sea. Yet still we looked out all that 
night and ever after, until we arrived n|ion the 
coast of England. , . . In great torment of 
weather and peril of drowning it plea-ed tiod to 
send safe home the ' t Iolden Hind.' w liich arrived 
ill Kalnioiith on the 2'-'d of Septcnibi r, being 
Sunday."— E. Hayes, A i:- i«'rt of tin \',fi/,ii/i- l,;i 
K'r /Iiiiiipfiiry (titfftrt (npi'inttil in Viit/iux 


Also IN K. Edwards, l.iff uf fliili i'jh, r. 1, ch. 
5. — U. Hakluyt, PriuciiHil yiuiij<ili"iiit; cd. I"/ 
K. (iolihmiil, r. 1'2. 

A. D. 1584-1586.— Raleigh's First Coloniz- 
ing attempts and failures. — "The task in 
which (iilbert had failed was to be undeiiaken 
by one better (]ualilied to carry it out. If any 
Englishman in that age seemed to be marked out 
as the founder of a colonial empiri', it was 
llaleigh. Like OillKirt, he had studied b(X)ks; 
like Drake he <()uld rule men. . . . The asstxia- 
tions of his youth, and the training of his early 
manhood, fitted him to sympathize with the aims 
of hia half-brother Gilbert, and there is little 
reason to doubt that Kaleigh liad a share in his 
undertaking and his failure. In Vt'^i he obtained a 
patent precisely similar to Gilbert s. His lirst step 
showed the thoughtful and widl-planned system 
on which he began his l^isk. Two ships were 
sent out, not with any idea of settleiiient, but to 
examine and report upon the country. Their 
comnKinders were Arthur Harlow and I'hilip 
Amida-s. To the former we owe the extant 
record of the voyage: the name of the latter 
would suggest that he was a foreigner. Whether 
by chance or desiirn, they took a more southerly 
course than any of their predecessors. On the 
'.;d of July the presence of shallow water, and a 
smell <if sweet Howers, warned them that land 
was The promise thus given was am[ily 
fullilled upon their a|iproach. The sight befoiv 
them was far diilerent from that which had met 
the eyes of Hole and (iilbert. Instead of the 
bUak coast of Newfonndland, Barlow and 
.Viuidas looked njion a scene which might recall 
the ;,oftncss of the Mediterranean. . . . Coasting 
along for about r.itl mih s, tlie voya^'ers reached 
an inlet and with some dilliculty entered. Tiny 
then solemnly look piw-essioii of the land in the 
Queen's name, and then delivereil it over to 
UaleJL'h according to his patiiit. They soon dis 
covered that the land upon which they \ ' 
toinhed was an island alioin 20 miles long, 
not above six broad, named, as they afterw.inl- 
Icariit. Uoanoki'., sep.iratii'ig them from 
the mainland, lay an inclosed .si a, studded wiili 
more than a hundred fertile and well-wiMnhii 
islets." The Indians provi d friendly, and were 
described by Barlow as beiiiir " most gi-m le, lov- 
ing and faithful, void of all guile and treason, 
and such as live after the iiiaimcr of the goMi n 
age." "The report which the voyagers toi k 
home spoke as favourably of the land itself as ■ > 
its inhabitant.s. . . . With Iheiu they brought 
two of the .savages, mimed Wanchese and Man 
teo. A probalile tra<Iition tells us that the <iuecii 
herself named the country Virginia, «nd that 
Haleigh's knighthood was the reward and ac- 



AMKUICA, l.W4-i:.SH. 

.VMKRICA, l.-)HT-15«0. 

l.ii.nvii'ilL'tmnt (if liis siiici^s. On llic sln'nL'th 
(if this r('|>(irl Kiilcifili »< ""<■'' '"i"''' lircpMraliinn 
for a sctllciTiciit. A Heel (if hcvin sliijis «as [ini- 
viiicil for iiii- ((mvcyiiiicc (if V*>* sclllcrs. I'Ik^ 
thct Wiis iiiidcr iIk' ((iimiiaiKl (if J'ir liicliurd 
(irciivillc, wlio was to i>^talili>li tlic settlement 
and leave it under the cliarL'e of Ualpli I-aiie. 
. . On the mil (if A|iril [l.>.">| the eniiirran's 
Ml sail," F(ir S(inie reason iiol well e\|ilaiiie(l. 
tlie licit made II cireiiit to ihe Wi -.1 It. dies, and 
jniiered for live weeks at the island of St. .lohn's 
.mil at llispauiol.i. reaehini: ViriiiiMa in tlio Inst 
days (if iliine. (inarnls lietween the two roin- 
Miiinders. (Jrenville and I.ane, had already lie^nn, 
and 111 ilh seemed e(iuallv ready to pnivdke Ihe 
iiiinily of the natives. In Anirnsi, idler ixplor- 
iii); s("ime sixty miles of the coast, (ireiiville re- 
turned to Knjiland, proinisini: to come h;'ek the 
next spring with new colonists and stores. The 
settlement, thus left to the care of I.ane, was 
estahlished "at the north-ea'^t corner of the island 
(if Roanoke, wlienee the sclllcrs could cominand 
Ihe strait. There, even now, choked by vines 
and underwood, and here and tla re broken hy 
tlie cnimlilinK remains of an earthen bastion, 
may lie triced the outlines of the ditch which 
enclosed the <'iimp, some forty yards scpiarc. the 
hiime of the lirst English scHUts in the New 
World. Of the doings of the settlers during the 
winter nothing is recorded, but by the mxt 
spring their prospects hwked gloomy. The In- 
dians were no loiiL'er friends, . . , The .settlers, 
inialile to make fishing weirs, and wilhout seed 
(■(irii, were enlire'v dependent on the Indians for 
their dailv food," Under these riri iinistances, 
one would" have sopposed that I.ane would have 
iH-t employed hiiiiself in guarding the sellle- 
iiient and iinprnving its condition. He, however, 
IlioUL'ht otherwise, and applied himself to the 
la,sk (if exploring the neighbouring territovy," 
r.iitawide coinbinatioii of hostile Indian tribes 
had been formed against the Kngli'^h. and tie ir 
Mliial inn became friini day today iiioie imperilled. 
.\t llie beginning of .luiic. bXi. Lane fought a 
hold liattle "itli tlie sava;:is and routed them; 
i'Ut no sign of (ireiiville appeared and the pros- 
|.iit looked hiipeleivs, .lust at this juncture, a 
;:ri':il Knglish tied, sailing hnmewards frmn a 
I iratical expedition to Ihe Spanish Main, under 
Ihe famous Captain Drake, came to anchor at 
lio.iiioke and (ilTercd succor to the di.sheartened 
loioiii-ts. Willi one voice they pelilioiied to be 
lakiii to Knu'land, and Drake received the whole 
|i:iriy on board his ships, '•The help (if wliii h 
ihr I'olonisis had despaired was in realily i lo-e 
.11 hand. Searivlv had Drake's Heel left the coa.,t 
w inn a ship well "furnished by Kaleigh with nc( d- 
fi;! -iipplies, reached Virginia, and after scarch- 
ii,.' forlhedeparled selller~ relurned loEngland. 
Al.oiii a fortnii-'lit l.aler I'.reiiville himself arrived 
'■ilh three ships, lie spent some time in the 
I'liiTilry exploring, searchin!.' for Ihe settlers, and 
ii l,i>i." unwilliiig'lo |ii>e piisses>ion of the coun- 
■ly, liiided titlecii men at Koanoke well siipjilii d 
1 r iwii, and then set sail for England. 
iMinideriii;.' Ihe .\/iires, and doing much dama'-'e 
i-tlieSpaiiiaiils." -.1. A. Doyle, A.- /•.■»'/' W"" 
Aintri'-ti : yirgiiiia, i{-r,, ^h. 4. — " It h'ciiis to be 
..I iierallv adiniiled that, when I.ane and liiscom- 
1 my wi'nt back to England, they carried with 
■hern loliacco a< one of the produc'ts of the couii- 
■i>. wliich they jiri'sentcd to Uahigb. as t'le 
iilanterof the ci'ilony, and by him it vva^ brought 

Into use in England, and gradually in otiii r 
Eiiropeaii countries. The auiliorities are not cii- 
tiiclv agreed upon this point. .los>elyn says 
• Tofiai ( 11 lii>l liroiighl inlo England by sir ,liihn 
Hawkins, hut lirsl brmmht into um' by Sir 
Waller liawliiixh nianv years after.' A::ain he 
s.ays: ' Now i,av sonielTi'iliaceo wa^lir>I brought 
inio Enu'laiid bv Mr. Kalph I.ane, out of Virginia. 
Others will have Tobacco tube tii>l lirougbl into 
EiiLrlaiid from rem, by Sir Francis Drake's 
.Mariners.' Canidin tixe's its inlroduilion into 
England by Ualpb T.ane and the men broiight 
back with him in the shijis of Drake. He says: 

' And thcM' men which were bi l'IiI back were 

the lir^t that I know of, wliiih liroiight into 
Envland that Indian plant which they (all To- and Nicotia, ami u-e it again-l crudilies, 
being tauirht it by the Indians.' Cerlainly froni 
lliat time it bcL'aii to be in great reipie>t, and to 

lie sold at a hi_-h rale \moiig the los men 

lift in the coloiiv \\n\\ It.ilpli I.ane in l.>.-) was 
Mr, Thomas llariot, a man of asliongly niatlic- 
nialical and scieiililic turn, whose services in this 
coiincclion Wile greatly valued. He remained 
there an entire year, aiid went back to England 
in VtXit. He wrote out a full account of his ob- 
servations in the New World,"— I, X, Tarbox, 
Sir W'li'.ltr Jliileirjh ami lii» C"h'iiy (I'rinre Sn:, 

.\ IN T, llariot, /Jro/ iiml (rue. Ilcijort (He- 
j'rinlal in (''•in ■niinint Priiirr S«: J'liliUoilion). — 
K. L. Hawks, Jli.-I. "f S. (\in,lin.i. r. 1 {,yi,liiiii- 
ill'/ rij'rinU of /.iiin'i .W"'inl, llnri'ii'n liiiwrt, 
d, ■ — Original Doc's cd, by E. E. Hale (ArrhiT. 
ul'i'/iit Aiiiirii'iiihi. r. -1). 

A. D. 1587-1590. — The Lost Colony of 
Roanoke. — End of the 'Virginia Undertak- 
ings of Sir Walter Raleigh.—" lialciL'b, uiidis-' 
m.ived bv losses, delenniiied to jilant an agricul- 
tural ^laie; to send emii;ranls wiih their wives 
and families, who slioiild make their lionies iu 
the New World, and, that life and property 
iniLrhl be secured, in .lamiaiy, IVsT, he granted a 
charter for the seitleinenl, and a inunicipal 
goveinnienl for the city of 'lialcigh.' John 
While was appoinleil its governor; and to him, 
wilh eleMU a>-i-lanls, the ailmini-lralion of the 
coloiiv was iiilru~leii. Trans|iorl ships were 
jirepared at the expense of liie iiroprietary : 
•IJueeii Eli/abelb. tlie eoiliiioihir of \irginia,' 
(leilined contriliuiinL' 'lo its edie ilion.' Em- 
barUiiiL' in A|iril, in .Inly they ai ved on the 
coa>t of Norlh Carolina; liny wen ^aved from 
the (laiiL'ers of (ape Eear, and, passing Cape 
Haiti ra*. Ihev hasieiied to the i-Ie of Hoaiioke. 
Ill s( an h for Ihe haiidful of nun wlioin (ireii- 
ville had left there as a garrlMin. They found 
the teneiiiinls diMriid "and (iverurowii with 
weeds; liiim;in bones lay scallered on llie lield 
where wild deer were reposing. The fort was 
in ruins. Xo votine of surviving life a]ipeared. 
The instructions of Raleigh had di •^.ignatell the 
place for the new setthaneiit on the bay 01 
I'hi sapeake. Ibil Fdnandii. the naval ollicer, 
caL-'iT to renew a pnililable Irallic in Ihe West 
Indies, refused bis assistance in cxplorin!; the 
ciia~l, and 'White was compelled to remain on 
Roaroke. , . . It vva there that in July il" 
fuund.ilions of the city of Raleigh were laid, 
liut the coloiiv wasdiMimed to disaster from the 
lieL'inninL', being (juic'ily involved in warfare 
wilh Ihe siirroundinL' natives. •■ \S ilh the re- 
turning ship White embarked for England un- 

" 'i 3>1 -i! 

I ! f,'. ,'J 




H H 

AMKinCA, tr)fl7-1590. 

yew England. 

AMERICA, 1604-1605. 

der the excuse of iiitiTrcdini; ri'cnforeemrnta 
anil siilipliis. Yet. mi tin- IHili of XngnfU. nine 
(liivs privioiia tn liis ili'p;iilmi', liis ll;lll.^'lltl■r 
?;iran(ir IKirc, llic wiff i)f "iir of the ;issislanls, 
ifiivn liinli to ft fi'inale iliilil. tlic lir>t iillsprinu 
of Kimli-li piiri'ius oil llu' soil of the I'liili'il 
!Jt:iti's ~ riic iiitMiit was iiaini'd from the iilaif 
of its liirtli. Tlie colony, now I'onipoMHl of Nit 
men, 17 women, and two cliiMnn. w iio-c names 
arc ill! pr.scrvi'l. mi^'lil rcasonaMy |]o|>c for tin' 
(piMilv return of the covernor. as lie left witli 
them'liis il uiLfhi. r ami liis irranaehild, Virirniia 
Dare. Ilie laniier history of this plantation 
Is involve.l in iiloomv iim ei^l.iinlv. The inhabit- 
iinlsof MluMMv I'f Kalii^li.' tlie i iiii_Tanls fivm 
Kn land and thi' lirsthoni of .\meriea, awaited 
,lea;ii ill the 1,01.1 of adoption. For, when 
While r. ached Kn-lind. lie found its attention i 
iibsiihed liy the threats of an invasion floiii 
Spain, . . . Yet K,ilei_'li, wlio-e pairioli~in did , 
notdiiniiiish his L'liierositv, found means, in April ^ 
l.>><. to de>pateli Whit.' with suiiplies in two ves. ^ 
sels,' Uut tlie compiiiy, d. siriiii; a -aiiiful yoy- 
aL-e ratherthan a s.fe one, ran in chase of ]iri/.es, ^ 
till one of tlieiii tell in wilii tneu of w:.r from 

Uodielle. and. alii ra M ly li-'ht. was hoarded ; 

and ritle.l Uoili sliips wer" compelled to return , 
to Kiel 111.1. The d. lav was falal; tlie Kn-lisll 
liin'.l.iin and the I' rcf..riiiati.>n w.r<' in 

.Ian -. r; n..rc..iil.l lii.' j r cohnii-ts of l!,.anoke , 

hea^ain r. aeiiih' r. .1 1 ill after t!i.' ili^ei.ailiture of 
th,. ln\ineihle I'-mh then Sir Walt, r 
lial.i.di. wlio ha.l incurr..! a friiiilc-s 
expeii,-.. of 'Jio.noil, f..unil his impaircl Pn'tiiiie 
in^uiii. i( lit r..r fuillier]its at i;? 
Vir-iiiia, He um.I the privil,-.' of his 
pat. lit to.'M.i.iw a of m. reliaiils and ad- 
venturers Willi ler^'c iiili"ee--ions. Am. .in; the 
men w!i.) tliiis..iitained an a.-i:;iiiiieiit of tlie pr..- 
pri.iarv's riL'lits in VirLTinia fs f.iiin.l the iiaine of 
Ki.har.'l llakluvt; it cnneels th.' tir.-t etr..rls ..f 
ICiid 111.1 ill N..riii (■ar..liiiawitlitli.lliialc..|.mi/,a- 
ti,.n..f VirL'iii'i. Til.' c..l..iii>ts at ll.aiioU. ha.l 
eini:.'ra'.,l wiih a chart. r; the iii~ti;iiinciit ol 
.Man li. I "is'.i, was not an a-siL'tiini'iil of liiil.iL'h s 
pal. .lit! hut thi'.At. iisi.inof a L'rant. already held 
lui.l.T i;s sill. li.. 11 hy increasinu' thi' 1.) '.h.' iiuliis..f that I liarter hcl..nL.'e.l. -More 
than claps,.! W hite c..i'ld 
return t.. -..ari h for his c..|..ny aii.l his dauirht. r; 
aii.l tli.ii tlie islan.l .if was a d.sert. 
All iii-i ripli.m ..11 the bark ..fair,.' poiiite.l to 
Cr.iataii. tuit th. •• ison "I tlie y. ir aii.l the dan- 
jle's fr..m St. inns wire as all excuse for 
an imiii'.lii'.' return. The i ..u j. cture his lieeii 
li,i/,ir.i."l that th.' deserted (..Laiy. ii..i.'lcc'c d hy 
th. ir own I ..uiitrvmcn, were ho^pitahly aih.ptcd 
ini.i t.i.- 11 ih.. |ihi' (•r..atati-lof llatteras Indians. 
Ualcirh I..1I-' eh. the' hope ..f di^c.iv. rinir 
som.. v.^ii:;. - ..f 111. ir .•si-l.nce, aii.l s.iit at his 
own char-'.-, all.l. i' i- sii.l. at liv.- s.-vcral times, 
to s.arch f..r his li.-.' men. Hut imaL'ination 
rec. ii-ed no help ill ii- .iii.inpts to trace th.> late 
of th..colonv..f li..ui"k.-, -'i. liancrott, ///.-.'. ■:V' 
thr r. S_. jil. 1, .A. ~> ■' I'. — "The Croataiis ..f 
to ilav ciaiin .1.-1. Ill from the lost, c.i|..iiy. 
Their hal.its. ili~p..«iii..ii ami in. ntal cliaraeierii 
tics sliiiw trac.'> hotli ..f sn:mi. and ci>ili/."l 
an., Their ;.ini:ua::.. is Hi.' Knu'lish of :ioo 
vc.irs a'_'o, anil their nana- an- in many lascs 
the siiiie as those liorn.' hy the oriu'inal i'ol.inist~, 
N.. ..ihi-r theorv of Heir origin has heeii lul- 
vai.c.i,' -ri. ii. Wct;!;^ T'-^ !.■-' r..!..,.^ „/ 

Itmiwke {.\m. Hint. .Iwn PuprrH, r. fi, pt. 4).— 
"This last cxpe.lilion [of White, seiircliinc lor 
his lOst colonv] was not despatched by Uahi^'h, 
lint hy liis sui cessois in the American patent. 
And o'ur liisl.iry is now t.i take leave of that 
illustrious man, with whose .i.licnies and enter- 
prisi'S it ceases to have any fnrliier connexion. 
The arilour of his niiii.l was not exhausted, tint 
diverteil liv 11 niulti|ili. iiv of new and not less 
arduous lindertakin-s. '. . . Desirous, lit the 
.same time, that a project which he hail carried 
so far should not he entirely ahandoned, and 
h, .pins that tlw spirit of coinmerce would pre- 
serve an intercourse with Vir^'inia that iniirht 
t.rminate in a colonial estalilisliineiit, lie I'oii- 
seiited to assii:n his pat.nt t.i Sir Thomas Smith, 
and a companv of merchants in I.onilon. who 
undert..ok to i'stahlish and maintain a trallic 
l.elw,.n Kiiirland and Yiririnia. ... It ap- 
p.'ared verv ^...m that I!al.i;.'h had traiisferre.l 
his patent to liaiels v.TV ililV.rinl from his own. 
Salisiied with a 'paltry trallic carried on 
iiv a few small v.s... ',, th. y'nia.le no attempt to 
take possi'ssion of th.- country: and at the perio.l 
of's d. alh, n. ' a sini.'le Knirlisliman 
was settled in Ameri.-a.' — I. (".raham... IIi.-t.iif 

,.fth, r. 

•fX Am. till 
H: 1.— F. L. 

Iti-^M. .•/(. 1. 

VisiiiN W. Stit"' ///«r. <■(' T'.'.. 
Hawks. Ilrsi. .1- .\. C. r. 1. .V...«. 7 H, 

A. D. 1602-1605.— The Voyages of Gosnold, 
Pririg, and Weymouth,— The First English- 
men in New England.— nartholoniew Gosnol.l 
was a We~l-..f-Kic-:laiiil niariii. r wlm had scrvid 
in the i^xpiilithnis of Sir Walter Ualeii.'li to the 
Yir.'inia coast. I'liiler his e.imniand. in the 
spriu:' of U'M''. " w itli the consent of Sir Walt, r 
Italeildi, and at the i .ist, ani.ini.' others, of Henry 
Wrioth. slev Karl of S.'iithaniplon, the iii.-..iii. 
pli^hcd patron of Shakespeare, a small vi'smI, 
calle.l the C.incor.l, was ciuipp.-d expl.iralion 
in 'the north pari of Yir-inia,' with e view to 
the est.ililishiu. Ill of a colony. At this lime, in 
the last V. ar ..f tin' Tudor ilynasty, and nineteen 
\.,irs ailir the falal terminalioii of (iilliert's 
ent.Tprise, th.ri' was no Kuropean inhahilant of 
N.irlii .\m. ri. a. cxeipt tl'.ise of Spani-li hirtli in 
kl'.ri.l.i. an. Is.. me twenty or thirty rreiieh, the 
misiralile relics of tv..> 'frn.-irate.i attempts to 
si'ttlc what thi'V calle.l New France, (iosnold 
saile.l ft-.. Ill Fa!nioiith wilh a company of thirty 
twii pcis..iis, of wlioin eight were seamcii, an.l 
twcntv were to hccomi planters. Takini; a 
sirai!.''ht course acrossllie Atlantic, iiist.a.l .if tli.' 
in.lirect course liv the Canaries an.l the W. -• 
liiili.s which had been hith.'rto pursued ia 
v.ivaL'cst.i VirL'inia, at the end of scvi'ii wci k^ 
li,."s.iw lanil in .Massachusetts liny, prohahly 
what is now Salem Harl.or. Her<. a boat caiiii- 
o!T. of Uas.pie hiiil.l. maimcil hy eiLdii iiativcs, 
I, f whom three were dressed in Kuropean 
cl,.thes. inilicalinu' the prescne.' of earli.-r loreitn 
vovaLiersin these waters Next li,. stood to th.- 
s.iuiirwar.l. an.l his i r.w took L'nal i|uantitics 1 I 
c.ltish bv a hea.l land. call, d hy him for that 
l.asoil Cajie Cod. th.' name whiili it retains, 
(i.isn.ild. ISrereton, ami three others, went on 
shore, the lirst Kimlishmen who ar.' known P. 
have set foot upon the soil of Massaihusctts 
Sounding' his way iaiiti.>iisly aloni:. lir-' 
in a southerly and theii in a westerly ^directioi.. 
and probably passimi to the soiith of Nantuckii. 
ilosnolil next lan'.ted on » small islanil. now 

AMEUICA, ieO2-10O5. 


AMEKICA, 1609. 

rilliJ N" Miin- '••""'■ Ti) this lie pivi' tin' 
uurui "f Murlhii'si \ iiii'Viird. siiicu trunslirriMl tii 
till- l.nL'rr i^laiiil fiirllHT iinrtli. . . . Si.utli i)f 
llii//irl< Hay, :inil srpiirii I mi the s..iMh liy 
tl„ \ iiiivaril Somiii frmii Miirll 

Vinr\:iiil. is 

s, ,11, nil tin' ):r(iii|> dciioli'il mi Icrn maps as 

th, i;ii/.aliilli l» Till- smitlittcsliTiininst 
,,( iliiM-. niiw kiuiwii liv till' liiilian name- 
i,f Cimylimik, «a» (Ifiimiiiiialcil liy <!iimii>1iI 
Kli/iliiUi l>laii(l. . . . IliTi- (iiiMiolil I'muiil a 
i„,i„l two inilc's ill circuiiilVrc-iirf. si|iaialiil I'rmu 
111,- -la mi <iiii- siili' I'y " liiaili thirty yards wiili-, 
and I iiili'siiiL' a rmky islet, i-mitainim; mar an 
ai ri- .'f i:n>iiii'l lull of wixul ami rulihisli.' This 
i-li ! "as lixiil ii|imi for a scttlcinriit. In tlircf 
«, ,ks, whili- a I'art of the cmnpaiiy were nlis.iit 
,,ii a lra,liiiL' i\|.iciilimi ti> the inainlaiiil, the nst 
,|ii.' anil stMniii ii <c liar, pripariil tiiiihiT ami 
linrit a liHiisf, which they forliliiil with palisailcs, 
an.l tliatclnil with sidijc. I'ludciliiiL' to make 
an iiivintorv cii" tlii'ir iircivisimis, they fmimi that, 
aftir Mippl'yiii^' the vessel, which was to take 
twi Ive imii' "11 the return voyagi', there would 
he a sulheienev for only six wieks for the 
twenty men who wmihl remain. A dispute 
arnsi' iipoii the cpiestion whether the party lo be 
lift liehind would receive ii share in the proeei els 
of the eariio of cedar, sassafras, furs, and other 
(■i.inniixlities which had lieen collecled. A small 
party, poing out in quest of sliell-tisli, was 
aiiaeked liv some Indians. With men liaviii!: 
alriadv, it" is likely, little stomach for such 
diei riess work, these rirruinstances easily led to 
Ih,' decision to aliaiidon for the present the j 
s. lieme of a settlement, and in the foUowinu; 
in-nth the adventurers sailed for Kn)xland, and, 
afier a vovage of live weeks, arrived at E.\nuiiith. 
. The" expedition of Gosnold was pregnant 
with consec)' ices, though their developi:'ent 
wis^low. 1 accounts of the hitherto unknown 
( iimtrv. which were circulated by his comjiany 
im their return, excited an earnest interest." 
The' next year (April, 16(13). Martin I'rini; or 
I'lMine was sent out. by several merchants of 
liri-tcil. with two small "vessels, seeking carj;oes 
c f Nis^afras, which had accjuirecl a high value on 

; ml of siipp >sed medicinal virtues. I'riiig 

e, iiMcil from Maine to Martha's Vineyard, 
>. .lived his desired cargoes, and pave a good 
a , nunt of the country. Twci years later (March, 
li;iM,. |,,>ril Southainpton and Lord Wardour 
-r ni a vi'^sel eommamied by George Weymouth 
1" ni,,niioitre t\ir same coast with an eye to 
.. "1-nienis. Weymouth ascended either the 
K- iineluc- or the i'enobscot river some 5(t or (JO 
Mill, s and kiiliiapped live natives. "Except for 
iiii-^. .iiid for senile addition tee ilie knowleelire of 
ii,i I.eeal ireoL'raphv. the voyage was fruitless." 
- .: i;. I'lilfiev, I'liit. „f A." /vc'/., r. 1. '•//. 2. 

.\foiN .lA(.>.v //(.«'. •"^"' '■"/'., :!'/ .S'/e.i, '■. K -.1. McKec-n, On Ih,- V,,'/,,,/,- „f (1,.,. \\;,j 
.. .//. . Miiw Ihsl. S,.: Cnll.. ,: :,) 

A. D. 1603-1608,- The First French Settle- 
ments in Acadia. .>« ''xNAiiv iXkw KlUM k): 
.^ 1> li;o:i-liiip.-i. and l.,0(i-l(i0H. 

A. D. 1607.— The founding of the English 
Cilony of Virginia, and the failure in Maine. 
■^ Vnic;iNH; A. I>. Kimi-KiilT, and after; ami 
^l eiM-i A, I). KiOT-KiOH, 

A. D, 1607-1608.— The First Voyages of 
lanry Hudson. — "The tirst rerorded voyage 
. 1 !• by Henry Hudson was undertaken . . 
1 he " Muscovy or Russia Company [of Eng- 


laud]. DeparliiiL' from (Jravesend the first of 
.Mav, 1607, Willi the intention of sailing straight 
aerciss the iiorlh poh', liv thi' north of what is 
now called (in e iilaiid, lliidson found that this 
land stretclied furlhiT to the eastward than he 
had aniieipatc-.l. and that a wall of ice. along 
which he (eiasted, extended from Grei'nland to 
Spit/.b( rgeii. Fierced to rcliiiciuish the lieepe of 
tliiding a passaL'e in the latter vicinity, he eencc 
iiime attempted the entrance of Davis' Straits by 
tlie north of (ireeiilaml. This dcsiirn wcis also 
frusiratecl and he appareiilly niiewi el the at- 
teiiipt in a lower lalilinle and nearer (Jrc'eiilaiid 
em his hmiieward voyage'. In tliiH cruise Hudson 
ailaimil a higher c'legree of latitude than any 
pie\ioiis iiaviL'ateir. . . . He iceiched Eiiirlaii'l on 
his leturii on the- l."itli Si^ptembi r of that Meir 
jniiiTl. . . . On the •-'-'el of April, ltl(f<. Henry cmnmiiiceel his seconel recordc'd voyage 
for the .Miisciivy or Uu.ssia C'ompanv, with the 
ih'sign of 'liMeling a passage to the East Indies 
bv the- norlheasl.'. . . On the *! of .lime, KiOS, 
liuelsein had reached the most northern point of 
Norway, and on the' lltli wiis in latitude 75 24', 
between Spitzbergcn and Nova Zc-nibla." Fail- 
ing to pass to the neerth-east be yoml Nova 
ZeMilil.t, he returned to Ijinland in August — ,1. 
M. Kead, Jr.. Hi"!. Imitary V.-hcerniiiij Jlinry 
y/«.A<,.„, ,,i,. i:!:!-i;!M. 

Also IS .1. M. Aslier. Umir Ifnihuti, the 
X(,i'i,il',r(ll,dl'i!/t ■'^■'\. 1S(!0). 

A. O. t6o8 1616.— Champlain's Explora- 
tions in the Valley of the St. Lawrence and 
the Great Lakes. Sec(.'ANA!>\(NKw Kiunck). 
A. I). KihS-ltiU. and KUl-lliUi 

A. D. 1609.— Hudson's Voyage of Discovery 
for the Dutch.— "The failure of two expedi- 
tions daunted the enterprise of Hudson s em- 
ployers (the Muscovy Company, in EnL'I.nd]; 
tliiy could not daunt the courage of the great 
naviL'ator. who was destined to become the rival 
of Smith and of Chainplain. He longed to tempt 
once more the clangers of the northern seas; and, 
repairing tee Holland, he offered, in the service of 
the Dutch East India Company, toexplore the icy 
wastes in search of the coveliil (lassage. The 
venageof Smith to Virginia stimulated desire; 
the Zealamlers, fearing the loss of treasure, oh- 
jecti'd; but. by the intlnence of Hallha/ar 
Meucheron, the directors for AmstcTclam re- 
solved on eeiuiniiing a small vessel of discovery; 
iinel, on the4tli'dave.f April. KUW. the ■ Cresc c-nt ' 
|or ■ Half Moon.' iis the name of the little ship 
is more commonly tr.inslateel|. commanded by 
Hnelson. and minneel by a mixed crew of Eng 
lishnien ami HollandiTs, bis son bi'ing of the 
number, set s.iil for the' north westcTn passage. 
Ma.sses of ii-e impeileel the navigation towards 
NovaZembla; Huilson. wli 1 had examined the 
maps of ,lohn Smith of Virginia, turned to_ the 
wist ; and passing beyond (ireenland and New- 
: reieimllaiiel. anel riini'iing down the c-oast of 
j .\cadia. he anihoreel, probably, in the mouth of 
the I'enoliseeit. Tlien, following the track of 
(Josiiolci. he came upon the promontory of Cape 
Ceed, ami. bi'lieviiiL' himself its tirst discoverer, 
gave, il the name e.f New Holland. Long after- 
' wards, it was claimed as the north iMStern bound 
iirv of New Netherlands From the sands of 
Cape Coil, he steered a southerly course till he 
was opposite the entrance into the bay of Vir- 
ginia, where Hudson remembered that his coun- 
trymen were planted. Then turning again to 






John Smith. 

AMEHICA, 1614-1615. 

r? • 

the north, he distovcri'il ili.' l)<lavfiiri' »•>>..'■,'<- 
amlncd its ciirniit" unci its scmiidiii^H, mi'l, w ith- 
out K'iiuK' "" »'1""'<'. >>'"l' """•■ "f ll'i- "S'"',' "■ 
the nun.irv. (>» Hi'^ M ihiy of S'IiU'IuIht. 
almost al the thnc wh.n Chaniplain was mvail- 
iiiK XfW York fr.iiu the norib, less than live 
months after the triiic with Spain, wlmh (.M^e 
Uie XithirlaniU a diplniiiatie existence as a 
state the 'CriMiiit' uiu linrcil within Samly 
Ihxili, and from the ui'i;;lilMirin,L' sliorc's, that 
were crownid with '>,'o.»lly oakes.' uttractea 
freiiuent visits from the natives. After a week a 
delav, Hudson sailed tlirouirli the Narrows, and 
at the month of tlie river anrhored in a harlior 
which was iironomieed to he very Koo<l for all 
winds. . . . Ten davs were employed in explor- 
inK tlio river; the iir,t of Kiiropians Hudson 
went s.iundini,' his way aliove tlie Hi-ldands, 
till ut Uil tlie •Creseent'had sailed some iiules 
bevoiul the eitv of HudM.n. and a boat had ad- 
vanced a little iicvoiul Albany. Frecpient inter- 
course was held with the aslonished natives jand 
two battles b.uu'ht with theni|. . . . lavln,^' 
completed his diseoverv, Hudson deseendeil tlie 
stream to which lime lias >;iven his name, md on 
the4tlidavof October, aliout the season ot tiie 
return of johu Smith t.) Kn;:laiid, he set sail for 
Europe. ... A happy return voyage broU'.;lit 
the ' ( 'resci'iit ' into liartmoii'.h. Hudson lor- 
warded t.i his Dnbli employers a brilliant ac- 
Ci.untof hisiiiscovcvies; but he never revisited 
the lands which he ciil..-i/.edi and the Dutch 
East-lu<liaC.ini|iaiiy refused to search further li.r 
the noith-western pas>a.L'i'.— li. llaneroft, llist. 
of lU r. .S, '■/'. 1"> C"-!'!- '■<■''■ ^'"J -■i"''""-' 

Also IS 11. U. fi.i;\i.i..\M>. J.iJ'! "f If""-!/ 
lli„h.:,i (/.,'.. ■■f .1'". /•■'.■.;., -■. lOi. ,■/,._ ;i-4.— It. 
Juet, .f.' ..r" lt'ol'''H''> V"!l'ig>- (.V. >■'.'"'■ 
>;„• („/; .v,...;,./ .Sn,.., e. ll. — I. V. N. Y alis 
an.i .1. W! .M>'ulton, lli't. ,./ !/„■ -V,//, ./ A. 1., 

'ad 1610-1614.— The Dutch occupation 
of New Netherland, and Block's coasting 
exploration. >ce .Ni;w V..iik; A. 1>. li>l"- 

A. D. 1614-1615.— The Voyages of Capt. 
John Smith to North Virgini-v. The Naming 
of the country Nev» England.— ' 1 rniu ilie 
time of ('apt. Smith's dep.ul.ui from \ ii'irima 
[sre YiiioiMv; A. 1). inoT-Ulloi, uU Hie year 
iml. there is a cha^m in Ins bioirr.ii.hy. . . . 
In liU4 probable be his advice and al bis sui;- 
L'e>iion,'an espedili'on w:is tilled out hv some 
London miTciiants. in the expense of which he 
a^o >l,ared. b.r the purpo-es of trade and dis- 
c.>vi TV in New Kii-laiid. or. as it was thenciiled 
North Vii-iuia. .'. . In Man h, Kibt. beset sad 
from I..indon with two sbip^, one commanded 
bv himself, and the otlier by Caiitaui 1 bomas 
liunt Ihev arrivcl, .\pril :!0lh. at the island 
of Maiihe-in'. ..n th,' c.«M uf .Maine, when they 
built seven bnatv The puipo,. , |.-rwbi,htl.ey 
were Milt wen' to capiurc wliales and to scan li 
f,ir mines of _mM onopper, ^^llieh were said to 
be there, an.Cif t!" -■ failed, to make up a car^-o 
of tivh and fur-. < if niine~. tley tound no indi- 
cations, and tl.ev f..un.l whale li^buiL; a 'cuMlv 
coiiclu-ion;' for', allhoU'.'ii they saw many, and 
chaM-d Ihem too, thi'V succeedid in taUmii none. 
Til. V thus hist tlie lest part of the tisliuif; sca.-on ; 
but, alter i;iwn« up Heir );>-antic ^ai.e-. tl-v 
diligentlv emploved the mouths ot July and 

Viicnst In taking and cnrini? ctMltish, an humble, 
but more certain prey. While the crevv were 
thus emploved. Captain Smith, with eisht men 
in a small", surveyed and cxanimed the 
whole .oast, fnim I'cm.bscot to Cape Cixl, traf 
lUkiii" wilh the Indians for furs, and twice 
Ib'litiiiu wilh th.'in, and taking such obsjTva- 
tionsof the prominent points as enabled nini to 
..nislruc t a map of the country. He then sailed 
for Eii'land, where he arrived in Aiigiist, 
within six months after his departure. He left 
Captain Hunt behind him, wilh onlers todispose 
of his cart'o of lisli in Spain. I nfortiinately. 
Hunt was a sordid and unprinci|ded miscreant, 
who resolved to make his comitryinen (xlioiis to 
th,' Indians, and thus iircveiit the establishment 
of a periiiaiieiil col.iiiv, which woulc diminish 
the lar"e L'aiiis he and a few others derived by 
Mi..iiopolizing a lucrative trallle. Kor this pur 
pose havinir decoved •,M of the natives on boanl 
his shiii he carried them olT and .sold them a- 
slaves in the port of Mala.-a. . . , I'^ptain 
Smith upon his rituru, pn'sented his map ot 
tlie couiilrv between I'eiiobseot and Cape ( od to 
I'lince diaries (afterwanls Charh'S I.), " ilh a 
re.piest that he would substitute others, instcii'l 
of tlie 'barbanius names' which hail been iiiveii 
t,i p irtii'i.lar pl.ices. Smith himself nave to the 
coiintrv the name of Ncv Kn^dand as he 
rxpns'slv states, and not Prince Charles, as is 
coinmonh- Mippose.l. . . . The first port mb. 
wldch Captain Smiih put on his return to 
land was I'lvmouth. Tlure he related ^ In- 
adventures to some of his friends 'vvlio, le- 
savs, 'as I supposed, wtc iiit,Tesled_m t a> .cad 
pa"tent ot this unn'-anhd <-ouiitry. ihe I l\ - 
iiiouIhCompanvof a.lvcutunTs to >orth _\ ir 
L'iiiia liv llatt.Viiii? hopes and lame promises, 
induceiriiim toenu-a-e his services to them. 
\eeonlin;:lv in Manli, Itll.-.. he sailed fnaii 
i'lvmoulh with two vessels under his command, 
beiiriuu' 111 settlers, besides their crew. A storm 
dismasted Smith's »hi|> and drove her back to 
I'lvinouth. "His consort, commanded by 
Tliomas Dermer, nii'anwhile proceeded on her 
vovi-e aiitl returned with a protilable car-o 111 
Vi'i 'u-t'; but the obiect. which was to elfect a 
permanent sctllcuieiit, was frustrated. Captain 
Smith's v."el was pn.bably found b) be s- 
much sbattend as to render it inexpedient I' 
repiir her- b.r we lind that he set .sail a secon : 
time I'lvinouih. cm the 21th of .lunc, m :. 
small bark of lio tons, maumd by :!0 men, an 1 
carrviiiL! with him tlii^ same Hi settlers he Ine: 
tikeii before, liul an evil destiny seemed I 
ban" over this ciiti rprise, and to make the \-y} 
a"e^i sucec>4ou of ,li-:i-iers and ili.sapiioin^ 
lurnls." It .-uded in Smiihs capture bv a pinn 
icd l-'naieh licet .ind his delenlion for son, 
months, until he made' a dariiiL' es.ape 111 a sm 
b,,at "While he had been <letained on bo.i 
the Fnnch pirate, in onler. as he- says Mo li. . : 
luv perplexed IbouL-lits fnan Um much niedit 1 
tinn of mv miserable estate,' he employed hm, 
self ill wri'tin;; a narrative of his t\.ii voya.-' - - 
New Knijland. and an aecoiiiit of the .nuni: 
Tliis was published in a .piario fonu in.i- 
inill. . . . CaiilaiiiSmitirsworkoii.Ne\vl.iiL'l ■ 
w is the lirst to reeoiumeiid that couiiiry : ■ . 
pi. ce of sclthiuent."— (;. S. Hillard, J.iJ' 
Curt. John .<mi!h (e/i. 11-1.')). . 

\is<> IS Cant. Jolia Smith. Dr-vrtption <>t ^ 


AMERICA. 1619. 

77i»' Itutcnu'frK. 

AMERICA, l«;tl)-1700. 

A. D. 1619.— Introduction of negro tlaTery 
into Virginia. 80c Viroihia : A. 1). IfllO 

A. D. 1630.— The Planting of the Pilgrim 
Colony at Plvmouth, and the Chartering of 
the Council for New England. H<c Massa- 
(■in»KTTB(l'LYMOUTll Colony): \. 1). 10'."l: uml 
Nkw EN(ir,AND: A. I). 1820-162;). 

A. D. 1620.— Formation of the CoTcrnment 
of Rio de La Plata. Sec Ahukntink He- 
iTDi.ic: A 1). l.'>MO-177r 

A. D. 1621.— Conflicting claims of England 
and France on the North-eastern coait.— 
Naming and granting of Nora Scotia. Sie 
Nkw KMil.Asn; A. I). ll!2l-l«:ll. 

A. D. 1639.— The Carolina grant to Sir 
Robert Heath.— "Sir Ui>l"rt llciitli. attnniiy- 
(.'cnrril III ChiirK-s I., olitniiicil a jin"'' "f ""' 
hiiiiN lictwccii tlic i!Hth [milli v| .Icirrrc of iinrlli 
latitude to Ilie river St. Matlico. Ili:< cliartcr 
liiars ilate of OctolMT .'5. Iti2!'. . . . Tin- tinurr 
i» ilii land fo l)c as umpli' as any 1pIs1im|) iif 
Durham [Palatine), in the kini;iliini of Kiii,'lanil. 
ever helil and enjoyed. oront;ht,<ireould of ri.L'lit 
have held and enjoyid. Sir Uoliert. his heirs 
and a-isiL'iis. are eons'tltuted the true ami ahwilute 
lords and proprietors, ami tlie country is erei ted 
into a provinee liy the name of Carolina |or 
Carolana]. and the islands are to lie called the 
Carolina islands. Sir UolxU conveyed his rii;ht 
Slime lime after to the carl of Arundel. This 
niihleman. it is said, planted s<'ViTal parts of his 
aii(ui.silii>ri. liut his atti'iupt to colonize was 
(liiikid by the war with ScollamI, and after- 
wards the iivil war. Maltravers. w ho siHin 
aflir. nil his father's ih'ath. hecaiuc I'arl of 
.\ruinlil and Sussex . . . made no attempt to 
uviiil himself of the fjrant. ... Sir UolKTt 
lliiiiirs L'rant of land, to the southward of 
\'iri,qida. perhaps the most extensive posst'ssion 
I viT owned liy an individual, remaim'd fur a 
l"iii: time almost atisolutely wiusle anil uneulti- 
v:Hid. This vast extent of territory occupied till 
till luuntry iKitween the i*lth and :!l!th decrees 
• if iiiirthern latitude, which enihraies the pres- 
™t states of North ami South Carolina, (Jeor^ia. 
lAlaliania], Tennessee, Mississippi, and. viih 
MTV little exceptions, the whole slat, .if 
Louisiana, ami >he territory of East and West 
Klnrida. a con.sideruhle (lart of thi' slate of 
Missouri, the Mexican provinces of Texas, 
< liiiihuha. ic. The i;rantee hail taken posses- 
-inii .if the country, soon after he had ohtained 
lii> title, which lie'aftcrwards hail conveyed to 
ilir I arl of .\nuidel. Henry lord Maltravers ap- 
I'l MIS III have olilaineil some aid from the prov- 
iii'i- of Viri,'inia in l(i:!0. at the desire of Charles 
1.. for the .settlement of Carolana, and the coun- 
iry had since tu'come the property of a Dr. I'ox; 
II t. at this time, there were two points otdy in 
"liiih iiiiipient Entrlisli scttlenieiits could he 
i!ivirm'il; the one on the northern shore of 
.Villi niarle Sound an.l Hie streams that How into 
it. The population of it was very thin, and the 
LTiaiist portion of it was on the north-east hank 
if t liiiwan river. Thi' settlers had come froiii 
iliat part of Virginia now known as tiic County 
"f N:iiivmond. . . . They had Imiji joined hy a 
li'ualii r of (Quakers and other sectaries, whom 
'II'' -pirit of intolerance had driven froni New 
l.imlaiid. and some emigrants from IJenimdas. 
■ . Till' other settlement of the Enu'lish 
'III- mouUi of t'ape Fear river; . . . lhosi> who 
I "Mi|.o-i li it had come thitlier Iroiu New Eu,i,'land 

111 1659. Their attention was confined to rearlnR 
rattle. It cannot now lie usccrtuined whether 
tho iiKsiKnees of Carolana evir Burrendered the 
ohartcr under which it was held, nor whether It 
was <-onsldered as liuvin/; lieeome vacated or 
obsolete by non-user, or by any other means." — 
K X. Martin, Ili*t. of S. VarMna. r. 1, ch. 5 
and 7 

A. D. 1629.— The Royal Charter to the Got- 
ernor and Company of Masiachusetts Bay. 
S<e MASsArHisKTTs: A. D. 1633-I62U, TiiK 


A. D. 1629-1631. — The Dutch occupation of 
the Delaware. S.e Dkiawauk: A. D. 162U- 

A. D. 1629-1632.— English Conquest and 
brief occupation of New France. See Canada 
(Nkw KitANi k): A I). 1«2M-Iti;i2. 

A. D. 1632.— The Charter to Lord Balti- 
more and the founding of Maiyland. See 
Mm;ti.aM); A. I>. HW.;. and A. 1). Hi;(:H6:t7. 

A. D. 1638.— The planting of a Swedish 
Colony on the Delaware. See Dki.awahk. 
A. I). I<l:t.'< 1«10. 

A. D. 1639-1700.— The Buccaneers and their 
piratical warfare with Spain. — 'The 17th 
century nave birth to a class of rovers wholly 
distimi i'rom any of their pn'decessors in the 
annals of the world, dilferiii); as widely in their 
plans, or^'anization and exploits as in the prinoi- 
jiles that governed their actions. . . . After the 
native inhabitants of Haiti had been extcmii- 
nateil. and the Spaniards had sailed f.irtlier west, 
a few adventurous nun from Norinandy settled 
on the shores of the island, for the purpose of 
hunliii!.' the wild liulls and hoL's which roami'd 
at will throui.'li the forests. The siu.-ill island of 
Tort uiras was their niiirkii ; thither tiny reiiaireil 
with their salted and smoked niiat. their hides. 
iVc. and disposed of them in exchan^'e for pow- 
der, lead, and other necessaries. The pIa«'S 
1 where these semi wild hunters prepared the 
I slauuhtered carcases were called 'bouians.' ami 
1 tliev themselves iK-eame known as liuieancers. 
I I'riibalily the world has iiev.r before or since wit- 
nessed such an extraordinary association as theirs, 
rnbunlened by women folk or children, these 
j men lived in couples, reciprocally rendcrinKcach 
j other services, and havinj; entire community of 
I pro|iirty — a condition termed by them matelot- 
\ iiL'e. from the word ' matclot,' by which they 
aildressi-d one another. . . . -V man on joining 
the fraternity completely mervred his identity. 
Each member received a nicknanu . and no at- 
tempt w;is evirmade to imiuirc into his antece- 
dents. When 0111 of their iiumlxT married, he 
ceased to be a biieeaneer. liaviiu; forfeited his 
iiicmbership by so < ivilizeil a iirocccdini.'. lie 
inii;ht continue to dwell on the coast, and to 
hunt cattle, but he was no lonurer a 'matelot ' — 
as a lieneiliek he had dejienerated to a 'colonist.' 
. . . rnioiith and lawdess thousjb the bueca- 
neiTs were, tile sinister sii;iiitication now attach 
iiiir to their name would never have been merited 
had it iiiH been for the unreasonin^' jealousy of 
the Spaniards. The hunters were actually a 
Miiiiieof prolit to thai nation, yet from an in- 
sane antipathy to stranj,'ers the dominant race 
resohed on extcrininatini,' the settlers, .\tlacked 
whilst disinTsed inpursuaneeof their avocations, 
the latter fell easy victims; many of them wire 
wantonly nias.sacrcd. others drair!,'eil into slavery. 
. . . lilealhinL' hatred and velisreaiii ••. IliD 


1 ; Wl fl $\ 

AMERlrA. in:H) 170(i. 

AMEIUCA. 1713. 

Iiriihriii "f ilii' ii«i«t' united tin ir MBttind I Wcirld, iimtaiiiini: at llic tiinr :)ii.(MK)inlial)ltant 

f..rri-, and a war of Imrrililc P'|Mi>a.. miii- 
nil iiird. I'li-li UiMiii-arriM-d Innii >|'ain. wliil^t 
llir raiikMif III'' tiuc I aiii'iTs wire lillid \<y aih- ii 
Inr.i^.ifall "iiii""v aliiind li; h<\>- „f phih.!. r. 
aiifl lind Willi iM.liL'iiaii.aL ai iii.' rrm llirs of tlic 
UL'iirc— iiirs. . . . Tlir Spaniard-., iittrrly lailiti;; 

tiT .■M>t llirir ■<]'] II'-. Iiil "I"'" ■' "''■^' '^■ 

pi'diciit. w> nImti -ijliiid ili.ii ii refill l» Iml lint.- 
tridil .111 lliiir .t.ili-iiiaii-liiii. 'I'lii" »a^ llie 
rMiTiiiiMalii.n of lia- liorm d laltle. I'.v wliieli lli.i 
linnaiiia-rs ,h ri\ id lie ir iHealK of siili^i^leiii . ; ii 
L'l neral -l.ulL'liler looU plaee. and llie lireid ua-i 
almii-liAlirpaleil. . . . Tlje |iiilTed up arro-aiiee j 

llie.ily »as|,illa_'ed. tiri'dand toially .U slrojed. 
'Ilie exploils of ilii> rulliaii and llii' ^tolen rii lii> 
«liicli lieiarried hoiue lo KiiLdanil simhi afler- 
Mard trained ilie III. Morn of kniL'lilho<i<l for liini. 
from the «orlliy li.ind» of ( liaileH II. In lINi. 

Hie lull eaijei !■»' under Cox iL'i'in (Tosm.I 

Ihe l^lliliiii^, Mi/i d I'arialna, wliiili I. id In. ii 
e.iiisideralily n laiili. and capliired llieie a 
>|iaiii-ii Heel of lour ships, in wliiili tlie,\ 
lumelud liiiin>il\e< upon llie I'aeilie Kroiii liiiiellieir plundi rill!: operal ions «i le i-ldilly 
direelid a^ain-t llie I'ai ihe eoa-l. Toward- lln 
c'lii-oof llii' Kill I'eiiiiirv, llie warlieiMcin Kn;: 

f the >piniard "a< enrlii d liv no priidenlial ■ and Kram !•, mid Ilie lloiirhon alliance ••( 

i..ii.iderilioii- eilliii ' upon eMTV saiiit in his i ^paiii willi Fraiiee, lirouL^lil al I the disiour 

eileridar and rainiiil' . urses on' the In relieal J am nient, the d. i line and liiiall> the eMiiielion 

Imeeineers he depriM-d till 111 of their le;;ii;ni. lie | , i Uie l.iii eanei r or-aiii/aiion. II. Ii, liaiiero". 

iHeiipation and erealed wilfully a set of di-per I /■../. ../ It.c /',/,•,>• .V./f,»; t,„l:„l An, , r. •.>,,■,', 

ale enemies, who hara-sd the mloniil trade of ^ie:!U. 
an einpiri' nireadv lietraviii- -i-iis of feelil, ne,s | Also in ^\ . 1 hornlniry. 7 /a /.".o, /„./•..- .V 

wilh Ihe pertill.ieitV of ' W o| vi s, and whoollU' I O. lAqlli nii lill, Jl'-I ef' ll'C /.•"•.■aii.ilT.. .1. 

diM-led when her eoTninen e had li.ell leduiid ' Itliriley, y//.^ ,/ III, ll,„-,;,n,,li> „f .1//.. — .Ne. 

lo in-i'iii!i<aiiee . . . Devoured liv an undviiiir | ul-o, .1 vmak v; A. D. lii."."i 17!»i, their assiilmiis. ihi- luiei aiiei rs de A. D. 1655.— Submission of the Swedes on 

vilopedintoanewassoiiaiion — ihefred ler- " , the Delaware to the Dutch. Ne 1)ki..\».mm.. 

--r 11 Kdin. •/■*, ll',.( [>•■>,','. ■■'' ;i. — ■■■Ihe i A. It. Iti-lO-ltMil, , , „ ,. 

monanhs lioth of Kn^laad and Frane.-, I.iil A. D. i663.-The grant of the Carolinas to 

espeiiilh the fi.nner eonnived at and even en- | Monk, Clarendon, Shaftesbury, and others. 

(oui-i'e,i the fiieli.Hiters [a name wliii h ihe 1 N e Nohtii CMioi.lN.v : A. D. Ilili:t-1H,II. 
proiiumiaiiou of Kremh s,iilor-i Iran -loined j A. D. 1664.— English conquest of New 

into ■ lliliu-lier> • while that lorruptioii lueaiiie I Netherland. >ee Ni-.w ^oHK: A. 1). l'''»' 
\iili,i/eil in its turn and produe.d the woid A. D. 1673.— The Dutch reconquest of New 

filihusiirsl who^e MTviees eould he olitained in j Netherland. Si e .Ni-:w 'i ohk : A. D. Itiot. 
timu ot w'ar and whose a.iions could lie dis- , A. D. 1673-1682.- Discovery and explora^^^ 

avowed in time of laace. Ilius liuceanei r. tion of the Mississippi, by Marquette and 

tilihuster and sea-rover, were for Hie ino-1 part : La Salle.— Louisiana named and possessed 

atlei-uro'lohunt wild eatth'. and lopilla-eaiid by the French. See C (.Nkw 1- lUNCKi 

nia-saere the Spaniards wherever they found an A. D. I«:i4- lll7:i. and ili.l'.i- IIW.. 
opportuniiv When not on some maraudiii:- ev- A. D. i674.-Final surrender of New Neth- 

pediiion ihev followed the ehasc.'^ Th.- piratieal erland to the English. Sec .Nkiiikui..\mis 

hueeaiieers were first or;:ani/ed under a leader : 1II..1.1. vMo: A. 1> lt>i4. 

in lii;w the islet of TorlU!.M heiii:; their favoriie A. D. i68i.-The proprietary grant to Wil- 

iviidezvous •• So rapid was the -rowih of their liam Penn. S,.- I'knnsyi.v .vM.v: A. I>-1'>^1-. 
-I Idem, Ills that in Hill we lind ^Mivcinors ap A. D i689-l697--The first 

p,,inied iMdatSanClirisiolialaL'ovenior-irenei-al War: King William's War (The war ofthe 

Mined Dr I'oincv, in cliar-e' of Ha- Kreneli League of Augsburg". Sec (■.vn.u.a (.Ni.w 

liHhu.'ers in the Indies. Muniu.- that year i Kuan. 1.1. A. D. lf.x!.-lW): 1.1W-16'J7; hIso. 

roriu-i was u-arrisoned liv Freneh Hoops, and , A It. HKM IWIi. 

Hie Fii 'li-n were driven out. hoih from that islet A. D. 1690.— The first Colonial Congress. 

and fri-iin Sanio l)omin-o. seeurin:; harhora-e Se,- fMrKi. ^-'.y' > ''f' "V' VI^'icv.. Vcun ■"" 

elsewhere in the i.slallds. Nevertheless corsairs CaSAI.A (Nkw hlMNCKi. .V D. 1(WI- HiiMI. 

of liotli n.dions often made common cause. ... AD. 1698-1712.- The French colonization 

InlHi".!' loitu'M was airain recaptured l.v the J of Louisiana.- Broad claims of France to the 

Sp'uiiar^l- liut In HHiu tell oiici! more into the i whole Valley of the Mississippi. Sec l.oi 1-1 

haiid-of the Frencli; and ill Iheir coiHiuesi, of ana : A. 1), ltl!is-17r^. j , c „,i, 

.laiiiaica in lii-V, Hie liritisli triKips were rciMi- A. D. 1700-1735-— The Spread of frencn 

foreid bv a lire iiaiiv of Inn 1 aiiei is.' The occupation in the Mississippi Valley and on 

tirsl of the nioi-e lainous huceaneei-s. and ap- the Lakes. See Canapa (Nkw F iiamki: A. 1' 

paniiiK- Ihe most feroi i^.iis ainoiii: Hiein all, was 171"! 17:ia 

a Freiiihinan called FniiM "IS !,'( iloiniois, who » " ' 

harried till- coast of (ililril AiiiMiea liilwi.ri 

HiiKi-HH;.") '.villi six sliips and 7uil men. At the 

same time anoiher liunaiieer named .Man-veil, 

was ri-iiii: in fame, and wiili him. as second in 

coniniaiid. a \Vi Ishman, lIi iiry .Mori:an. wlio lie- 

canie Hie most notoiiousof all. In liiO"*. .MorL'an 

attacked and eapiured the -ironu' t"wn of I'orlo- 

bello. on the Isthmus, comniiltiii;.' indcsi-riliable 

atrocities. In lil71 he crossed the Isthmus. 

ilefeated the Spaniards in Imt'h- and grained 

pos.session of liie .meat and •.v(.at'ny citv of 

Panama— the largest and richest in the New 

A. D. 1702.— Union ofthe two Jerseys as 1 
royal province. .See Niw .li usiv. A 1>. H'-- 

A. D. 1702-1713.- The Second Inter Co- 
lonial War : Queen Anne's War (The War o: 
the Spanish Succession!.- Final acouisition ot s 4 

Nova Scotia by the English. See Nkw l.S' - 

I.\M>; A. 1). 17il'2-1710; Caxaua (Nkw F'ham i I ; 

A. 1). 1711-17i:f 

A. D. 1713.— Division of territory between 
England and France by the Treaty of Utrecht. 
Sic Canada jNtW Fr Nth;- A. I>. 17!'- 




A. D. 1739.— End of the proprietary gov- 
ernment in North Carolina. Si-,- Ndiith 
(oioi.ina: a. I) lliHM-i;-'!l. 

A. D. 1733.— The colonization of Georgia 

■ ~ " ■■ Sl'l' (iKOKllIA: .\. 


by General Oglethrope. 


A D. 1744-1748.- The Third Inter-Colon- 
ial War: King George s War (The War of 
the Auitrian Succeiiioni. Sn' Nk.v En<ilani>; 
A l> I74i. lTl.".,aiiil l74".-17tM. 

A. U. 1748-1760 — Unsettled boundary dii- 
putes of England and France —The fourth and 
last inter-colonial war, called the French and 
Indian War 1 The Seven Years War of Europe). 
- English Conquest of Canada. Si !• ( a\ai>v 
,Niw Kii\N<K): A. D lT."«i>-17.".:l; 1711(1; N.iva 
SniriA; A I) 1741i-17."); 17.m, Oiiiii(Vai.i.kv). 
\ 1). 1T1H-17.>1; 1754. 17.Vi; Cack Hkktk.v 
i-i and: a. I) 175M-17III). 

A D. 1749.— Introduction of negro slavery 
into Georgia. Sie (iKimiiiA: \. 1>. 1 7lt."i- 1 74'J 

A. D. 1750-1753.— Dissensions among the 
English Colonies on the eve of the great 
French War. r^ir I'mikii .Statks <ik .Vm. : 
A 11. 1 7:111 17:):l 

A. D 1754.— The Colonial Congress at 
Albany.— Franklin s Plan of Union. Sci- 
I Mil i> Statks i>|.- Am. : A [) I7"il 

A. D. 1763.— The Peace of Paris. Canada, 
Cape Breton, Newfoundland, and Louisiana 
east of the Mississippi (except New Orleans) 

ceded by France to Great Britain.— West of 
the Mississippi and New Orleans to Spain,— 
Florida by Spain to Great Britain. Sr .m.> kn 
YKAiif War. 

A. D. 1763-1764. -Pontiac'i War. Sit Pon- 
TiAi ■« Waii, 

A. D. 1763-1766 —Growing discontent of 
the English Colonies.— The question of taxa- 
tion.— The Stamp Act and its repeal. Sie 
LnitkdShtkmoI Am. : A D 17«(i-177.">. t'>176t!. 

A. D. I766-I7(n.— Spanish occupation of 
New Orleans and Western Louisiana, and the 
revolt against it Sir; A. I> 17iW- 
inw, .inn 17tm 

A. D, 1775-1783.— Independence of the Eng- 
lish colonies achieved. Nc IMtkh Statks or 
.Vm.: V I). l77.")(Ai-uiL) In 17H:t (Skithmiiku). 

A. D. 1776.— Erection of the Spanish Vice- 
royalty of Buenos Ayres. Sie Ahukntink .V, I) l.".N() 1777 

A. D. 1810-1816. -Revolt, independence and 
Confederation of the Argentine Provinces. 
.Sir AuiiKSTISE UkitiiI-ic; a 1» ISdB-lMJII 

A. D. 1818.— Chilean independence achieved 
Scf( iiii.k: a. 1). ISIO-IHIH 

A. D. i830-i8ai.— Independence Acquired 
by Mexico and the Central American States. 

Scr .MkXKO; a. I) IMJIl-lH'^ll, un.l Cli.STIlAI. 

Amkhh i: A. I) 1MJ1-1N71 

A. D. 1834.— Peruvian independence won at 
Ayacucho. Sir rtiii • A. U. ISiO-lsiU. 


Linguistic Classification. — In tin' Sivcntli 
Aiuiniil Hiportof tin- liiiriiiii i.f Klhii(il.n:v (fiT 
l-h-,^s(i,^liril in ls!P|), Miijnr.!. \V. I'i'.will, 
llii' Diririiiriif till' Hiirr.'iii. lias irivin iicl.issilica- 
ti'^nnf tlir ]am;uau'*'S(>f till' N'lirtli .Vmi'rir:in alio- 
rlL'iiit '^lia-ird 11 pun tin' must ri-i riit invi'siii:ati(in-i. 
'!!;<■ t'l'lluwiiiir is a list I'f funiliisof spi-i'ili. nrlin- 
;;Mi-tii' slocks, wliiili arc ilctincil anil nanicil: 
■■ A'laizan (iilcntiticil since tlir piitilicatinn nf 
llii- 11^1 lis tiiini: Imt pari of tlic Caililoan stock]. 

— .Mu'onqiiiiin. — .Vlhapascan. — .Vttacapaii. — 
il'MiJiiikan. — (ill Moan. — Cliitnaknan. — < liiniari- 
!.:in — ( liiinnicsyan.— Cliinookan. — Cliiliiiiaclian. 
— ( liullKi'.Il.'Ul. — Ciiallllillccan. — Copchall. — Cos- 
iiii'iiTi.- Kvkim.inan. — l-',~sclcnian. — lriM|iioiMn. — 
i'i.iI.jjMioian. — Karankaw.'ui. — Kcrcsan. — Kiow.'tn. 

— - i'iinianaltan. — Koluschan. — Kiilanapan. — 
1\ 1 1 sill. — I.utiia.nian. — Mariposa n. — Mo<|Ui liini- 
I' 111 — .MnsklioL'caii. — Nalclii san. — ralailiniliati. 
-- I'iiiiaii. — I'lijiinaii. — t^iioratcan. — S.ilinaii. — 
s,iii'lj;iii— >astcan. — Shahaplian. — Slioslioncan. 
— -iMiiaii.— SkittaL'i'tan.— 'r.-ikilnian. — Tanoan. — 
TiiiiUipianaii. — Toiiikan. — 'ronkawan. — I'clnan. 

— U'aiilatpiiaii. — \Viikaslian.^\Vaslio:'.n. — \Vi it- 
-i" k;in. — Wi^lioskan. — Yokonan. — Yaiiaii. — 
i 'ikiaii.— Yuma II. — Zunian." — 'I'licc laniilii s 
irr sivirally dctincil in tlic siiiniiiary of in 

' L'ivcn ticliiw. anil the n latioii~ to 
ic 'a of alllriliis haviiiL' any lii~Ioric;il inipor 

'I all- shown hy cross-rcfcrcnci's ami oihir 

i-i : liut many other u'roiipiiiL's ami n— ocia 

' 'ii>, ami many trilial names not sciciitilically 

■ ■ '-ni/iil, are' likewise e.\hiliilcil lure, for lli'e 

i-"ii that they have a sit'iiiticancc in lii-tory 

I III Ilie subjects of fri'i|Uetit allusion in 

Abipones. St'u below: P.\MrAS Trihes. 

Abnakis, or Abenaques, or Taranteens. — 

"The .Vluiakis were (alleil Taranteens by the 
English, anil ()weiiai,'utii;as liyllie New Yorkers. 
, . . We must tulniit that it larjic porlion of the 
North .Vmerieaii IniliaiH were calleil .Vbniikis, 
if not by Ibeinsclves, at least by (itlicrs. This 
woril .Vlii.aki is foiiniis|iilt .Mrn.iiiues. .Vbenaki. 
Wapanachki, anil Walieiiakies by liiircrcnt writ- 
ers of \arious nations, each ailoptiiig the manner 
of spellini: acconlinir to Ihe rules of pronunci 
ation of their rcsiieclivc niitivc laiiL^iiaues . . . 
The woril L'cncra'lly rec ;veil is spelleil thus, 
.Vlinaki, lint it shoiilil be ' \Vaiiliaiiai;hi.' from 
the Inilian woril ' wanl'iinbaii,' ilisiL'iiiitini; the 
people of the .Viirora liorealis. or in ^rcneral, of 
llie place wlierc llie sky 1 oiiiiiiiiices to appear 
white at llic linakiiii; of the ilay. ... It has 
been iliilicult for ililleient writers to ilelerniim 
the niiiiiber of nation.- or tribes comprelienilcil 
iimhr tills woril .\biiaki. It bciiii: a jrencral 
Woril. by iisdf ilcsitrnaies the people of the east 
or northeast. . . . Wc liiul that the wonl .\bnaki 
was applieil in irencral. more or los, to all (he 
In.iialls of till' Easl, by persons who were liol 
niiiili acipiainteil willi" the aboriiiiiies of the 
ciiiiniry. On the contrary, Ilic early writers anil 
othiTsucll acipiainleil willi the iialivcs if New 
i'rancc ami .Veailia, ami Ihe Iniliaii> (lieniselves, 
In- .Mniakis always |iiiinteil out a p:iriiciilar 
niitioii esiviin;; north-west and south of the Ken- 
nchec ri\er, ami they never (lcsiirn;iteil :tny 
oihei jicoplc of Ihe .\tlantic shore, from (apt 
ibitteras to New foiiiiillaml. . The .Vlin:ikii 
hail live LTeal villages, two ainiinfrst the French 
colonies, which must be the villairc of St. 
.Joseph IT >-i:!rry. and liial of S'. Kla!!"N .!e 
.Sales, both ill Canaila, three on the lieail waters, 


■ .It 


•j 'ni 



li i! 


or «liini! tlirc'4. rl»i'r», lulwr.n Aimllii iiiiil Now 
KiitflnMil riii'M' llir>-.' ur.' tbt KfrniiUf, 
ilii' AiiilnirMnittflii. mill till" Siuii. . . . Tlie im- 
tiiinof 111"' Alpimki« iHiir cviili-nt niiirku of luiv- 
Inij 111 .11 an iiriviiiiil |iiii|ili' in llii'l' "i""!''. >"""■ 
nim ttiiil litiiuuiitti' Tliiv hIuhv ii kliiil iif livll- 
1/itliim wliieh inu>t Ih' (In- ilTiil nf aiiliiiiiity, 
mill iif u |wi.-t fliiiirinliliiK iitfr."— K. Vilrniiiili\ 
The Mm.iki Inili.iimiV'itM llitl. S^ r..//..r. fl) — 
8<'f iiIh.i. IhIiiw: Amiiimjiian K*mi.Y.-riir 
■noil' anoiint Mf Ihr wiirsiif Ilii- Alnniklit, wIlli j 
the NfW K'luliinil inlmiii'S, mc (■*>aii\ (Nkw i 
Francii- a I>. 1IWI>-1«WI, unil lim'.'-l«»7; j 
Nkw Kniiumi: A. I). 1H75 (.Iii.v-Skit.); 
17o-.'-I7l(i, 1711-1713; and NiivaSiihh: A. I). 

Abtaroka*, Uptarokai, or Crowt. 'Sie 
1m1..» Mill \s Kvvii.v. 

Aowoiof. Sio liiliiw. Cakihk asp tiikiu 

KlMHIIK. ^ _ , 

Acolhu»». See ." :juco, A. D. 1325-15(«. 

Ad«i».*— Till"!' li.iliiiii- «iri' a ■trilir »liii. iir 
ciiriliiiL' 111 I'r >ililr.v livnl mIhuiI llii' vi'iir IWK) 
mar tlii' iilil S|iiini-li furl iir iiiis>iiiii "f Ailiii/i', 
•iiliiiut III iiiilii friiiii Nalrliiiiiilii-. U'liiw tlii' 
ViittassiiH. nil a l^lkr calliil l.ilr Mnrilmi. wlliill 
ciiiiiiiiiiiiiniliH Willi till' ilivi^iiui iif lli'il Uivir 
thai pMs^iHliv llayiiii I'iirri'' | Liwis anil Clarkrl. 
A Miraliiilai'\ iilalioiit i.V) wiirils is all thai rr 
mains tu us I'lf llirir laiiL'iiaL'r, wliiili aii-nrilini; 
til till' iiillirtur, |)r. ^ihliv, 'ililTirs frmn all 
nlliiri, ami is wnlilliiiilt ln'^inak i-r iiniliTtlanil 
llial nil naliiin ran *|iiMk tin wiirilK iif il. ... A 
ri-iTht niiiiiiari-iui nf this vuialnilary hy -Mr. 
(talsrhil, wiih si\ii:il ( aililiian iliali'it.s. has Inl 
tolhr ili-iiivi TV Ihiit a ri'iisiihralili' jn rrrnla::r 
of thi' Ailai wii'riK liaM- a iimri' nr li ss riinntr 
allliiitv Willi Cailil'iiiii. ami In- riiiariK il as a 
fa.|i|.".iin ilialiil.'— .1. W. I'l.will, S n nih An. 
I!,;,,,!. ■■/ AV /(/,"'".■/,'/. /■/•. l."i-l«.— St'f 
pri iriliiiL' pa^'i'- 

Adirondacks.— "This Is a term licstuweil by 
the lro((iiiiis, in ilrrisinn, nn llu' trila's who 
appiar, at an . arlv 'lay, to have ilescciiili'il the 
Ltaw.n river, ami nn iipieil the hft hanks nf 
the St. LanriTiii-. ahnve the present site (if 
tiniliie. almiit llie ( l"se nf the 15th eintwrv. It 
is siiil til sii;nifv nun who eiit trees, in alhisinn 
til Iliiir iisiiiu' liie liark of certain trees fur fiiinl, 
whrii niliiiiil 111 straits, in their war exeursinns. 
'I'lie KriMili. who ciitereil the St Lawn-nee frimi 
till- ;:ulf. lalliil the same people Algnmiiiins — 
11 jiiiii lie appillaliiin, wliieh has In-en liinj; 
eiiipluMil ami mini- intn universal, amniij,' 
hi»l..riaiisaml philiilnL'ists. Ai inrilini? to early 
aen.iiiils, llie Ailirnmlaika hail prieeileil the 
lriii(iiiiis in arts ainl atlainiiii'iils."— II. R 
Siiiunl. raft. .\"'..i '■'< "" /r..././,.,,.. rli ."i .See, 
alsii. Iieliiw: luiKiriiis CiiNKijiKit.vev: TliKlii 

t'llM^lT.sTs, vVl 

iEsopus Indians. Sie belnw : AluiiMiIIan 


Agniers. -.Xinnm.' several names whiih the 
M'.h.iuks i,ir liilnv; liiiiiii Ills) liiire in early hisiiirv was liiat nf Uie A-niers. — K 
I'arkinan. T/ii' ('■''■'/'•'■"H "/ l'"ntiai\ i. 1, y U. 

Albaias. Sielulnw; Twii-as 1 itiiiKs. 

Aleuts. Sie 111 1"W . KsKlMAIA.N KaMII.Y. 

Algonquian Algonkini Family.—" Alimit tin' 

jii.ri.i.1 l.MIII-llillll. Illiisi- iilaliil trilM-S whnlll we 

now kniiw In ilie iiaiiii- nt .Mirniikins were at liie 
height of their prnsperily. They oeeiipiiil the 

•S. 1 \..|.. .\|.|i. ri.lix r., vol. 5. 84 


111 the Htnilt of Helle l»le nil iIm' north . Tin 
illahi Is nf all III! «• were riliiteil. aiHl evklrntly Ki 
Home illstiint iliiy liiul Imii ihriveil from Ihrunii 
priiiilliu- Iniigue WhUhof tiiemlmil prewrvcil 
the am lent fnrms most i hiwl.v, Il may !«• prema 
lure 111 (lielile iMwillvcly. hut llie tciiileiiiy ol 
niii.Uriii.tiiines lias Is'eii to iiiwlKn llml piiucln 
ll„. Cn,,. — till. norihernmiMt of all. We tiiutuii 
• reel n (tenenloirn nl tree of these illaleet*. . 
We mav. however, i;riiu|) them in siieli itnmnmr 
UN roiiihlv lo Imliiaie their reluliuia)lii|i. This 
I do" — in the folhiwing list: •'('ree.— ulil 
Altto''l»l»— Montatrimis. — Chliiewav. (Hiawa 
I'ottiiwttttoiiiie. .Miami. IVorlu. I'eii, I'lankltiliaH 
Kiixkaskin, Menominee, Hac, Ko», Klkamsi — 
SheslmUipoosh, SeeolTee, .Mirnme, .Mellsi let, 
Klehemin, Almukl — Miilieifiin, MassaeliiiN Its. 
Shawmr, Mliisl. rniinil. t'lmluihtlKo JIIk' Ihsi 
three namisl forming, Uigither, the nation of IIm' 
LeiiiiiH' or PelttwaresJ, Nuntieoke, I'owhiilaii, 
I'aniplhoke. — HlnekfiKil, <Jro« Ventri', hliey 
eiiiie. . . . All the Almmkiii natlona who dwelt 
iiiirili of llie I'otonme, ou the eaat Bliore of 
( hi siipiake llav, anil iu the ImsiiiH of the Dela 
ware and Iliiiliion rivcm, elalined near kinship 
and an identleal origin, and were at limes uuileil 
into a liMise, defensive eonfederacy. By the 
western and southern tribes they were eol- 
hellvely known as Wapaniiehkik— ' those of the 
eastern n'c:iim '— wliieh In the form Abiiakl is 
now ennllned to the remnant of a trilie In .Maine 
. The members of the eonfederaey wen- the 
Moliegiins(Mahleannl)of the Hudson, who ikiu- 
pieil the valley of that river to the falls above 
the site of .\llmnv. the various New .lersi'V 
trilMS, the Delawiires proper on the I)»'la«are 
river and Its liranelns. ineliidinK the MliTsI nr 
MniLseys, aniiinjt the mountains, the Nanthokis. 
between Chesapeake Bay and the Allnnlle, and 
the small tribe enlled Canal. Knnawhas or 
(lanawese. whose towns were on tributaries of 
the I'nlnniae and J'atiixent. . . . I.iiiKiiistieally. 
the .Miihigans were more closely allied to the 
trilMS nf New Kni:lanil than to those of the 
Delaware Valley. Kvidently most of the tribes 
of .Miissachu.selfs and Cnninilieut were conipara 
lively reeint olTsliools of the parent stem ou the 
lIiiilsDn. siippiisiiiK the eiiiirse of mlKnition hail 
Isen (astwanl. . . . The Nantieokes oirupinl 
the terriliiry bitween Chesapeake Bay and lie' 
iieian. exeipt ilssnuthern extremity, whhh ap 
pears to have been under the iniitrol of tin 
I'liwhalaii tribe of Virginia —I). O. Brinlmi. 
Till- 1.1 nape and l/i,ir U'jiniln, rh. 1-2.— " Mnhi- 
gaiis, .Miinsees, Manhattans. .Metiiacs, and otlnr 
iillilialcil trilKS and bainls nf Algnmiuin lineai:i 
inhabiled the banks of the Hudson and lii 
islamls, liav and si-abnarilof New York.inelinlii; • 
1.1111!.' Islaii'il. during the early (leriiHls of the ii- 
nf the IniiiiinisCiinteileracy. . . . The MnheLMn- 
linallv relireil over the Ilighhinds east of lln :: 
intn the v.illiv of the llimsalniiie. The .Miiiim ■ - 
ami Nantienk'isrilireil to the Delaware river ai a 
rninitiil with their kimlriil. the I,eiia|Hes, .r 
imslern Delawaris. The Manhattans, a. .a 
iiiiiiierniis other bands and snhtrili-s. mill. 'I 
away iiniler the inlliienee of lii|iiiir and ilicil r. 
their traiks,' — II U. Sihimli raft. .\"t,Kon r 
In^in.'ts. rh. 5 — " On the basis of u ilillep m ■ 
in .iialei't. that portinii of the Algompiin Imli '!" 
«hii!i liiMlt ill ^"•w nnglaai! hasincn e':asM-' 
two divisions, one eonsisting of those who i 




luhiliil wliiit 1« now till' Stiili' (if Miiliii', murly 
ii|i Uiilt wi-Hiirii iHinlrr llir ntliir icniHliiliitf ••( 

llli ri"! "( lllf IliltiH' |Mi|illl;lllnfl Till' Mililli' 

liiiliiriH iimv liiivr Ihtii khmii |."i,(nki In iiiiiiiIht. 
,,r Miini Mhiit l(«« tluiii 11 tliirilnl lliiiialivr iiiipii- 

|;,li f Niw Kiiiiliiiiil TIliI |i..rli..ii iif thiiii 

nh.iilwilt f'iillii«l lMWiinl-.lliii,isi wirr kniiwii 
li\ Ihi' li;lliM' III' Kli Irlli'lllilH. Till' AIh Illiquid. 
iiiiluliiii: till' Tarniliiiis. Iiuiiliil on ("illi ►lilrnof 
Ih. I'l M"l™"t, mill »n->l»:iril IIS fir ll^ lln' Suro, 
if iic.l i|ulli- lo till' riwiitiii|iiii 'I'lii- Irilii sf.iiiiiil 
ill ilii' rr»l oi New Knirliinil wrrr ili-.ii;nalii| liy 

:i -niiliT Miriily of nimii - Tin' I if of tl"' 

I'.MiiMKik or I'luvlinkil IihIIhh »iim in the 
«,iiilii;isl roriirr of wliiil Is now N'lW lliiinpsliiri' 
iiiiil till' lonliKiions ritfion of Miissiiclinsi'ilii. 
Ni At ilwr'l tlir .Miissinlinsitt* trilK'. iiiont! tlir 
tiiii I'f iliiit iiiinii' Tlii'ii «i n- fonnilsinrissivily 
ihi I'nkunokiis, or \Viiiii|mniiiii;s, in Ilif Boutli- 
nislirlv ri'Kion of Mussm liiisi tis. iiiiil liy llii/.- 
/jirils iniil Niirriii{iins«tt lliivs.tlii' NiirriijjiiiiMtis, 
«illi II iriliiitiiry rmr nilliil Nyiinlli s in wliiil is 
ii.i» till' wi'sl'iTii piirt of till"' Siati' of UIhhU' 
Isliiul, till' I'lii lots. ImIimi II till' XarriiL'unsi'tts 
1111.1 ilii' rivir forinirly nilli il llir I'liiuot Uivir, 
ri..« till' 'riiiiinis; mill tin' Muliii;iins. !i|iriailinif 
lliiiiw Ivis ImvoiiiI till' Hinr Connrctirut. In 
llii' iriitnil ri'tfion of Miissiu liiwlls wire tlir 

Nil II k», or Ni|inits; iinil aloiiij ('a|K'('oil wiri' 

till Niiusils who ii|i|H'iiri'il to liavr owiil witiir 
f.iiliv to t.ii' I'okunokils. Till' Niw Kiii;laiiil 
liiiliaristxliililtiil an infirior ty|H' of liiiinanlty. 
. . . Tliiiiiiili tint unil iiv'ili' wlii'ii cxcitiil to 
sonic (Hiasioniil ilTorl, tin y wrri' fonnil to Ih' in 
i:i|iahl.' of lontiiiiioiis 'lalKir. Heavy ami 
|ihli L'liiiilii', tlii'V scarnly wi'iit or mnili'il "— 
.1. (1 I'allriv, '('•itnimtilfiiiM Jlint. of .\. h'ti:/., 
I,;. 1, rl,. ;'l (r II— •Tlii^ valliy of tin' 
• (Mhiilialiitia,' or Miniritliis Ulvrr [1. v.. the 
IIihImmi liivir. as now niirnrilj ut tin' linn' llinl' 
si.n lirst aMTiiiUil its wiitirs, was inlialiiti'il, 
rlii'lly, liy two iilmritfinal riwrs of AI,i:oiii|nin 
limiiL'i'. uftcrwarils known anions' tin* Kni;lisli 
iHJoni^ts liy till' irinrrir naini's of Molh';,'aiis 
mill Miiitiis. Tin' Iliildi H'liirally ralliil 
till' MulirKans. Maliimns; ami tin' Miniirs, 
Siiiliikaiis, Tlit'Sf two triU's wen.' sulMliviiliil 
iiiiu iiiiinirous minor lianils. r:ii li of w liirli 
hul a lli^,llll■tivl' iiami'. Tin' triliis on llii' 
lu-t -iilc of till' rivi'r wi'ri' ci'inrally Molic- 
L'lii". Iliu^,' on tin' west siilr. .Miinris. Tlii'V 
Mrri' III riililary rniinii's. . . . Loni; Islaiiil. or 
Si 'waiiliacky.' wasiKciipinl liy tiirsavai,'!' trilii' 
>'l \Irtowiuks. wliicli wassiiliiliviili'ii iiitovarious 
iliii^ , . Stalin Islanil, on Ilir o|i|iiisiti' siili- 

I I Uii'liay, was iiilialiili'il liy tin' .Monalons. . . . 
hiliiiiil. liiilu' Wist, liviil ihr Karitans ami tlic 

II I' kiii-ii ks; v\liili- till' ri'irioiis ill tin' viciniiy of 
'lir will kii.iwn • lliL'lilanils,' soiilli of Sariily 
lliiiik, wiTr iiilialiiliil liy a liaiiil or siili trill"^• 
| illnl llii- Nivisinrks or N'avisinks, . . . Tollii' 
^"iitli ami wi'st, nivcrini; tin' rrtitri' of Nrw 
.1' r^i y. wiTi' till- Ai)Uaniarliiikrsaml tlir Siaiikr- 
A.iij> uhili' till' \alliy of IIm' Dflawarr, mirlli- 
Mil I Iniiii till- N liii'ylkill, was inlialiiti'il liy 
i.iiiiiis triliis of Ihi' I.i'iia|M' rail'- . . Tlii' 
I-' iml lit till' Manliattaiis " was ihi iipii'il liy tin; 

111" wliiih rin'iviillliatnanii'isi'i' .MamiattaM. 
nil ilii' vliiiris of till' riviT. aliovi', ilwill tlii' 
Tipi'itis. I III' Wrckqiiai-suri ks. till' Siiit Sini;s, 
' M li'isi' iliirf villai;i' was natni'il OssinSinir. or 

Ilii I'lari' of Stiini's "'llii' I'acliailii. tlir Waorlll' 


"Kiirllnr norili, ami iKiiipylnif ttii' tire* 
roiiiiliisof t Isiir iinil (iriini', win' tlii' Slim 
1 laiis of Mliinisimks, Niinliiokis, Mlmii's. anil 
Ih-lawarrs. 'I'lirsi' ilans hail pn-ssi'il onwaril 
from till' ii|i|nr valliy of till' llilawan- . . Tiny 
wiri' tfi nrriiUv known anioiii,' Hi'' Untili a" thi' 
.Ksopiis Imllans "—.I. U. Ilri»lliiail, //iW •■/ 
III: s>iili- nj' \\ J', I. 1, r/i ;i -'Thi' arrii for 
mrrly ihi npliil liy Ihi' Aln'onipiian fainlly kim 
niiiri' I'Miiisivi' than that of any oiln r liiiirnlstlc 
siiH'k in N'ortli Amt'rha. tin Ir irrrilnry rrarhliuf 
from l.alirailor totln' Uih ky Mmiiitains. iiml from 
( liiin hill Itivrrof llinlson Hay as far south at 
li'iist as I'aniliro Sniinil of Niirlli Carnllna. In 
till' lasti rii |i;irl of this tirrilnry was an uri'ii 
ii<rii|i{ril liy Iroipiiilaii triln's, surroiimlisl on 
almost all slili'S liy thrlr Alxoinini in niih'hlHirs. 
On till' miilli till' Al^'iii'i|iilan triUs wiri' Inir- 
ill ml liy tliosi'of lriii|iioiiiiuiiil SiiiimnlCutawliu) 
slink, on thi' Niiilliwi'st ami wi'St by the Milnk- 
lioifian iiml Sioiiaii trilH'S. anil on thi> north west 
liy till' Kitunahan ami thi' ifri'Ut Atliapiiw'un 
faniilii's, » hill' aloiii; till' roas* of Uil rador uml 
thi' I'ustirii short' of llinlsuii "'.ay tiny caiin! In 
rontait with tin' Ksklino. who'wire grailiially 
ritnatlnir Ik fori' tin in to tin' north, in New- 
fiiiinillaiiil tiny ini oiinti'nil tin' litothiikan 
lainlly, roiisi-,iin);iif hut asiiii-'li' triU'. .\ portion 
of tliii MniHnri' at sohn' I'arly imtIimI hail «p- 
arati il from thr main ImkIv of Ihr triln' in 1 1 iilral'i' anil piislnil thrlr way ilowii lo thr 
Savannah Uivrr in SoiilliCanilitia'. whirr, known 
' as .Savannahs, thry rarrinl on ilrstrintivr want 
with thr Mirroiinilini; trilH's until almiit thr U'- 
uMnniiii; of thr l^lh initiiry tiny wire llimlly 
ilrivrn out anil Joimil thr l>i lawarr in thr mirth. 
.Soon aftrrwanls thr rrstof thr trilir wiisrxpi Unl 
liy thr Chrrokru ami Chliasa, who thrnirfiir- 
wanl ilaimril till thr i oiintry stnti him; north ti> 
thr Ohio Uivrr. Thr Chryrniir aii'l Anipaho, 
. two alliril tribi's of this sliMk, liail linomr srp- 
aratril from till ir kinilri'il on Ihr iiorlli ami hail 
forrril thrir wav tliMU|;!i lioslilr Irihisairosslhe 
I .Missouri to thr lllark Hills rountry of Sniilh 
I Dakota, ami mini rnrnlly Into Wyomini,' uml 
I'oliirailo. thus I iiiiini; thr ailvaiirr ^'uanl of 
Ihr .\li:oiii|uian si'ii k in that ilinilion, having 
Ihr Simian trilHs li, hinil tliriii anil of thr 
j Shoshi'iiiaii laniily iiifniiit. (Thr fiillowin;; am 
I tl»| inimipal trilHs: .Minaki. Ak'iiiniuin, Am- 
palm, (hryinnr. Ciiniiy. ( rrr. Krlawan'. Vox, 

■ llliiiiii~, Ivii-kaiMio. .Maliii-aii. Massai-liiw-t, .Mr- 
imiiiimr. Miami. .Mii-inar. .Miihi-i;aii, Muiilau'iiais, 

I .M.ailaiik. .Miiiisi i . Naiilinikr. Xarnn:aiisrl, 
Naiisi I. Ni|imui . i Ijiliwa. ( lllawa, I'amlito. IVn- 
! nariink. rripiiil, I'i.inkishaw. I'littawotonii. I'liw- 
! Iiataii. Sar, Shaw nir. Siksika. Waiiq -imiaj;, 
\Vappiiii;rr. Thr prrsrnt iiuinlh-r of thr Aliinii- 
ipiiaii siiii'kisaliiiiill».'i,lii)0, of whomalioiittiil.lHIO 
air ill t '.111. Ilia ami tlir rrmaiiiiUr in thr I'liitnl 

i Sl..lls.r__,l, \V. I'l.Hrll. .S<--ll^/l .1/I/1M<(( W/l"/'/. 

i llnri.i'i "J Hlliic'l"ijii, iiji 47-4S. 

i .\i.sii IN .1 \V. I)r Kinrst. //l«^ I'f the IniiiniLt, 

' ,7' i'.-nnt'-tf'lt. — .\. ttallaliu, Si/f,"i:.iii ff tliii y'/i'"x ( .li-,-/i.i../...//.( Aiiinvin.i. 'r i^, 
,i,t '■■'.. Mrl. -,>.— S (J. Drakr. .Vi„ii;iii,.d limn ,/ 

■ .V. .I'M.. Ilk. ^-:!.— Srr, also, In-low : Dl.l.AW AliKS; 

. lllllilKKNs; SlIAWANK.sK; SlM^lKllAXN As : O.IIIl- 

« AS ; Illinois — For thr Imliaii wars of Nrw 

Kn^'lanil. sir Nk« Knoi.axh; .\. I) lti:iT I TiiK 

: I'mnir Wah); A. 1). lliT4-lU7.-| to lilTti 11178 

1 iKiMi I'lULii's Vv'ak). — Srr. also. l'ii.\'n.\c'a 

|4 i-t 5 

1 1 ^a '. 



, till- \Va|i|iiiiL'ris, aiiillhr Waronawankiinns. 1 \\ All. 



Alibumui, or Alkb*mat. S.i' t« Imw Mi -s 

llo.l \N KvMll i _ ,, 

AllegMni. or AUegewi, or T«lliB«wi - 

.■■|' I.I.M tril.. ..I III. I nili-.l Milt.., .if 

lli.ri i, II ili-lin. I ir.i.liii..h. w.n' ili.- ,\lli'i:li:iii« | 
Til" II riTi U |ii rp.iii.ii. 'I 111 111"' prim i|iiil i liiiiii"! j 
111.. .nil liiii lr;ni r>iiii.' il..' r..iiiilr\ 'I'lii- Iril"', mi 

iiiiuiiii.iMi' iMii.-l. I ""■ - " "f lliiir|...«.r 

ill 'hr olii.. Vill.v ill.. I 111 I. .mill. 'Ill .trriiiii., wiiv III.' -ill'- "f lli'ir iiiiniir..ii. I..«ii. i 
mill xllli.'.'. I'Imx :,|.|..:ir ..riiriiiMlly I.I liiiy 

iH.rii.ili.iiii I Mli.T All. L'. iih. li.ii..ili.' 

.li.tii, ■- ..f T:illii:.«i.ii.l All.L'.^'i. ilr:iii. Am , 
I'lii S.« . V..1 1 I lU i.l.lim: I" tli.Tii.l.iiil i.f I |.:iriiil.' liiiiv ■..r'l.-liiiii.v.'iiiiiimm.' ' 
rhiT lliiN iI.mtIIh.I 111'' litiii. ipil w.'ii.' "f 111. ii; 

r,..i.liii..' — Hi h 111'' All' x'lii'iv. ..r Uu.r..l 

till' Ml.'.'liii..^. ii"w liill..! "'111.. •111.' «"r.l 
Dili.. I. ..f Ir.i'iu'.is i.rUiii, iiiiil I'f II fi'f I'li'i' 

i«ri.-l. Iiiiviiu' I"' .M«i"l liy lli.'iii iillir ...n.(iii«l "f 111.' ."Uiiiry. in iilliniiii' wlcli 
til,' l.i'iiiii.i'. I '<r uiii i.'iil !>' l.nviir.'s. il'lii. 
Tiiiii* I Til.' liTiii vNii-. uiM'li.'l 1.. 111.' I'liiiri 
riur frniii iu r..iillii' im' »illi H"' Mi'-i-i-ilil'i- 
t., il. i.ri'.-lii 111 111.' Iir..ii'l »|'iir. "f H"' All.' 
L-hiiii.'.. ill N. >v V..rk iiii'l I'. mi.N Iviiiini. . . . 
Tli.ri' ill'.' I'ii.liii'.. "f iiiili'im' lili'TH 111 III.' 
iill.iMi.l i.l.iiiHiin.l Villi.. v.'.f Ilii'Sii'.l.., Mwiiii. 
i,ii,lMii.lMm.''\\iil'i~li Ki-l-i-l^ii '■''I'"''"' 
ami mill..!., il'ii.'imi.' H"! iln' mi' i' m Alli'L'Imti.. 
nil. I lli'ir iilli'i iiii.l ,..iif.''l. rill''-. I' 111!' nil. I wrri' M mi ii;;ririilliiri.l. 'I'lirsi' I'M 
cliiiii. liiHi' Li'ii irii'.il. ill liili' ii'Ti'-l-. Ill till' 
fiilili' liiiiili "f liuliiiiiii mi'l Mii'iii-Mii. 
Thr irilii'. liM'l ill li\''l i"«ii.. riillniiliiiL' 
I'Xl.'ii.ivc li.l.l-i I.f llii' /.il iiiiii/i', mill Ills... il. 
iliiii.i'.l l.v rr.inl ili.i'.>vi I'll., . . . "f .;'iiii 
siiiiiis I.f' lii'iiiis. villi'., mill r.iiili'iil. '""■> 
«,i'i' III Initli. Ilii' 111. .1111.1'r.. -" " 

S. Ii....lrriifl. /"I"-""" ,',./•'■'""/ "" /"'''";. 

/Vi'i..< /.' ■■>,/' l-i:l - , hi. I..1I. Iii.i'.ii. Ill "liKli 
Mr Si'iiii'.lir'iili liii'l arrivi'i. tlint lln- iim iiiH 
Ml, 'liiiii. 'T Till, uivvi HIT' 111'' iii'.mi.l 'iiiil.lir. 
,,f ih.' tilii'. Vill'V i. I'.iiiu' .ii.liiiiii'l li.v liilir 

i,H,>li'-:ll..l'. illl'l ..'111. Ill IlilVI' li'C'.llll' mi 

l|ii,|.l..l ..|.ilii.ill illl :-• 111".'' "f lii'-'li'.l 

iiiiiliniilv 111. All. -liiiii.. "Ml. iiri' li'iii'-' 
i.l.iitiliii'l Willi ill. < li'i"!' - "' 11''"' '•""^' '" 
wliMiii ili.ii ri... .'"..' .'i| ,■ -'1 I" '" ' ^Illl'l' 
111. ill. 1.111' nth .iiiM^.'l. Willi'' III'' I'l'' '"1'-' 
.,1,,,.., i,.| II, ,1 tl..' I I.. l"U. .' litr-'.lii'.;'' i. "I 111'' 

,,,„' l,,,,„l, i. l„i„. I.l..> 1 1. li,.' lilllpl 

., |,|;, , A., "i.iiii. I', lii.liui II i.lili"". Ill'' 
\ll jliiiii. «ir.' 'iin.ii li""i 111' il- iiiiiii III M'iii- 
i,,i, . ,1^,,, In ,1 I .iiJ.iii.iii.ii ,1. iii-i till 111 I.f til. 
1,, ,~,|,. .|i. Iriii. .1 illl. I tl..' ^1' ii-"i' ilr'..)!!"!-' 
'I'll,. |, ,,iii' i.| lli.'il' iiii:;liili"li. i- 11. ill.' llii" il I'.v 
ll„. , h 11 1. 1. r .if till' iii'.iiii.l. "llii II 111'.' '""''' 
;,,,i| ,il llii- li 111. llii- -'illl' "I fi"iii 111'- iii"mi'l- 

"I'l,, r, r.l iii"\i llii tit I'f 1. ii'.'iil li'li'i'' 111'' 

Ir,„,,i..i- iiiiil l.iii.ii" ! . 11111.1 liiM' lii'ii 

„,,,l|,U.ll I . ill.'l 111. . \it ..f III. I'lli"lll..'lll'l 

l„„l.|,i. w,,. Ill i.ll |.i.i!iiliiliiv iq. Ill'' K uiiiwiili 
V-illiA "11 Illl -111," 11'"- iliit till' lli'f'l.''''. 
,„',,, .-Ir t'i li.iM' |,ll'v>i'l ill riiiiliiiiL' lli'-ii 
1,,,' li, ,! 1,. ,Ii'v, . , II 111" li.M"'lli''~i- '"•"■ 
.„U, ,,„,,! ,,, i Mill ;• i. ii|. liill. Ill iliiil 111'' 

(■hl;|..k. ' . . ll'.i 1"! II. lllllll'.llilll' Mlll.'V "I 111. 

Mi.-i-.i|i|.i fii'iii III.' iiiirtlnv'-l, .liiUiii-' it i" 11"' 

r,'"i,,ii"l liiUii ■ I 'Tli'.iiiii., ■/■/.. /'-"'./ ■Jtl" 

O'r- M '- '!■■ ::: -t hllh:-:-! ■■:::. l^'!'! 

Al.ll IN 



M..'n„h "f III 

i.rM,' /(."■'.<" '.r A.'M'."/"<«, l'"*'l'«l> •' "ii'l"' 
Mii'l.r, ,1''' ""'' ''" lnli'iii ,\.i'i""", ';'' I 

Si, l»li.« ('MfllllllKH'. mill IM""(I "IK CiiNKi 

Kim > . il." .\«mi" ». I'limi-i'iiii' 
Amohuscat s... Ul'.«:'" 
AndMtct S" 1' t" i"« !*< "Ji HI »'''>i »■* 
Andetiani. ' Tli" ii riii Aiiili.lni. "f An 
I'.imi-. i. ii."l «illi fii'i-riililiiiiii riiHnr llin 
i'lliii.'1'.i.'ii li liiiill", Illl'l I iiilifiii I H II liiiiiilKr "( 
iriln. l-'ir.l I'f Illl.'' iiri- H" t "Im i" Ki|iiii'l"i 
I'ii.l iif CliiiiilMiM/'i Tliiy fi'iiulii Niillmiil" 
iii-iiiii.l Illl- '"I'miim 1. mi'l i" ''ii'ii I"'-' k'H' I 
niiiiiy "if III" iiii..i"iimi. - .< ii' mimn;.' Hi'i" 
N'.w ilii'V iiri- irri'iiilv ri.luii'l mi'l lii*' li'i"iii 
iiii.ri' iii'iill" Tli" ■||iiiiiiiiili"Mi iiri' lliilr i" " 
iii'k'lilKiro Til" .lUiirii, "'.t I.f 111' fi>iT I'll. 
liiiii nri'ii «iiilik" irll.", « li", (."'ly tliriiiii;li 
,' iiiiMiiri' "f lil"<"l liiK" u Kuri'iHiiii 
ni.l I.f c'l.iiiili'imiii'i' mill II liiiiril Tli" lii" 
( liri.iiiiii Nii|...i'r(JiiiJ.iiiii'lilii'lr (iiiii'.fiil ii'-itli 

li'.r. Ill" /.ii| , livi I'll III" Itiii Ni'l"! II" 

Vmiii'i. lU iiii; nil 111'' l"«i r ( limiililvii iiml < ri.- 
illl.' Ill'' Mirifii'ii, «miil''riiii; n. fur a. Siiryii' n 
iiiiv" a I I'iirir (■'.iiiiili'\i..ii. Tin- I'miiiimra mi'l 
111" Yiii;iiiir/,.iiiL''i livi'iii III" Marafi'.ii. wliini' 
l,.iH"S it. ii"rlli' rlv nmr." ami Ih'IhN I'lwanl tl" 

' ii.l Til" ( "rliiiiiiiiiiii liv I III" l.iwi r Yiivmi I J 

111" Miiv.iriina. nr llarlniilii. mi 111" iiiiilill" I'l ii.v m g 

lii.i.l" ill" Cmni.'i mill Cm liil"'. Il"' -"I tirrilil' 

'if ^iiitli Anil ri'iiii Iniliiiii.. liny '!« " '","'• 
w...»l. IhUvii'11 111" Tii|iii'li'' mill '111 MiiriiMi'ii 

amllikillii'.liviri.liiiM'iili'iinl. Tli ' I'i "i' 

f.iriii.'flv ihu'lt ill III" lirriii'ry "f I. iliiL'iiim, l"' 
will. iiiiW liv" ill villaci"* nil 111" 111 !"''■ li'ii.* ill 
ill" ( liri.liiiii., . , Tlii'lr liiiiL'iiiiL'" Hill" I'll" 
. i|iiil "11" "11 111" rivir. mill it i'* .liiinil liv mm '• 
i.ih. r irilii. liiili'il I'lll'iiivi'ly liy ili" tiiL-i"' 

iirii. M,iiii..t.ii.i' MiiMi'i, • ■ Uiiliiii 111" « '" 

..II till' li-lil I'iiiik li\" til" Aiiiiiliiiiiiii mill Mil 
"ivii On 111" ii'.rtli llii'V .(..ill iln' H'lii". » ]'"'■ 
irfiil trill" wli'i uri' 'li-iiiiiL'iii.ln'l fi""' nil "" 
' ilnr. I'V 111" (ii.l.'iii I'f l.itt""iiii;, Oiil.i'l'' tl" - 
I'. II.. liiiiriil.tii' tri..i|i .' 111.1 111" I'iiiiinii. Cmnl ■ 
.,r Ami. "11 III" "ii.l .I"!"' "f 111"' I'lriivimi >''i 
llii:. ram 111" .mini' i'f iIh' l!i" H' ni 'Hi'l H'*"'!' i 
liiii' . Til'' Clii'iilii'inii".. "1- I'iiii. ii"» I'll III ■ 
iiliii...! iiitir. h III.' Liiiik "f III" I ' i.viililii'lii" 'i- 
l-i'hilia. Th'- M"j"."rM"S".liM'iiill li'ilivi ,'. 

|,r.,viii I M. \ .. "illl III" .iiiiill tiiii". lit 'I' 

liiiiiii . li.iiiiii'i.. I'iiiii'-'iiiit'ii. A iiiiiiiIk r ' ' 
.iiiilli r nilii. 1.. 1.. It:: in.; I" 111" Ant' .lin ';r.' 

11,1.1 li. . iniiii'iiili'.l Til" 1.1'" l'-"l' - ■ 

: .liill,,. iiri'.ii il. -' iilu'.l 111" Iiiiiiiiii ml". "I ■ 
l,riii,'rv l.ii«..ii (^Iiiiil anil Ilii'iiMr Ami/ 
Til" N qi'i iii'i'iiiii'li 111" ivii" "f III" Iniliiiii 
Ainiiiii: illl till' lii'liiiii. "f till' I'li'MiMii 
ilrii 111''. Ill" liill" "f .liviii'.i i. mi" "f I'"' Im-' 
Thi-i' I'li.i.l,' mi- iliviil, .1 inti.ii -rnat iiiiiiilii i 
.,ili trill". All "fill".' -i-'iii- llii- 'l"'ir ■""- 
.liviii',1 liiiijiiii'j''. Tlii'V nil' iiin.i iilnr. ■!■ 
III,. II. . . , Th,' M.ii'.iiiii ni.' liiiiiiil'iil. HI tl" 
.111." I.f th" ""I'l. . . . 'I'll" t'iiiiip". .li'l ' 
litil" kii"wii. i. iK'rliii|i< till' l.irL.'1'.i lii'li.ui 11 
ill Kii.tirii I", ru, nii.l, niimilin.' I" ."in' 
r.lai'il 111 111" liii'ii liill. ur ill liii.l "Illl 
„i,,,^,i,r. Tlii'V an- ..liil I" I"' I'mim! 
. ih'iii-'h .Iniii". I 'ri'iii il'"^ iii'l lliiiilv llii. I"""' 
Th" iii'iiri'.-i 111 i;;lili"r. Ill III" < mill"' 111' 
! ciii.iitnUir.i, it Clii'iilaiiuir", 'T t'li'iniiniiii, ' 
111... I'ini wlni, iiK'.r'liiiL' I" I'mil .Miiii".v. 
vii.l t" 111' "f 111" Mini" mi-ill "illl 111" < in |^_-^ 

Inn th" liiiii;iini:"i. "Ii"ii,v 'iiiT' ii'iii . . ■ ■ ■^< 




/•/I Si-tf 

li„ I .- i/'''»//i Ai'.'H-i'l. ' 111'' I'mi'i l"'"!'!" mi' H"' ^* 


il'l I'miili'i. lli'.v 



ihi' iiM»l liiHTi'tllnn. lint iif l>i»»«iMi.' liil.>r«tliM 
,i,,„ _/•*. .v,i/i(/.i/-i/ y^il'inil {■/. S 
A,„,,/,V. ../.,. ^ «,/./•, S--'? ■-'■•' , , 

Ap*cb« Group.* I H'l" ''"• in'" ml immr i-l 

III. .\|iiirlir» ■ r Imluili' III! tllc •iimifr ItllH. 
n iTiiiiiu lliriiiiBli N''w Mi'xini. ilir iinrili wi.iirii 
i„ rti.ri o( Tixii". » Kiiiiill |"iri «f iii rllii fii 
Ml >!■ ■. mill Arl/iiim. . . . I'xvimr I" Hi' If '••'■ 
Hi.- pr.K livilliH iiiicl iiiir-«4irii raliN llii > iiri' liil 
I "i III iiiii' ilirnlimi iiml Hun In hiumIiit. In 
i,,ii. ril I.riii« liny inuy •»' »ii'l I" riiii».'i' »tmiit 
11- I, 1I,.H»; Tllf Viilll:lll< ll'->- .li'tilll*. I'f Nlllllll. 
i,.ii-i.iiiii.'"f llirri' IrllKt, till' ('..iiiiiiH lilt iiniiH-r. 
Ilii ViiiniMriirkK. mill Tin iwii«, liilmliltltii.' 
M, rilii rri li \a«. iiii.lirii I'ri. Niirvii Ijnii, 
I ...iliiiilii, Huriihifii. iiii'i iiiirtiiiim nf »<iiiili- 
H.-i.Tii Ni» MiAiiii. In liitiirimni' ullliil tn il"' 
Miu-lmiii- fuliiil» ; III. Al'.iiliir «li.i i.ill tliilii 
«UiH Shh Iniliiv. or ■nun uf ilir winhI-,' 
mill whiiM' lrllMrillvl»liiiii urr tlir (lilrirairiii-, 
<,,Miiiri«, Kiiriii>iir«. (iiliftiH. I.ipiiiii-. I. Inn 
.r"^. Ml M iiliriiK., Nulni-'r-, I'llmii". 
I'lii.iliniii. 'rijiiii-. 'riinliii, anil ViHiniriw. 
r..:iiiiiii|; i.vir Nrw Mrxii'n, Ari/uiiii, Nurlli- 
w.-t.rn Tixii«, CliiliimliMii iiml Nm.iru, iiiiil 
wh,. iiri' hIIIiiI l>y liini.'imi;i' 'i' ll"- Itrrit , 
■Ciiinili fiiinih ; tin' Niivu|i~. nr Tiiiiial, 'iiiiii.' i 
.,~ tliiv ili'-iitnui.' tliriiiwIn'H, liiniiiir liiiL'iilslir 
iilliiiiiiit «itli till' Ainirlii' iialiun. willi wliiili ^ 
ih. \ ari' •-I'liii'tiiiii"' ll i»~il. lU ini; in iiinl iiriiiml 
III. '^1. rra ill' 111" Mlniiiri-; tin' >|ii.ian-^. m rii|i> ■ 
111.' I.. Ml l)alik«iif Ilii'Ciili.ra.l'i in Mi..|a\i' Valli\ ; 
111. I|iiala|iiii<. iiiai' tlir liiiiil-walrrt "f Hill 
Wiliiatiii Fiirk: till- Viiiiia'*, nii tlii'iii'-t liaiik nf 
llii ( iil.iruilii. i»'ar ili jiiiirliun «illi llii' Hin 
Dill, ilii' (i.^niniii- Willi, liki till' llnal i|iai-., arr 

v.iiuiii liiiiliiilrl in ll'i' Aiiinlii' naliiiii, riiiii.'- 

111.' iliiLiinli till' ,MnL'iilli'n >|iiiinlaiii>; iiml tin- 
\.iini..ii«, liitwi'ii Hill William- I'l.rk ami Ilir 
lli'i 11 i"ii\aiii| a. . . . Till- Ai'iilii- iLiintry is 

|.|..|ill,l\ I'lli' llii-l ilr^rrl uf all. ... Ill liiilll 

1 iiiiiiii anil ili-irl tin- llirii'. rapai i.nis Aparlii'. 

11.111. .1 Iriiiii ■ liililliiii"! til liiiii-'i T ami tliii'l. aii.l 
I,, ii ari.l limls sill' 11 mat. . , I'lii' 
I'll.!.!..- . . iiri' miiliiiiL' I'Mt pariiallv ii i laiim-.l 
\],,.|i., >r Ciiiiiamlii -. ■— 11 11.', 
\,' ,, I! ■;».■)• Il„ /•.i.-ilir ,s/,.^... ,'. t, .'/,, ,-| - 
In. Ill il I. '11 pr. IVi- till' iiai',.' Viiiiia f"r tin' 
■1 ^ |. . , ill.- Ap.ii In- tiiiiiip, I ..iiliiiiiii; till' nam.' 
\|,i.i. .iliiit 111 iiii; till' ^iiiiia " liir ■■ ti;;lii 

l; J I .11 ) 1.1 till' mil' trilii' ■-.1 lalli.l. " Il lia- 
li . ,...11 lall.iltlii- Kalrll 111 i.r tin hill M'lil.. ' 

I'll, /'A, .l"..i""/i /I'l". /'. 1"'''. - 
s, . i]..., Iiili.w : Annr.v-i \\ F\mii v. 
Apalaches.— ■' .Viii.uiu' iIh' iili.'ri-inil iiilii - i.f 
■■ I iiiu.l f<lati'S |iirliaps 11. 'Ill' is iiii'ii- llii.- 
,. 1. il tliaii till- .\palai ln^. Tiny air inriili..iii .1 
- Ill iiiip.'rtaiit iiaii.'ii liy iiiaiiy i.l ihi- laiiy 
I 1 ". ll ami Spaiii-li travilliri ami liisi.iri.iii-. 
■'. 11 I. .11111' is pi'iM'TMil liv a liav mill ri\ir mi 
.. -I. .lis nf till' (iulf i.l'M.'\i."ii. ami liy tli.' 
■ ll . a-iirii I'l.ast raii^'i' iif iii.'UiitaiMs. aiui has 
' h il'pliiil li\ I Ihiiiilmiists t.i ll family I'f n'l:- 
' niii"iis that I.. 1111.1 tli.'ir liiiiiliii!.' nii'innls 
. Ill'' .Missi— ippi III till' .\tlaiiiii- ami fi.uii tin' 
" ,;i riv.r 1.1 till' Kliiriila Kiy-. yil. slraiiiri' In ' 
.. Ml. ir ii«ii rail' ami plair iiavr lin'li liul 
., ^-. .1 Hi ■■ Tl,.' ill riialimi i.f tin' iiiiiin' I'f tin' 
\; 1.1. lir> "has 111 111 a ' uni'stiii \r\aia ' ami'liLT 
1 .1 ii,"l.ii:i'.|-. " \Vi' must " < niisiil, r it an in- 
'!■ I'i'i. I'f am iriit iiitimi linns with tin' s.iiiihrni ^ 
I'll!, ami il! itsi If a piire (aril' ""■'■l ! 
'Ai'ili. Ii6' ill tlip Taiiianai'a iliali 1 1 nf ihf | 
s,. .\,.i.., AfiHiiiliv K, V..I.5. S' 

(iiiurniiiiv »liin mi tin iiiii..«., sixiiilii s ' iniin. 
iiii.l till' 'I'lirlii si iippliratnn I'l Ilir iiaiin' in tlii' 
liiirlliirii rmitliiiiil was us tin lilli nf tin' i lili'f 
,if It mill. Ill 111. .111111. i'\i I 111 ni 1 ,' mill 
liiiiii'. liki- nrv iiiii.v ■ iIht linliaii IriUs 
I Aparhi't, 1,111111' 1,1'iiapi', lllinnlsi. Ills mil.Ji i Is 
as-lllllnl liv I mini 111 1- III'' pr 1 ilpprllillinll nf 

'I'Im' Mm'.' . . . \>'- h.' . . . fniiml 'liat 

lhniii;li nn t'l'iiiral iiiliirili. .k plan' frmiilln' 

rniilinitit »niilli»aril, imr fmni tin' islamls tinrlli 
wiiril. \ii lliiri' » as ii niisiili ralih' inli n niirsi 
ill liiiHi iliri'dimis: llial nnl mily llir nallMsnf 
till' Kri'iilrr ami h -s. r .\iilillis ami Ym itiii, tail 
also iiiiniliirs nf tin' liniiraiiay »lriii nf tin' 
«.iiiilii'rii I'niiiimiil. till' Carilis 'prnpi r, rr.'»«i'il 
till' Strain nf l-'l'.ri'li ami f..iiml.'.l r.ilniili's nn 
till' slinns nf till' liiilf nf Mi\iiii; that Ihrlr 
(iislmin ainl laiiL-n i •'• ln'i iim' tmi iirliln rstmit 
grafli'il iipnn llii.-i .,( tlii' larly pnHsi'ssnrs nf tlif 
mil: anil In this t'.r. ii.'ii laii_'iiai.'i' tlir iiiinii' 
A|ialarlii' In Iniii-s. .\- pn \inii-ly Mali il. It »iin 

Usiil us It Itrm-rii litli', ap|ilii'il In it cnllfnll rallnll 

nf iiuiiiv natimis at mil' timi' iiinli r llii' ilmiiiiia 

tinn nf' 11 hli f, wlinsv pinvir |iriiliiilily i i- 

ti'iiili'il frniii thii .Mhuliany iiiniiiilaiiis nn tin' 
niirili In till' hlii.ri' nf ilii- Hulf : thai It im liiiliil 
trilHs piakiiii.' a tntii.'iii' ilnvly iiklii in tin' 
Clinklali ist'viili'iit fmiii till' friit'iiiiiils «ii havr 
ri'iiiaiiiiiii.'. . . . Till' Ini iliiin nf tin' trilir iu 
afli r Mars Is ury iitinriain Duiiimit plai I'll 
lliiiii ill till' iinn'rii partiif what is mnv .\l,i- 
liaiiia ami (iiiiri;i a, mar tin' iiiniintaiiis tli,il lirar 
tin ir iiaiiir. That a purlinii nf tin in iliil liu' in 
his \iiiiiitv is (..rr..linratii| liy tin' lii-l..riaiis nf 

S.iilli I'lir.'.liiia, «lin say that" Cilnm I M i'. in 

lTii;l. f.iiiml tin 111 ■Inl«irii thi' In a.l-\\alirs nf 
till' >avaiiliali ami Alt.itmiha ' . . . Ai i . .rililii; In 
nil till' Spanish aiiilimiiiis, mi lln' nilnr liaml. 
Ihi'V ihM'lt in thr ii'uinii nf rniiiiiry ln-MMin tlii) 
.siiiHatiini' anil Appalai liii nla rivirs — nt must 

nnl la' inllf.'llllilnl Milll till' .\ palaillirnl. .s . . 

Tlii'V I'lriainlv h nl a l.iri;.' ami prn-p. n.iis InHn 
in tills \iiimt'v, siil In rmii.iin l.'inn warrinrs. 
. . I am iiii'lim.l In 1" li.vr that llnsr wiru 
ilillin lit liniinln snf till' saiin- I .'111. .ll rai \ . . . . 
Ill till- l.i'L'iniiiin: 111 ihi' I'-ih i.iinir> Ihi'y 
MilTir.'.l mill ll tr'.iii ili.' ih Misiaimii- nl tin' Km;- 

li-h, (■■r.inh ami f-'. l.s VI...11I tin' linn' 

Spain ri'L'.iimil p..— is-i,.i, ..f thi' snil, llicy 
ini_'ratiil In ih.' \\ . st ami sitilnlmi tin' Hayou 
liapi.lri.f liiil llivir. II. Il' liny hail a villairc 
iiiiiiiliiriiii; ahniit 'VI sniiK."-l<. (i. Ilriiilnn, 
A'./i.i ../I I/- /'V-Cn/i'Mi /'. /.//,«'/'.i. r/(. ','. — Sit, 
alsn. III l..\' : Ml l''\MII.V. 

Apelousas. Sn' Ti \ v-: Till .Xmniii'iN m. i.n- 
nviiti »N IS 

Araicu. S.i' In l.i« : (ii 1 k mt t'mn liinn r. 

Arapahoes.': A M(i i \N I'.vMii.v. 

Araucanians. s..'(ii: 1 

Arawaks, or Arauacas. S.a' lulnu: ('Miiiia 
.\Mi till 111 KiMini-ii. 

Arecunas. Sn' lalnw: (aiiiiis ami 1111 111 

Arikaras. Sir liil.nv I'awm.i; .('aiiiihaM 

Arkansas. Si'i'ImI.iw ,Sn»i w F\\iii,v 

Assiniboins. Sn' lulnn ; Sun \\ Fwiin. 

Athapascan Family. — Chippewyans.— Tin- 
neh. ~ Sarcees*— • This namr ! Aihapa.-iaiis 
nr .\tlialiasi'alis| ha- liii 11 applj. .1 L. a il.iss nf 
triliis w hn arr siiualril mnlii nf llir Lariat 
( liiuiliill rivir. ami nnrlh nf tin' sniirci' "f the 
fiirk nf till' Siiskiilriiiiwim', I'MiinliiiL' wi'stwarii 



r 'i! 

II ■'^ 

Ji I ' 



till within iibout l.Kl miles of tlio I'liciflc Ocean. 
■I'hc iiainc is diTiviil, iirl'ilr .rily. from 
\.iAi' \tlKili:is<;i, wliicli is now iiidrc piiinilly 
lull,, I tlM- I.akd iif till' Hills. fiurn.iiniliiiK 
tlii^ 1;,U. ixl.ii.lsllirtrilxMif till' CliippcHyiins. 
a |„,,pl,, s,,-,'!ill,,l l,v tin- Kfiiistciiiis anil CUi\<- 
pivis, iHMiiiisi' Iliiv' wcri' |,>iiiicl t,) !«■ rldtlicd, 
in s,.Mii- priiTiurv <ii(',,iint<r. in thc> snmty Kiirb 
of 111,- lishiTs "skill . . . Wi! arc iiiformeil by 
MiuU,n/ie llii' lirritory wcnpiiil liy tin' 
Cliippi-wvans cMiiiils liitwcrn the pariillils 
of dip anil •>■")■ niirtli ami Imi'.'itnilcs frmn 
KKl^ to 1111' wist " — II. U. SiliiHiliraft. /«■ 
f„rm.-tr-ii Iti-yi'-tiii'i thf Ii,ili,i,; IW'ik. }>t. .'>, 
y, i7i._"Tlio Tinnih may U- iliviiliil inti) fmir 
^rnat ifamilii'sof nations, namrly. the Chippf- 
wvans or Atlml..-.sins. livinj: liitnri'n lliiilson 
Uav anil the Kmkv Mountains; Ihi' Taiiillics, or 
Cairiirs. of Nrw Calriloiiia or N'orth-wistirn 
Urilish .\incriia: the Kiitiliins. occupy ini; both 
banks of the I'ppiT Yukon anil its tributaries, 
from near its month !■; the Mackenzie Hiver. anil 
the Kcnai, inhabiting the interior from the lower 
Ynkon to Copper Hivcr."— H. 11. IJancroft, 
Tlif Xilire /.',"•'« ,.f r/if ranfic. St.itin, (fi. •i.— 
"The Iiiilian tribes of Alaska anil the adjacent 
rcL'lon mav be iliviilcil intotwo jtroiips . ... 1. 
Till' h — Chipiiewvansof iiutliors. . . . Father 
I'tlitot discusses the i '•ms Athaliaskans, Chip- 
pewavans. Moiit.if.'iiais. a.. 1 Tinnch as applied 
til this group of Indians. . . . This great family 
incliiilcs II lar^'e number of American trilM's ex- 
lendini; from ni'.ir the mouth of the .Mackenzie 
south to till- borders of .Mexico. The Apai'hcs 
and N'avajos IkIoii,: to it. an,l the family scnis 
to intersect the continent of North America in a 
norlhirh- ami soullierlv dircition, principally 
iiloiii; Ih'e thinks of the" Kocky Mountains. . 
TheihsiLMialion [Tiiinihl proposed by Messrs. 
Ho..^ and (Jilibs has been accepted by most 
mo,l,Tii .lhii,il,,;;isls. ... 2. Tlinkets." which 
faniilv im-liiilcs the Yakutats and oilier groups. 
— \V."II. l>all, 7V(7:,.« ,.f t/i,' Kxtniiif S"VtliiriKt 
il'.iiitrilinttuiii Vi \. '.\m. AV/, y/,,',"/,'/. ''. !>• — 
■'Wherever foiin,|, the meniliers of this proiip 
present a certain fainilv ri'seiiililaiice. In np- 
piaraiicc tiny are tall and sironi;, the forehead 
low with proiiiinent supi nili.iry ridges, the eyes 
slightly obliipie. the iiM^e prominent but wide 
toward the ba-e. the iiiouih laru'e, the hands and 
fell small. Til. ir streiiirlh and endurance are 
often phen.inieii:il. but in the Norili, at le.isl, 
their loiiireviiv issliL'lit, few living lieyoml lilty. 
Inti 11. eiuallv" thev rank bel.nv in.i-t of llieir 
iiiiL', a"iMl n.iwlieri; do tli.y appear as f.'s- 
ter. rs i.f the ir.'rnis of civili/.ali..ii. Where, as 
aiii.iie-' ill.' Na\aj..s, we timl tlieiii having .soiiw 
repiiii' I'll- 111.' iii.'i haiiieal arts, it ti..iis out that 
this i-o« ill L' t'l lia\iiigcaptni'i'.l and adople.l I hi' 

m.nil.i r-..f ni.'r.'':ilii.l iril.i s \-rieiilliire 

was 11. .t jua. li-i'.l 1 iiliiT in llie north or south, 

tl Iv c.M'.'plion being tae Navajos, and with 

theiii till' iii-piralioii came from oilier stocks. 
The 111. .-I ciilliire.l of their bamls werclliu 
Na\ai..-, uli.iMi name is said to si^'iiify "large 
eoriili. Ms,' fr.iiii their cM. ii~ivi' aL'riciiltuie, 
Wli. II 111.' Spaiiiar.U lir»t lii.l tli.ln in 1'->I1 they 
wi lelilli-rsof th.'soil, ereeled latL'c granaries for 
their crops, irriLTaied tin ir by arlilicial 
wilier cour-es or aieipiias, am! live.l in substan- 
tial dwclliiiirs, parllv under'.'r.aiii.l . but they lia.l 
not then learned I'lie art of w.aviiig the i . 1, ■ 
iir.ircd 'Na\aio lilaiik.-'-,' ". .* b-o--' •• later 

arqiiisition of their artisans,' — I). O. Brinton. 
'/■,'.. Aiii'rii-an Hun; /i/i 6l)-72. — See, alMive, 
Ai-.M iiK (Jiioiif. and Hi.ackkkkt. 
Atsinns (Caddoet).* SeelMlow: Blackkkf.t 
Attacapan Familjr—" Derivation; From a 
Choctaw word 'man eater.' Little is 
known of the trilu'. the language of wliicli fornix 
the basis (if the presi nt family. The side know- 
ledge possi'S,s<'d by Oallatin was derived from a 
voeabnlarv and "some scanty information fur- 
nished by'Dr, .lohn Sibley, who ( olU-cted lii» nia 
teriiil in'tlie vear IHll.'!, (iallatin states that the 
trilie was reiliici d to .W men. . . . -Mr. (Jiitsch. i 
colleitcd some -'.iMKi words and a considerable 
Imdy (if text. Ills vmabiilary dillers eonsider- 
ablv from the one furnished bv Dr. Sibley ami 
published bv (iallatin . . . The above material 
si'i'ins to show that the Attacapa language is ili-^- 
liiict from all others, cxcei.i po<-ilily the Chili- 
machan "—.I, W, Fowell, Strent/i Annutil Ileimrt, 
IhirriiH of Klliiiiito;/!/, fi t>T. 
Aymarai. See 1 Kiif. 

Aztecs See Ixdow: M.\v.\8; also Mexico: 
A I). 1325-1503; and Aztki- and Maya FirrcKK 
Bakairi. Sec below: CAiiins. 
Balchitas. Seebehiw; Pampas Trirkh. 
Bannack*. Seebehiw; Siiosiionkan Family. 
Barbudo. See alHive: Anuksians. 
Bare. See Ih'Iow Gt k ok Cimo Gkoup. 
Baure. .Sec above: Anoksiass. 
Beothukan Family.— The Bcothuk were a 
tribe, iiinv extinct, which is iM'lieied to have 
iHCupied the whole of Newfoundland at the tini.' 
of its discovery. What is known of the language 
of the Beothuk i:idicates no relationship to any 
other American tongin .1. W. Powell, Serenth 
Anituallieiit of I fit Hn, m nf Kthm^iyy, p. .V. 
Biloxis. See below: Sioian Family. 
Blackfeet.orSiksikas.— ' The triln' that wan- 
dered the furthest from the primitive home of tli.' 
slock [the Algoniiuianl were the Blackfeet, or 
Sisika, which vord has this signiticatiim It i^ 
derived from t leir earliei' habitat in the valley of 
the Ued river of the north, where the soil » is 
dark and blackened their inmcasins. Their 
bands include the Bhiod or Kcnai and the Piegaii 
Indians, Haifa ceiilury ago they were at li.e 
head of a (onfedeiacy which embraced these 'ui.l 
also the S..rcee iTiniie) and the Atsina (Cad,!." 
nations, and numbered about ;iO,(«hl souls. Tin y 
have an interesting mythi.iogy and an uniisiial 
knowledge of the eonsiellations '— 1>. U. Hnii- 
loli, Tlif .\ii:,rir,ni li,ld, /<. 79— See abine: 
Ai.iioNiii IAN Family; an.l. behiw: Flatiikm- 
Blood, or Kenai Indians. See abo\ c ; Bi.a. k- 


Botocudos. See below: Tl I'l — Olauam. 
Tri-t vas. 

Brule'. See below; SiiiiAN Kamilv. 

Caddoan Family. Seebelow. Pawsf.k iC\: - 
DovNI Family; see. also, Ti;xAs: TiiK Alioin.. 


Cakchiquets. See below: QnriiKS. iin.l 

Calusa. See below: TrMryrAN\N Famii.i 
Cambas, or Campo, rr Campa. Se iibm :; 

ANIIISIANs; also. lioLIVIA; AllOKIIU.N Al. 1 S- 

Canares. See Ki iadok. 

Canas. Sec Pkki:. 

Canichanas. See Bolivia: Auohioinal In- 





1.1. 5. 




Caniengas. Sw Im'Iuw: Iiicmjiois Conkkd- 

Cariay. Siclxluw: (irrK on ( iho (lumr. 
Caribs and their Kindred.— "The wurlikr 
iinil iinvli-lilini: clmnclcr cif tlirsc iPCDplc. so 
,ljll(n n't from tliiit. of tlicpiisilliiniinnMS nations 
iirounil tlicni, awl llic wiilc scoiw c.f Ilirir ciilpr- 
nri<it uiiil wiindrriiiL'H, like tlinsi' "f tlie iiiiinail 
trilics of tlic Old Worlil, cntillc IlKtn to dis- 
tinu'iii-licd iittcntinn. . . . Tlic tr:idit'(inal ac- 
counts of their ori;:in, lliimiili I if roiirso extremely 
valine, are yet caiialile of liein;r verilied to a 
.mat ileLTie'liy pe<i;;riil)liical fails, and opi'U one 
iif tl;e ricli veiiis of ciirimis in(iiiirv and spertila- 
tiiin wliicli aliound in tin- New U'orld. Tliey 
are said to have niittnited from I he nniote valli'VS 
, inbosonied in the Apalachian nioiinlains. The 
earliest accounts we have of them represent them 
with weapons in I heir liand-i. cnntiniially en- 
piffeil in wars, winnini; their way and shift- 
irij; their abode, until, in the course of time, they 
f.iund themselves at the extremity of Florida. 
Here. ahandouin>r the northern continent, tliey 
passed over to tlic Lucayos [Bahamas], and 
tlieiiee ),'railually. in the jiriKess of years, from 
islanil to island of that vast venlant chain, w hicli 
links, as it were, the end of Fhirida to the coast 
of I'aria, on the Bouthcni continent. The arehi- 
pelatro extending' from I'orlo Kioo to Tolmiro 
was tlieir slronirhoUl, anil the island of Guada- 
liiiipe in a manner their eiladel. Hence they 
inaile their expeditions, and spread the terror of 
their name throii^'h all the surroundinj; countries. 
Suarinsof them landed upon the southern con- 
tininl, and overran some parts of tern lirnia. 
Traces of them have been discovered far in the 
interior of that vast country throii(:h which Hows 
the llriKjnoko. The Dutih found colonics of 
them on the banks of the Ikouleka, which emp- 
ties into the Surinam; alonj; the Ksipiihi, the 
Manini, and other rivers of (iuayana; and in the 
eiiiiiilry watered by the windinijs nf the Cay- 
iiiiie"— W Irvinjj," A/fr m^il I'lii/mji-i of O'liiin- 
'.!(.<. U- 6, eh. ;i ((• tl— "To this account [sub- 
-taiiliallv as frivcn alKive] of the orldn of the 
Insular ('harait«'S, the generality of historians 
have L'lvcn their assent; but there are doubts 
alti iiiliiiL' it that ar. not easily solved. If they 
nu.'raied from Florida, the iinperfcct .state and 
iiaiiirrd ciiursi' of their navai;.'ition induce a be- 
liif that, traces of them would have been found 
.III Ihiise which arc near to the 
-liMr.-; yet th.' natives of the Hahamas, whi'ii ills- 
i.iviT.ii by C.ilumbus. were evidently a similar 
p... pie to those of illspaniola. Itesides. it is 
-:illi. I.iiily known that there existed anciently 
liiaiiy iiunieniusand powerful trilics of Charaibes 
lui I III' s.iulhcrn peninsula, extcndlnir from the 
rivi r to Kssi'i|iiebe, and throuirhout the 
wlt.'le pr.ivinee of Surinam. c\cn to llra/.il. sonie 
.■f u 111. h still ntainlain Iheir in. lep.iid.tu\. . . . 
1 ill. liiM' thiri-l.ire to the opinion of .Martyr, an. I 
.'ii. tilde that the islanders wvrv rather a c.ii.iny 
tr..iu tlio Charaibes of Soulli .\inerlca. than from 
iiiv iiaiiim of the North. Kochel'ort a.linlls that 
i!ii irinvn ref.Tri'd I'onstanlly t.i (iui- 
ana. '— If Kibvanls, IHkI. 'if llrif. Col'.uimin tlit 
W. lj,iiu-,i,bk. 1, f/i. 2.— ■■'The Carablscc, Canl- 
'"i>i, lliaraibes, Caritis. or (Jallbis, orl;;inaIly 
.-r.-iipit-.l [in Ciuiana] the principal rivers, but as 
•'le Dutch encroached upon their pos.sessions 
till y r. tired inland, and are now daily dwind- 
Hni: invav Ac«ordimr to Mr Illllhouse, thev 

couM formerly mtisternenrly tOOOfiRlitinffinpn, 
but an' now [IH,'!.'!! scarcely able to raisi' a tenth 
part of that nunilHT. . . ". The smaUer islands 
of the CariblM'an Sea were formerly thickly 
populated by this trilw, but now not a trace of 
them reniaiils " — II. <i. Daltim, lliil. of JlrilM 
(!iii<inii. i: 1, ch. 1. — K. F. im Thuni, Among 
the Iiidiiiiia of (iniiiii'i, eh. tl. — " lii'cent re- 
searches have shown that the oriiiinal home of 
the slock was south of the .\ina/..iM. and prob- 
ably 111 the hinhl.inds at the head of the Tapajoz 
riv.'r. A tribe, the liakairi, is still resid.nt 
there, whose language is a pure and archaic 
f.irmof the Carib lon^'iie."— I). (!, lirinton. A'.i- 
.-..i iinil I',oi,l,ii, ji. 2(iH. — " Uelated to the Caribs 
stand a Ion; list of small tribes . . . all inhahit- 
anls of the great primeval forest in and near 
(iulana. They may have characteristic dllTcren- 
ces. but none worthy of mention are known. In 
biKlily appearance, " according to all aci.iunt.s, 
thcsi"" relatives of tin; Caribs are Isautiful. In 
(J. jetown the .\rauacas (or Arawaks] are cele- 
liraleil for their beauty. They are slender and 
graceful, and their features handsome and n'gu- 
lar, the face having a (irecian prolile, and the 
skin being of a reddish cast. A little farther in- 
land we tind the iMacushi for .Macnsis], with a 
llirhlcr complexi'in anil a Koman nose. These 
two types are ri'peated in other trilH'S, except in 
the Tarumi, who are decidedly ugly. In mental 
iharicteristics great similarity prevails." — The 
SliiiKliiril Xiiliinil lli.'itorii {J.'S. KinrjiiUii. eil.), p. 
2;)T. — "The .\rawaks occupied on the continent 
the area of the m.shrn (luiaiia. iM'tween the 
Corcntyn and the I'omeroon rivers, and at one 
time all the West Indian Islands. From some of 
them they were early driven by the Caribs, and 
within 4(1 years of the date of Columbus' llrst 
vovage tlie"Spanish had exterminated nearly all 
on" the islands. Tlieir course of ha.l 
been from the interior i.:' lirazil northwaril; tlieir 
distant relations are still to be found between the 
headwaters of the Paraguay and Sehiiiirii rivers." 
—I). O. Urinton, Itiirm niiil i',/>//A.«. ;i. 'JiiS-'JiiU.— 
"The Kapolin (.Vcawolos, Walkas. iVi.) claim 
kindred with the Caribs. . . . The .Vcawoios, 
though resolute and .Ictermliied. are le^s hasty 
anil impctuoiis than the Caribs. . , .Vccordltig 
111 their tradition, one of Iheir hordes removed 
|to the Ipper Diauercra] , . . from the .Masa- 
riini. The I'arawiaiias, wlio oriu'lnally dwelt on 
ihc DcniiTira. having tiieii cxlermiiiaied by the 
continual incursions of the Caribs, the Waika- 
.\cawoios oci'iipled tbilr vacant terrllory. . . . 
The Macusis . . . are supposed by some to have 
formerly iiihabite.l the lianks of the Orinoco. 
. .\sth.y ar.' 111. In^lri.ius and imwarllkc, they 
have been tile pr. y .if cv.ry savaire tribe around 
them. Till' Wapl^lanas are supp.isi'd to have 
.Irivcn them norliiward and taken posvs.siiin of 
till ir country. The llnuillans. as will as th.' 
Caribs. ,\iauoios. Ac. have long been in the 
habit of enslaving tlieni . . . Th.' .\recunas 
have been aceiisiomed lo ilescciid from til. 
lilu'her lands an.l attack llie MacusN. . . Tlil~ 
trilie is sai.l to have formerly on the banks 
of Ihc Taupes or I'ciyari, a tributary of the Uio 
Ncgr.i . The Wai.uis appear to have been 
the most ancient inhabitants of the land Very 
Utile, however, can be glcaiicd from tlu'iu re- 
specting early hist. iry. . . . The TiviiiviLs 
mentlone.l by Ualelgli. were probably a braiiih 
of the Wanius. whom lie calls (Jiianwetes. '— 


•i ;.;i 


■'.1 iS ' 

I ^1 . 



Vr. n. Bri'tt. Jnili,r( Tri't-i nf (ini,iii:i. /il. 2, <■». 

Caripuna. Si i- IhIhh : < i ( k on ('i«i> <>ii<>ir. 

Cat Nation, or Eries. Sccticlnw: llriioNw. 
Ac. iin.l iKinjimi CoNKKPKUAi v: Tiikiu Cun- 

Catawbas, or Kataba. Sd' lnlow: Shuan 
Famii.v; :i1mi, Timi i^i anan. 
Cayugas. Sie Ixhiw: luoi^roirt ((inkkdkk- 


Chancas. Sic I'l i:i . 

Chapas, or Chapanecs. Sn' ImIow: ZaI'o- 

TKi s, 1. r< . 

Cherokees.— 'Till- Chcrnkri' tril)r liaa loni; 
liccii ;i pu/.zlini: facmr tu stucliiils nf ciliniildpy 
anil N'lTtli AiinricMii liiiicniiL'cs. Wlicllicr tul'i' 
cim-iiUrc'il an iilinnriiial iitT.slinot fmni diii' (if tlii' 
willkniiwii Indian sIikUs or fainilii's nf Nmlli 

Atnrriia. or tin- rininanl of si unilctcrmincd 

or almost cxtinit family wliiili has niiTu'cil into 
anoiliiT, appiar to be iiui'stions yet iinscltlcil." 
— (' Thomas, Hiin'nl ytnuinhof tin- X'lrlhirn lye- 
tio„.i ■■f thi- r. S. {Fifth I!,/)!. „f the 
U'lii.iH ■■/ Kthi,;h,;iii. lSM:i-4i.— Facts which 
tcnil 111 iiicntifv ti c I'hcrokccs with thiMincicnt 
' nioiinil-liiiililcrs"of the < )hiii Valley — the Al- 
IcL-hans or Tallii:cwi of Indian tniditiim — uro 
set forlli Iiv I'rof. Thoinas in a later naper, on 
the I'rolilcni of the Ohio Monnds, imMishedby 
the liwrcan of I'.thnoloL'y in \'*^\» |sce iibovi': 
Ai.i.t.i-iivNs] anil in ii lilllc hook |>nhlishe(l in 
isiiii, cntiili d "The f'hcrokccs in I're-CohnnbiaM 
Tillies. " "The ( hcrokee naiioii has prolialily 
iKiuiiicil a more ]iroiiiiiicnt idace in the allairs 
and lii>lory of what is now the I'liilcil Slates of 
Anieriea, Miice the date of tlie ivirly Kiimpean 
seltlinii 111-, tlian anv other trilie. nation, or con- 
federacy of Indians.' uidivs it he iio.ssilile to cx- 
Ci'lit tile |iowilfiil and warlike leaL'lle of the 
Iroi|iMi- or six Nations of New York. It is al- 
nil ~1 certain Iliev were vi-iiid at u, very 
carlv 1" riod | IVhi] foil.' win;: the di-covi ry of the 
.Viiuiii all eoiitiiii lit liy that daring ami cnllnisi- 
a-iie Siiaiiiard. Ki rnaiido de Soto. ... At the 
lime of the KiiL'li-li settlement of the Carolinas 
the ( In rokei s occupied a diversitleil and well- 
water- d riLTioii of country of lari;e extent upon 
the wall rs of the (■ ilawlia. liroad. Saluda. Keo- 
wi e. Tu^', Savannah, and Coo-a rivers on 
the ( a-t and south, and several tributaries of the 

Ti iim^v 1 l!ie north and west. . . . In sub- 

seiiM. nl v :ir^. lliroii-h fn .luelit anil loii;.' ( oii- 
tiiiiad i.'nlliels Willi the e\ir advanein;.' while 

Sdlli IlleliW. iilld the .sIllTi'-ive treaties w IliTI by 

the ( hi rol.r. - Ln.adiially yii id.d poriionsol their 
doniain. ih. Imaiioii ami iiaim s of their towns 
w. !■■ ...f,li!,M:i!li ciiaili-'iau' iiiilil Ine I'nial reiiiov.d 
of Uir n:ili...i |:s;;il_l~;;!ll ». -l of tlie .Missi^vippi. 
. . I'liis removal turned till ( hi rokees bai k in 

the ( 

posUP -. 

and inal; 
the Hm 
born of 
the l.i-- 
SCI ure. : 

a eti'liir>. 

!■ i I on 11 \ 
it a radii' . 

1. ndar of pro-rr-^ and i ii iii/atioii at lea-t 

The hardsliipv and ( \- 

lUpled Willi the I'lM r- 

dillV ri 111 cliniale, < "^t 

. if 1" rl'aps lo'pi r CI lit. of their total 

,11 'I'he alliillo-iiies .'iiiil lurliuletlee 

tlictn I'v of l--;'."i not only oeea^ionid 

■ f inany ii-. .-. Iml nii'lered pr..p.tly in- 

r d in < . 11-. .pa me diniini-.hi d the 

■ f tlie iiiiire (omniuiiity in its in- 

A lirii 1 pi rioil of coinparative 

T, was lejaiii charaeicri/,i d by an 

rctniival wu liiid rriUii the ri ■ 

an-l indii-'ry 
cuniidati. 11 
quiet, howe 
litivan' '■ 
\ears afii 
• >. . .S 

■ their 
.1.. .\i.| 

port of their apent that thoy arc apain on the 
increase in population. . . . ^Vitli the exctpliea 
of occasioniil drawbacks — thi' result of < ivil 
f,.uds — the projiressof the nation in (cliicatie'i 
Industrv and civilization continued unt'l ilr 
outbreak of the rebellion. At this ppri(Hl. from 
the best iittainahli' information, the Chcrokci 
numbercil 21. (MM) souls. The e%ents of thewi, 
broiit;lit to them more of desolation and ruin 
than perhaps to any other community. Haid i 
and sacked alternately, not only by the t'oiifm 
crates and rnion forces, but by the vindictiif 
ferocity anil hate of their own factional divi- 
ions, tlieir country became a blackened and (Icm. 
late waste. . . . The war over, and the work if 
reconstruction < ommcnci'd, fouial them niinibi r 
inc 14.0IMI impoverished, heart broken, ami 
revengeful people. . . . To day their country is 
more prospi rous than ever. They ninnlir 
22,IKin, a preater population than they have lial 
at anv jirevhius pcriiMl. except perhaps je-l 
prior "to the da'p of the treaty of IKi.'i, whin 
those east added to those west of the Mis.sissip| i 
are staled to have aiigrepited nearly 2.'>,00(» pco 
pie. To-dav they have 8.S0<) scholars alti ml 
injt 75 schiHils, esiablislnd and supported ly 
themselves at an annual expinsi! to the nation of 
nearly $l()0,llO(). Today, 13.000 of their people 
can read and 1H,(HK) can speak the Kin: 
lish lannuasi'. To-ihiy. ,5.000 brick, frame and 
liii; houses are occupied by them, and Ihey 
ti-i (hurt lies wiili a membership of several thou 
sand. Thev cultivale KKl.CHIO acres of land ami 
have an additional bllKOlHI fenced. . . . Thu 
have a constitutional form of froverninent pmii 
catcd upon that of the I'liited States. As a mi.- 
their laws are wise and benelicent and are ■ ii- 
forced with strictness and justice. . . . Tin- 
prise nt Cherokee population is of a comp.-iii' 
cliaracl<-r. Hemnants of other nations or trii.s 
[Delawarcs, Shawnees. Creiks. Natchez] havi- 
ffoiu time M time been absorbed and admitted !.. 
full part-cipation in the bcnctits<.f Cherokee cri 
i„.„ship.— C. C. Hovcc. •/■/., n.n.h,- Xiti'.h ■■!' 
I„ili,ii,K (l-yiVi h'li'l. '■/ the JInmi: ■/ 
Hlhifil:iiii, 'lss:i.s.|i._Tliis elaborate iiaper 1} 
.Mr. Hovee is a narrative in detail of tlie otVn i .1 
relation's of the Cherokees with the colonial ;.i! 
federal L'overnmenls. from their first treaty wi'ii 
..South Carolina, in 1721, down to the trcat> ■ I 
April 27, INIW —".^s early as 17'.is liarton (oii 
pared the Clieroki laiuruau'c with that of i:. 
Iroquois and staled his belief that there wa- . 
conneiiion hctwicn tliein. . . . .Mr. Hale " - 
the tir^t to ::ive formal expris-ion to his bdi. I ■• 
the alliiiiiyof the Clieroki to li".|Uois. Heci n' 
cMeiisive' ( heriiki vocabularies have conn ii 
posvi ^^ion of the liureaii of Kthnology. an. I i 
careful coinpari-oii of them with ample Iro.p: - 
nialerial has been made by Mr Hewitt. Tin •■ 
suit is conviniiii;.' pr.iof'of the rclaiioiiship 
the two lail;.'ilai.'is "—.I. U. r.iwcll, Sr,i,!l. .1 

1,'uii n,i,t. ./ tin ihmn.i ..f Eihi„.i„,i!i. /.. ;r* 

Ai.i-o i.s S. G. Drake, Th, M.,ri:iii„d /,',... • ■ 
.V. .l«i., I>k. 4. ch. 13-111 — See. above: .\ i i 
(.iivxs. — See, also, for an account of the i i 
r iKie \V:irof 17."i'.t-17lll. S.inii Caiioi.ina: .\ : 
1T.V,I-I7l)l; and for "Lord Duninore's Wo 
I iiiio iV M.ii'V) A I) 1774. 

Cheyennes, or Sheyennes. Seealiov;- Ai 
(.i1M;1 i\n Kamily 
' Chibchas.— The niosi iioriherlv jToup ot r •■ 
tribes of thi' .\iidis "are the CundinamiU'ca i 

i.iis i;. 




thr lulili- l;inils "f Hoiiuli- At thr tiiiic of tin- 
(vmiui'^l till- \\alir>lii(l iif tin' Miipliili nil was 
i.i(ii|iiiil liv till' Cliilulia. (ir, as they wi-rc ralliil 
liy llic Spaniards, .Miiyscas. At lliat liiw tlid 
(iii'iiha wiri' tlir iiiiisi poncrfiil iif nil tlii' 
aMti«lilli"noiis triliis. liail a liiiii; liislury licliiml 
lliiia. win- well aihaiKcil lnHaril livili/alimi, 
til wiiiili miint-nms luitiiiuilicH lirar wilnc^s. 
Till' Cl'iii'liii (if tii-ilay iii> InMirir spiak the well- 
iiivrlii|iiil ami niiisii-al laiiu'iiaL'i' uf Ilii'ir fnrc- 
fatliirs. It iMiaiiii' cxiiiiii almiil i~-\'>, ami it 
I. in iiiiiv iinK 111' inl'irriil frmn rxi^tini; ilialicls 
nf it, ihisc 'art' till' lanL'iiaL'cMif tin- Tiirii m. a 
irilir ilwdlini; mi'tli nf lioirnta. ami uf tlii' Ituni 
Inilians wlin livi' in the mi:;lilinrli"iwl uf the 
ccliliralcil Fjncralil n\incsiif Mii/n.'— T/u Sl,i,i- 
./.!/■./ S.iIiimI lli't''rin.l. S. KiH.islii), ,./,) /■. «, ;i. 
■,'la — ■■ As |iiittiTs ami ^niM-niillis tiny |tlif 
( iiiliilial rankcil aniuML' the limsl cm tlir cimti- 
iiiii' "— 1). <i. Itrinlim. A'.;.-. ,< n/i./ /',..;''"•. y. ''•-■ 
— Ni', also. t'liljiMiilAN Stati;s: A. 1>, 1'<;W- 

Chicasas. Scf liilnw: ^IrsKMonKAN Family; 
aKn, l.iii i>iana: A. 1>. 171!M7."iil. 

Chichimecs. Si' Miaio: A. 1). i;ij.",-15l»3 

Chimakuan Family.— ■The ('hiniakiini arc 
siiil tu have lii'cn fornn'rly cini' nf the lariri'st ami 
tniKt |iii\n'rful trilics (if" I'UL'i't Siniml. Tlnir 
warlike h.iliitscarly tended Iddiniinisli Iheiriinni- 
lier-. ami when visile(l liv (lililis in lM."i4 tliey 
(i.inilcil imly abiiiit 71) individnals. This small 
riMinaiit (Kciipied some 15 small liid^res on I'drt 
Tiiu-i<ind Bav." — I. \V. Pdwcll. S, i; nth Atmiml 
llij'^rl. Itiiriiiu fif Kt/tih'l'in!/. /I. I!-.'. 

Chimarilcan Family.— •Aeedrdiiii; to Powers, 
llii« lainily was represcnteil, so far as known, liy 
Iwitrihis in California, one the Cliiimilakwe, 
liviiiL' iiTi New Uiver, a hraneh of the Trinity, 
the iitliir the Chiniariko, residin,:; upon the Trin- 
ity its.lf from linrnt Itmeh up to tln^ mouth of 
North Kork. California. The twotiihes tire said 
to have been as numerous formerly as the llu|)a, 
hy ^\hom they were overeome and netirly exter- 
iiiiiialdl. Ipon the arrivtil of the .\merie;ins 
eiily 25 of the Chimtilakwc were left."— .1. W. 
I'liHell, Snrfli Aiiiiihtl litjurt, liiifiiiH iif Kth- 

Chinantecs. See lielow; Z.U'oTKi s. KTr. 

Chi''-)oltan Family.— "The litmks of the Col- 
liiiilii.i. frointhetJraiid Dtillestoilsmouth. heloii!; 
t'ihe two hramhexif thcTsinrik |iir I'hinook] 
i iiimi. which meet ill tint iici^jlihorhood of the 
K"«lit/ liivcr. and of which tm almost nomintil 
r. :uii ,:ii is l( ft. . . . The position of Ihe Tsinnk 
|'i\iMiis to their depo|)iilation was. as tit once 

1 ; ■ OS, imist itnpoi'iaiil. occnpyiiii: hotli sidesof 
iiii tiriery of c )rci;on fur a ilistance uf iOO 
ih'li -, they piissessed the principal t lion niL'li fare 
li '■.\ieii ihe interior and the ocean, liiiiltniless 
rev ,ef, ,.,,,t' provisions of various kinds, iiml t;i, i|- 
ci's i,.|- ir.ule jilmost unciplalled on the i'aci- 
!. (i (lilihs. 7V/'v.« ,.f If,,./ l^^.',/„v^.» ,<ud 
S W ltr,,,,.H [C.ntrih. tn S. .1. Kilii,..\.,'j:l. r. 1), 
p i'll — See. also. Ilcliiw: Fl.A TIIKAIIS 

Chippewas. See liclow : O.iinwAS; and 

.\li.0Nyt IAN FaMII.V. 

C'-ippewyans, See liclow: AriiMvvscAN 


Choctaws. See below : Ml skiiook \N F\Mii.v. 

Chontals and Popolocas. — ■ .Vcconlini,' to 

n-'is of IS80 there were ;!1.(MNI Indians in 

'. xidi belontring to the Fumilia Chontal No 

i. ^llllliv c&it»lb. 'riie word 'choutalli ' ill the 

I Nahuiitl lans-'iitii-'c means simply 'si ranker.' and 
was ujiplied by Ihe Naliuas to any jveople other 
I than their own. .\( cdrdini,' tii the .Me.xieiin 
I statistics, the Chunt.ils ;ire found in the states of 
I Mexico. I'liebla. Oaxaca, (iuerrcro. Tabasco, 
Guatemala and Nicaraijiia. A similiar term is 
'jiopoloca.' which in Nahuall ineaiis a coarse 
fellow, one speakiiii; badly, that is. broken 
Xahuall. The I'opolocas have also been erected 
into an ethnic etility by some clhniii:raplicrs, 
with as little jiistiie as" the Chontallis, They 
are stated to have lived in tlic provinces of 
I'uebla. Daxaca. Vera I'm/. Meihoacan and 
(Iiiateinala." — 1 >. (1. liriiiton, Tfw Amtrtt'>tn 
A'.i.- , /.//, llil-l.-i;i. 
Chontaquiros. See above: Ani)1;mans. 
Chumashan Family.— ■ I)eriv;iliiii: From the name of the S;inta l!os;i NIanders. 
Tlie scvcnil (li:ilects of tliis tainilv have lonj; 
been known under the f;ioiip or family name. 
•S:inta Barbara.' which seems tirst to have licen 
Used in a comprehensive sense by bttliam in 
!>*">(), whoincliiiled under it three lanijuaiics, viz, : 
Santa Barbara. S:iiil;i Inez, and Sen I.nis Obispo. 
The lerm litis no piriineiice as a family 
(lesiiiiialion, except from the fact th:it the Santa 
Barbara Mission, around which one of the diu- 
lecls of the family w:is spoken, is perlcips more 
widelv known anv of the others" — J. W. 
Powell, Sniilh Aiiii'iiil Il<ii"i-t. linmm of Kth- 

h'ltntji/, p. «i7. 

Clifr-dwellers. SeeAMKUiCA: PHKiiisToitlc. 

Coahuiltecan Family. — "Derivation: From 
the name of the .Mcxic;iii Stale Coalniila. This 
family ii|>pears to have included iiniiicrous tribes 
in southwestern Texas and in Mexico, ... A 
few Indians still survive who spe;ik one of the 
(lialecls of this family, and in IMsiO Mr. t;atseiiet 
collected vocabularies of two tribes, the Coine- 
eriido ami Cotoiiamc. who live on Ihe Hiodrinde. 
at Las Prietas. State of Tamauli|ias,"— J. \V. 
Powell. Sn.itl' Aiiii'ial llijit.. Jinn, I II of Kth- 
ntiliijij. /I. (>■<, 

Coajiro, or Guajira. — "An ixciptional posi- 
tion is taken, in many respects, by Ihe Coajiro. 
or (tuajira, who live on Ihe peninsula of the 
same name on the ncrthwestcrn boundary of 
V«>U("ZUi"la. Bounded on till sides by .so("alled 
civilized (leoplcs. ihis Indian tribe is known to 
Icive inaintained its iiKlcpcndcncc. ami acipiired 
the well (IcMTVeil reputation bir ( riiclty, a tribe 
whiih. in many respects, can be classid with the 
Apaches ami Coiminclies of New .Mexico, the 
Ar;iucani:iiis of Chili. ;itid the (iuaycani tmd 
Guarani on the ;':ii:ina. Thi" Coa,jiro arc mostly 
hiriri". with chestnut blown complexion and 
lihick. sleek hair. While all the other coast 
tribes Icivc ailiipted the Sp:iiiish lam:uai;e. the 

Coijiro Icive preserved their own speech. They 
iirc ihe cspeciill bus of the other peoples, .N'o 

one is iriven eiiir;ime into their land, and they 
live with their iieiLrlibors. the Vei:' znelans, in 
constant hostilities. They have :ine horses, 
which they kno'.v how to riih" exci lleiitly. . . . 
Tliev Icivc luimcroiis herds of citth". . , . They 
folhiw .iL'ricnl'.ure a little. "— /'/» Sl.ii.i/.inl .\,il 
ur,:l lli^r -ri/ •■!. s. h'tu'l'h;/. •■^^. f. ti. ;). ■.;4:' 
Cochibo! See above: .Vndksians, 
Cochiquima. See above .\siiksiaN8 
Coco Group. See Ik'Iow: Gick ok Coco 
Coconoons. Sie below; M A HtrosAN Family. 
Cofan. Si . .ihoTc . Akuebianu. 





Collas. Sii' I'K.ur. 

Comanches. Scr In low; Siioshonkan Fam- 
Il.v, iuicl Kii)W\N Kamii.v; iinil iilidvi'; APAiiiK 
Okoi !• 

Coneitogas. Sw liclow : Si>»<irKiiANNA». 

Conibo. Sic iibcivc: Amikkianh. 

Conoys. Sci- iihovc; AnioNyiiAN Kamii.y. 

Copehan Family.— •Thi'lcrrilciry '>f till' l(i|io- 
li;iii fiinilv is liiMiiiilrd on Ihi- iinrtli liy Moiiiit 
Sliiistiiniiii tlLP territory 111' tin' S:Wciiii aii'l Kiitii- 
ainiaii faniilics. uri tin' cast liy tlif tcrritDry iif 
Ihi' I'alaihiiiliaii. Yanan, ami I'linjunaii lainilii-s. 
aii.lDii till' v'lilh l.y till' liay-;,)!- Sail I'alil" uml 
Siiisun ami tin' IciWir «atir> "f the Sacraiiiciitd." 
— I. W I'.iwi II. .S .■, ,ilh AiiN'i.d li,i''.,J!iiri.iu nf 
J:H,„„I;,i,/. I,. {)<.>. 

Costanoan Family.— 'nirivatiuii: tnini tlio 
ypaiiisli costaiio. ■ ('.ia>t-miii. ' I'mlcr this Kni'ip 
iiaiiir I.athani i'lchnliil live tribes . . . which 
were iimler the Mipervisii.n iif the Mis.-ioii Dnlnres. 
. . . The terrilurv (it tlie t'cislaiioaii family I'X- 
temlsfn.iii the Celileii (iate to u point near the 
wiinheriieiiilof Monterey Hay. . . . Thesurviv- 
iiiL' lieliaiisof the iiiiee" piipulous tribes of this 
faiiiilv are now seattere.l over several counties 
anil prob.iblv ilii not niiniber. all told, over ;tO 
inilividtials, "as was ascertained by Mr. llciishaw 
in l'<"<'<. Mo-t of the^c are to be foiiiiil near the 
towns of Santa Crii/. and .Monterey." — .1. W. 
I'owill, Sniith A'liiiiiil Uijil., lliiifvi of Eth 
wl.Hin. /I. 71 . 

Creek Confederacy.— Creek Wars. ^ee 

llelou : ,Mt SKllool. VN I'aMII.V; also L'NITtD 

Stmi.s ok Am.: a. I). l>bi-l'<M (.MaifsT — 
Ai'nii.i; and Ki.oiiii. v; A. 1>. l'<Hi-l>^lH 
Crees. Seealnrve; Ai.ooN.;! I \N Family. 
Croatans. s.r.^Mi.iin \ .\ H iris7-i.")!(0 
Crows lUpsarokas, or Absarokasi. See 

beliru ; Slol AN KsMll.V. 

CuatOS. Sie below: r\Mr\s 'I'ltllll.S. 

Cunimare. See below: tJreK on Coio 
Onoi I- 

Cuyriri or Kiriri. See below : (iii k ok Coco 
Giioi I', 

Dakotas, or Dacotahs, or Dahcotas. See 
below. SioiAS Tamii. valid 1'awnki; il aiiudan) 

Delawares, or Lenape.— "The inoper n:inie 
of the Delaware Indians was and is l.eiiape la as 
in falher. e as a in malei . , . The l,eii:ipe 
were divided into tlirei' sub tribes:— 1. The 
Minsi, Moiiscvs, Mont beys, Miiiise.s. i>r Miiii- 
sinl^s -i. Tile I'naiiii oi^ Wonaiiieys. :t. The 
l"li;ll:ielitiL'o.\|ilall:ltioll of these desiilTia. 
tions will be found in Ibc Uewelder or the ohler 
writers. Kroni in ve^tiirat ions anions liviiiL' Dela- 
warev. cariiid out at niy reipiest by .Mr. lloniio 
llnl, i^ evident that tliev an- wholly ireo. 

j_- 111, I refer to the lo,:ili,,u of these sub- 

tr, the D.l.iware river. . . . The Minsi 

lived 1,. the iiiMiiiiiaiiioiis reL'iiiii a' the head 

W:lt. I- "f the llelilWiire, above f.le KorUs or 
jllll,li..ll of the l.ehiL'h river . , . The rii:imis' 
ti rritorv on the riirht bank of the l)el:iw:in' river 
fXl. iid.'d from ilie l.ebiidi V:illi y >oiiihward. ll 
w:i- 'Ailb t belli I lid I heir -..111 hern liei.dib.irs, the 
I'lliifiehlii:..-, l!i:il I'elill .hull b.rlh. Iilid eedi d 
to him ill Ihe In.lioi il..d ..| Uis-i •file Min-is 
di.l not take pnii in tlie ii:iiisieli..ii, :iiid il 
not until 17:i7 licit i he (' treated 
dire.ily with the latter b.r Ihe ces.-ion of their 
t. rrit.irv. The Unaiarii'.i;;-. ..r Turk, y b-t' n, !i:id 
its principal seat on the atlliient.sof the Delaware 


near wlierc Wilmington now »tiinils.' — D. O 
llrinton. The I., ii,ii>r iintl Thir Uf/tnd; eh. It 
— "Attlie. . . time when William IViinliinileil 
In rennsvlvania, the Delawares had lu'cn subjn 
(rated anil made women by the Five Nations, It 
is wall known that, tteeoriling to that Indian mmli 
of (.xpression, the Delawares were lieueeforlli 
prohibited from making war, anil placed iindi t 
the Koveriijintv of the eouiiiierors, who did ml 
even allow sales of land, in the iielual jiossessioii 
of the Delawares. to be valid wiihoiit their «ii|iro 
bation. Wdliam I'enn, Ills descendants, uiid the 
State of Pennsylvania, iiccordintily, always pur 
chased Ihcri .lit of poasi'ssion from the Delawares, 
and that of Sovereiufnty from the Five Nations 
. . . The use of arms, "tlioii);h from very dilTi r 
ent causes, was cijually prohibited to the Dcla 
wares and to the Quakers. Thus the coloniza 
liou of I'enn.sylvania and of West New Jersiy by 
the Hritish, commenced under the most favorabi. 
auspices. Peace and the utmost harmony Jire 
vaikd for more than sixty years between tin 
whites anil the Indians; for these were for tin 
first time treated, not only justly, but kindly, by 
the cidonists. Hut, however (iradually ami 
peaceably I heir lands ini.i.'lit have Inen purcliasiil. 
the Delawares found them.selves at last in the same 
situation as all the other Indians, without lamU 
of their own, and therefore without means of 
subsistence. They were compelled to seek 
refutfc on the waters of the Susi|Uelmnna. :i> 
tenants at will, on lands beloiifiin); to their liali'l 
coiniuerors. the Five Nations. Kvcn there aii.l 
on the Juniata they were encroached upon. . 
Uialer those cireuin.stances, many of the Dili 
wares determined to remove west of the All. 
(rliativ Mountains, and, about the year 174(1-"." 
obt:ii!ieil from their ancient allies and uncles, tin- 
Wyaiidot.s, the grant of a deri'lict tract of laii.l 
lying principally on the Muskingum. The gr. :it 
liodv if the nation was still attached to Pennsy 1 
vaiiia. Hut the grounds of complaint increa.sed 
The Delawares were incouragcd by the western 
tribes, and by the Freiieh, to shake oil the yok. 
of the Six Nations, and to join in the war against 
their allies, the British. The frontier settlcmcii!.* 
of I'enns\lvania were accordiugly attacked b.itli 
! bv the Delawares aial the iShawuoes. Ami. 
j aillioiii-'h peace was made with them at Eastmi in 
I in 17.V. and the coni{Uesl of Canada put ,an ii 1 
I to the general war, both the Shawnoes and D. 1 1 
I wares removed altogether in 176.^ beyond tlie 
! Alleghany Mountains. . . . The years 17B.'5-17'.i"i 
i are the true periiMl of the power and importaii. >■ 
1 of the Delawares. United with the Shawn.. -, 
who were settled on the Scioto, they sustain..! 
during the Seven Years' War the declining ]«.". r 
of France, and arrested for some years the pi" 
; gress of the Hritish and Americim arm^ 
I Altlioui;h a iiortion of the nation adhcri d to ilii' 
i Anierieans during the War of Indepenilenei., the 
iiKiin bodv, toL'itlier with all the western naii iis 
I ni:ide <iiniiiioii cause with the Hritish. .\n.l. 
1 afler the short truce which foll.iwed the trean ..f 
j 17St, tliev were a^'ain at the head of the we-i rii 
1 conl'edeniev in their last strUL'gle for inde;. n- 
■ diiiee. I'liKU'd bv their .ircographieal situaii. : ;" 
the front of battle, they were, during tli ■" 
three wars, the aggressors, and, t.) the 1.-: 
moment, the most active and formidable cneiu ■ s 
of Aineriea. The ilecisive victory of GcmMl 
; w.ivie.- (IT'.'li. dissolve'l the confeilenicy ; aiel ''.'' 
Delawares were the greatest sulTerers by ' .-' 




ln»ty (if (Jrecnvlllc of ITO'i. ' Aftir tliln, the 
urcslir part of tliu l)(lii«ar(« wiri' sillliil on 
Wliilf UiviT, Iniliiina, "till tlic jiur IMIO, wlit-n 
lliiv liuiilly Cfiliil their tliiiiii to the liiiird 
Si:iti"'. Those rt'siciing there were then reduced 
111 ulKiiit H(X) souls. A mnnlHr . . . had pre- 
\ioiisly ninoved to C'aimiiu; and il is ditlieult to 
;is<i rtaiii llie situation or nunilMrs (jf the resiilne 
111 llii< time [!>*;)«]. Tlios)' who have latelv 
removed west of tlie Mississippi are, in an esti- 
iiiute of llie War Department, eonipnied at 4IH) 
wiuls. Kornier eniitfrations to that <|narler had 
hiiwiver taken plaee. and siveral small dispersed 
iKincls ari', it is iHlieveil, luiited with the Seneeas 
iiMil some other trila-s. "— A. (lallatin. >///i«;W» </ 
t/i, Ihih'in Tnhen {Arrfnitthtffi'i Aiutrifitmi, f. 'Jl. 
ii'lri'l.. "'•>. 'J.— See. almve; Ai.(ioNiji IAN F.\M- 
II, V; heloW: SlUWANKSK. and 1'\wnkk((ai> 

Si AtKsoK Am ; A. I). ITli.VlTtiH; anil Moiiavias 
liiiiTiiiiKN ■ and, for an aicoiinl of ■ I,ord Dun- 
iiiire. War." s<e Ohio (Vam.kv): .*. 1). 1774. 
Erie*. .<ee below:, Jci , and Ibo 

mills ('OSKKI)KKAIV: TllKlllt'oSi^lKSTS, &C. 

Eskiraauan Family.— " S.ive u slii;ht inter- 
mi.Miire of Kuropean settlers, the Kskiinu are 
the iinlyinhaliitantsof thii shores of Arc-tic Amer- 
ica, uiiil of lioth sides of Davis Strait and Haf- 
liii H;iy, iiieluilin^' Greenland, as well as a tract 
uf aliiiut 4il'l miles on the Belirini; Strai', coast 
of .\s;.i. Siiiithward they exiciid iis far as alioiit 
■V)' N. L on the eastern side, tin-' on the wesl- 
irn side of America, ami frmn .V> ' to till-' on 
llie shuns of Hudson Hay. Only on Ihe west 
till' Kskiino near their frc.ilier an: interrnpled 
iiniwii small spots of Ihe coast liy the Indians, 
11 mild and 1,'tralenzes, who have 
ilim- ailviiiiced lo the .sea-slmre for the -sake of 
iMiiii:;. These coasts of Arctic America, of 
liiurse, comprise all the surroundiii!; ishiud.s. 
of tlii'se, the Aleutian Islands form an e.xcep- 
lii'ii tl i:riiiip; the iiihalittants of these on the one 
li.inl liisthicily diireriii!^ frmn the coast people 
lure tniatiiiiieil, while oil the other they show a 
1 1 >M r nhiiuiisliip to the Eskiiuu than any other 
mil 111 The Meiiliaiis, tlicrerore, may lie con- 
>! nd as only an aliiionnid hraiu'li of the 
i;-kiiiiii iiatiiiM. , , , As re.u'ards their northern 
ihniis, llie Kskimo people, oral least remains of 
till ir lialiiialitiiis, lia\e been found nearly as far 
iinli as any Arclic explorers have fiitherto 
:i'!v;uiri I , and Very possibly b;mds of them may 
livr siili farliu'r to the norlh, as yet ipiile 
iniknuwii til us. . . . Oil ciiiupariiii; the Kskimii 
ui'.li till- neii;liliiiuriiii; nations, their physical 
I i:iiii!i\iii!i certainly .seems to point at an 
.i-ii!ii' iiriirin; bin, as far as we know, the 
li:i-t iiive^ii^'atiuiis have also sluuvii a tran 
^;!i >!ul link lo cxi^t betwi-eii the Eskimo and 
till' "iliiT .Viiieriean nations, which would suf- 
|i i liily ill. Urate the possibility of a common 
•: -'in from Ihe same eoiitiiient. As to their 
'■•■■■''■' "I life, tin.' Eskimo decidedly resemble 
t^i- ;i .\iiiiTican iieiLrhtpiiurs. . . , With rei;ard to 
:.i ;1 111:; 11. lire, tlie Eskimo also appear akin to 
■i! -Vmiiir.iii nations in rei^ard to its decidedly 
; ;. -y:::!ii tic slnielure. llrre, howcvi r. on tlie 
' ■'!■ r iiiiid, we .neet wilh some very remarkable 
^. .I'l iniies tietween the Eskimo idiom and the 
! I'tu'ii iL'i- iif .Siberia, beloii::iiii; to the Ab.iic or 

Fii;iii-li irr.iup Vccordini; to the Sa^'as of 

111' 1. 1 iamlirs, they were already mil wilh on 
:;. ...-:.., .1^1 .,i (ueeiiiand ai»ouL (lie \car loiiil. 

and almost at the name time on the east roast of 
the .Vnierican routinent. . . . Hetween the years 
l(HM»aiiil i:i(M) they do not soem to have iKcuphKl 
the land south of 6.1-' X. L. on the west coast of 
Clreenlanil. where the Scandinavian colonies 
wen? then situated. Hut the colonists seem 
lo have been aware of their existence In 
hijjher latitudes, and to have liveil in fear of an 
attack by them, since, in Ihe year 12li6, an 
1 e.xpi'dition was .sent out for the purpose of 
e.\|ilorinK the abodes of the Skralint-'s, as they 
were called bv the eulonisl.s. , . . .Vbout the 
year 14.10, the last accounts were received from 
the cidonies, and the way to Greenland was 
entirely forgotten in Ihe mother country. , , . 
The features of the natives in the SouiIk rn part 
of Greenland indii ite a mixed descent from the 
Siandinaviaus and Eskimo, the former, how- 
ever, not having left the slightest sign of any 
iiiUuence on the nationality "or culture of the 
present natives. In the vear l.">S."i. Greenland was 
discovered anew by /ohn Davis, and found 
iiiliabited exclusively by Eskimo."— H. Kink, 
'J'ltliH aiitl TriiiUtiom of the Kukinu), iutrml. aiul 
eh, 6.— The sami'. The Eiikimo trilxH. — " In lti6tf, 
I proposed for the Aleuts and people of Inuuit 
' stock coUectively the term Orarians, a.4 indicative 
j of their coastwise distribution, and as supplying 
; the need of a general term to designate a very 
j well detined race. . , . The Orarians are divided 
I into two Well marked groups, namely the 
I limuits, comprising all the so-called Eskimo and 
' TQskis, and the Aleuts."— \V. H. Dall, Tribes of 
' the Extreme S'lrthirent (OiiUrib. to A'. -1. Kth- 
whujy, V. 1), pt. 1. 
Esselenian Family.— "The present family 

■ was included by Latham in the heteriii.'eneous 
group called by him .Salinas. . . . Tlie term 
Salin:iu [is now ] restricted to the San .Vntouio 

I and San .Miguel Imiguiiges, leaving the presi-nt 
family . . . |to lie| called Esselenian, from the 
: miiue of the single tribe Essiden, of which it is 
\ eoiiiposeil. . . . The tribe or tribes cuiiiposing 
; this family occupied a narrow strip of the Cali- 
j fornia loast from .Monterey Hay south lo the 
} viciiiitv of the Santa Lucia M.iuiiiain. a distance 
! ofabiiiitoO miles." — I. _W. I'owi 11. S. i; nth An- 
I u'hil Il<fif., li'inti'i "f EthifJ'i'jjt, i>i'. T.VTO. 
I Etchemins. Seeabove: .Vi.ooMii I \N Family. 
Eurocs, or Yuroks. See In-low: .Moihk s. vVc. 
I Five Nations. .See below: luiaii ois CiiN 


1 Flatheads (Salishan Family i.— "The name 

' Flathf.iil w;is CMiiimoiily gi\in lo the Clua-taws. 

' though, says Dn I'rai.!, Jie s.iw- no reason why 
ihey should be so disiingiiislii-il, w lien the pra(-- 
tieeof tlatteiiing the head was so general. And 

. inllieeiiinut-raiioii jusi i itcd [Do'-umeiitary Hist. 
of N. V , V. I, p. 'Ji; the next paragraph , . . is: 
•The FlaiheaiN. flierakis, Chicachas, i.iid Toliris 
are ini-liuli d iimler the name of Flallii by the 
IriMpiois." — yi. F. Force, Snme K-irh, -.i ij 

th, li,di,ln:< „( Ohiu, yi. ;i-.'.— -The ... 

are disiini lively known as Flatlie:iil .ii'i:;h 
the custom of ili-foriuiiii; the cniiiiiiin is in't 

I ciintiiiid lo tiii-m." — D. (i. lirinUn, 'i}<< Afion- 

' r^t-r lii'-t, p. 107. — "In . . . early tiiiit s llie 
hunters and trappers (-.aild not iliscover why 

■ thi- lilackf.-ei ami Flallieads [of Montana] re- 
ceived their respective designations, fur the 
flit of Ihe fi inner are no niiirc iiicliiiid lo sable 

; than any other part of the body, while the heads 

\ ol Uic "lattil-»» thlil' lair pl'upurtiuU i/f 

• >. . N,,i,, 

\[M'«'iiili.x K, vol. 5. 


. 1 



In^l.r.l it {- 

nlv llllnW till' flllN :lllc| 


is tli;it nil 

I FlallicMiK ii|>|M 

kI :iI iIi> 


loillli 111 III!' ('.>lllllll>i;l lIlMt tl 




'll IIK 

stiiM'i'ii.'ii iir;il 

Tin' Irihrs w ll" I'lMilic' 

I 111' 

II ,.| lliiI.uiiiL' 111!' Ill Mil. ;iii.l wh.i liMil III 
.mil 111' ihr ( ..liiiiini:i. ilillrnil iiltli- fn'in 
iilii rill l:iws. iiiii; < ii-ii.iii>. ^mil »■ rr 

.,1.1 111' Illl' (Mllll.llMMils, Killiiiuck-i. <'hit 

(•|iiii..i.ks iiii.l (hills. 'rill' :it...iiiiti;il>lr 
11,. I iLill. iiiiiv 111. ir liiMiis prrv;iils :ini..iii; 
^.|| -I' Ui.iMiii. /A-' ■-/..'■■/' ';' "" /■''■''■ 

I'.. Hills 

K:iniilv ' 

-.1 U'. 


IiIl'Ii. ill whii'h li 
ill I'.' f.iiiiiliis, (III 
I. Mil riHiin 

111.' 11 




th. Ill 

/„,„/ /„./,,(/, .\-.^..„. /. 17 -111 MiiJ. 

lin:;ilislii' < l;i->ilir:ili.'ll. tlii' " Siilisliiui 

(Kl.illi. is ;i ilistilul |iliin'.' 

I'.'Uill, Sr,„li. A„„'i.i/ I.'.i'l. '■/ tl't ll'in.i'i ■/ 

AV/. /,..'".,",'. /. 111-.' 

Fox Indians. S. r iit...v.': Aii^uMiri vn 
F\Mii.Y. iiii'l 111 1..W. Sais. i\. —I'".. run luiuiiiit 

i.f til.' Ill;ls>:nl'.' ..f F..\;il H.' ill 171','. 

sii' ( \NMis iNi." Kic\siii; .\ l> 1711-17i:i 
— l''..r nil iiniiuiil i.f till' I'.lm k lliiwk War, mi'; A. 1>. 1«!-,'. 

Fuegians. Sii' In!.." I'ataiminhnm 
Causarapos or Guuchies. Si u litlim: Pam- 

I'AS I'llllll s 

Ges Tribes. Sic lul.iw: Ti ri — *ii aiiam.— 


Gros Ventres iMinnetaree ; Hidatsai." N i' 
I11I..W; IIidaisa; als... 11I1..V1'; Ai.iiuNiji 1 \N 
Cuaicarus, Sii' In l.iw ; I'amtas TliiiiKs 
Guajira. Si'i-': Cin.iiiio. 
Guanas. S.i'\v: I'ami'As TiiiiiKs 
Guarani. .S.lnl.iw; Tin 
Guayanas. Sn li.l..«: l'\\tr\s Tiiiiii^. 
Guck or Coco Group. -All i'\iiii-iM' liimiiisiii- 
.1' iriliisiii Itra/.il, ..11 aii.l ii.Tilii.f llii'.\iiia- 

1 Miil.lini; as far as Ilii- Orillucn, lias lui'll 

lalliil llir (Jink. i.rC.ini L'r.iiip. "Tluri' is no 
i'oiiiiii..ii liaiiir t'l.r till- L'ii.ii|v. li.ri' Usiil 
iiiraiiiiiu' a f.illiir's tir..tliir. a viry iiiiin. riant pir- 
s.iiia:.'!' ill this.' irihi s. Tlii' (iiiik gnnili I'lii- 
liraci'S a lar;,'!' iiiiinlKr "i trilns. . . . W'r mil 
iiiuimrali' Imt IVw. Tin' Ciivriri nr Kiriii (als.i 
kii..wii as Satiaja. I'iiii.iil. iras. ili.i, ii:iiiiliir 
al...iit :!,00n. Si. nil' i.r 111. Ml an- lialf I'ivilizi'il. 
s.iiiH' ari' Willi, ami. willi..iil ristraiiit, waiidir 
al.'.iit. rspi'iially in tlu' immnlair.s in tlir I'r.iv- 
imi' of I'lriiaililiuro. Tin- Aiairii livi' on tlu' 
l..wir Ania/...ii ami tlio Toianliiis Ni-vt i-oiiii' 
till' Maiiaos. wli.. liavi'a iiro-pict of iiiaiiit.iiiiiiii: 
till iiisilvis loiiL'rr tlian most irilirs. W illi tliini 
is iniini'iti'il till' li-LTml of till' .u''ii lonl "li" 
wislii.l till- L'i.1.1 ilust from liis liiiilis ill a lak.' 
(,. .' Ki, I)iiiiii)o|, . . . Till' ririii.i. lian'', jin.l 
( i'lin Hm- on till' l!io Nriri.., tlir ( iininiare on 
'..■ .li'ir.i.i, Illl- Maraiilia on llio .Inlay. Wlnilnr 
ilii 1 h iniii'.ro.inlli.'rlL'lit liaiikof tlu' I'.irar m iv, 
I.. I.ri^ t'l Illl- (iiiik is iimirtain. .Vnionir tin' 
liil.i s whii h. iIl.ul'Ii Mry inuili niivul. arr Mill 
hi 111' I mini, laiiil with tlii' (iuik, an' tlir Ti 1 una 
ami til.' I':i,-i' III laliL'iiaL'.' tin' 'i'l iillias show 
IliiOiv siliiilalitii'S to till' (ii's; liny livr on tin' 
». si'.rn IS of lira/.il, ami I'Miinl in K.{iia.l..r 
t.i tlic I'asiaca. Aiiiom; tlnni oiiiir piiiiliar 
iiian.|iiis whii'li stroniilv mall tlios.' f..iinil on 
tin' m.nlivM'st roast of S'..rtli .\inirira. ... In 
till- sunn' ilisiriit ti. loiiL' llii' raupi', who ari' no- 
tiii'alik' from tin' tail that ilii'V livi' in liarrarks. 
imliTil the only trilii' in Soiiili .Vini'rira in wliicli 
this (iisioin apprars. Tin' I'oininnni.slii- hoiisi'S 

ot till' I a 11 1 






si ililTrrcnt iialionality 

vllirll illllil 

(■ a liaiiil of aliiiiil KM) pirs. 
h of till' lallir. Imwcvir. in 
Finally, coiniili.x trilics of ii 

art' t'liiii 



unilrr n.'iims wliirli iiiilirali' only a c'liiiiiiion « i\ 

of lifi'. lint arr also innirrrilly usi'il as I'lliii. 

iri'apliii- naiiii's, Thisi' an' ('.iripiiii.i. Miini. m I 

Miraiiha. all of whom livn in llir miu'liliorlio. 1 

of Ihi' Ma.liira UiviT Of Ilir Ciiripiina .r i 

.laOn Am"i iholli tiriiis siL'iiify ' wan riinii 1. «!:. f . 

ari' iiiiMil »ith (^nii Ima hloml, it is nlaliil tli i' |_j! 

Ihi'V not only atr liiiinan lli'sli. Imt rviii (iiri'.l 

for" prrsi rva'lion . . . Forimrly Ihr .Miira 

will' L'liatlv fiaii'il, this omc powirful ,,i 

p..pii|..iis trilir. houi'Vi'r. was almost ciitii. 

inysof iiliuul r.'il f.ii Ioiil'. 7.") fiit wiilc, ami ^0 
•See Null', A|i|.i'iidi.\ K, vi.l. 5. 94 

listi'oyiil at till' mil of thi'last (ciitiiry liy Hi. 
Mumliinn; tin' rrnmant is srattcriil, . . . lli.' 
Miiia arr till' irvpsirs iimoiii llir Imlians on il..- 
Aina/oii; anil iiy all Ihr ollirr triliis tiny in 
riLjaMliil with ii" crrtaiii ilrtrrrr nf coiitrmpi .s 
pariahs. . . . Miirli lolir frarnl. cvrii anionmh.' 
Imlians. arr also thr Miranha (i. c. riivrrs. va. i 
liomlsi, a slill populous trilir on thr riiilit hank 
of Ihr .lapiira. who srrin to know iiotliiiiL' Imt 
war, riililirrv, iniirilrr, anil man huntinu' - 
'/Vic Stiiiiilii'nl \,i/iinil JUmIoi!/ (,I. S. KiiiL'sl' v. 
ill,), i: «,;./!. 2.1,5-','4H. IN F. Krllrr, Thf Amnnni mid Miiihri 
Ilinrn. <•!(, 2./1K/0.— II. W. Hiitcs, A Xtit'^t 
nil till' Itiirr AiiKiZ'iiiii. r/i. 7-1:1. 
Guuchies. Snlirlow: 1'ami'as TmiiKs. 
Hackinsacks. Sru aliovr : AuioMii ns 

Haidas. Srrhrlnw; Skittaiihtax Famii \ 
Hidatsa, or Minnetaree, or Grosventres* - 
"Thr lliilatsii, .Minnrtarrr, or (irosvintn In 
ilians. arr our of thr tlirrr trilirs wliicli at pi'- 
riit inhalilt thr iirrmani'iit villaiir at Foil 1:. r 
IhoM, Dakota Trrritory. ami liniit on thr wai- is 
of thr I pprr Missouri anil Yillowstoiir Uivi i,. 
in Northwrslrrii Kakoia and Eastrrn Mont:.! . 
Tlir history of this irilir is . . . intiinatrly i. n 
mi'tril wii'h that of thr (loliiiiallv alliril trih. , ■ f 
Ihr .\rii'arri'S ami .Manilaii.s. " Thr iianir. (o - 
vrntri'S, was l'Im'II to ihr jiroplr of this li;l»' 
" by thr rarly Frrmli anil Caiiailian advrntni r- 
Thr saiiir naiiir was appliril also ti) a tiin', 
tolally ilistimt from these in lanKiiaL'r mil 
ori|;iii, whii h lives .some liiimlrrds of inili s v • ,1 
of Fort Hrrlhold; and the two nations are : "V 
disliiiLMiishril from oiir anotlnr as Crosyrntr. ■ f 
thr Miss,.iiri and liros-.rntresof Ihe I'rairie. 
Kihvard rnifnville. whotiaded oiitheSaska'' .- 
wan liiver from 17M4 to 17^7. . . . renin • 
. 'They [the Canailian Fremh] call i m 
(irosveiitres. or HiL'liilliis; and without ) 
I. a.son. as they nr.' as eoniely and as well n i. 
as any trili.' whatever.'. . . In llie work 'f 
many" travellers they are called Miniietaii. ;i 
iiaiiii' whieh is spilled in various ways 
This, althoiii:li a Hidatsa word, is the iiaiie ;' 
plie.l to them, not liy tlieiiiselves, Init li.v '■.:'■ 
.M.'imlans; it siirnities" ■ to <'ros.s the w,,' '.' 
or 'they crossed the water.'. . . Hidatsa i- 
the name of the villa.L'e on Knife H.-r 
farthest from the Missouri, the villau'' "I 
those whom Lewis and Clarke considerni ''"■ 
.Minnetarei'S proper." It is the name " iio» l n- 
erally used bv this people to designate ti' i. 
selves."— W. ".Matthews, Kthnotjriiiihy and I'' il- 
otiir/!/ nf the ilidatM Indiani. jit. \-'i (' ^^•*' 
(jioUig. and Gru'j. ^unrcr;, F. \. ILi^dr"-, ■■* 
Ihib., Xo. 7).— See also, below: Siouan Fam' v. 



Hitchitii. Sec Ik'Iow; Miwkmimikan Family. 

Horikani.— Niirlh iif tlic MhIh 1,'aiiH. wlmnc 
iii|iii<l III!' laHt liaiik cif 111!' IIiiiImiii UiviT 
..pjiir^ili' Alluiiiy. anil ('i>v(Tiii>; tlir [irisi iit <iiiiii' 
ii<> •>< Coliiriiliia anil Uciissilair. ilwilt Ilii' Al 
^'.■iikin Irilir of lliirikaris. "wlinw liiiiitini; 
s;niiiMiU apiM'ar tn liavr rxti'iiiliil fri.iii llir 
Willi r^ iif thf ('nniti'rtii-iit. uitush Ihr (Irn-n 
Miiiiiilains. tn tlir liiirilrrN iil' that Inaiillfiil laki' 
lii.niii'il l,aki' Ci.iriL'i- liy tlir tun l.iyal Sir Wll 
Imiii .1 ilinMiii) wliit-li ini;;lit iii>w wril lu-ar 
'lirir ^iiiiiirnus iianii'."' — .1. U. liniillicail, Hint. 
..; i>„, i<f .V. )'., ;i. 77. 

Huatnaboya. Sir alK)ve: Andehi.\nh. 

Hnancas. Sii' 1'kki'. 

Huastecs. Sci' liclnw: M.\yah. 

Huecos, or Wacos. Sic Im'Ihw; 1'awnkk 

I MlliilAM KAMII.Y. 

Humas, or Oumas. Sec l>el<iw: Ml'HKno 
Iil. \N Fa.mii.y. 
Hupas.* Sci> Ih'Iow; Moimm's, Ac. 
Hurons, or Wyandota.— Neutral Nation.— 

Eries.— "The pi'iiiiisiila liitwi'iii tht! l.uko»i 
lliinin Krii', and Ontario was cKcupiiil liy two 
ili-itim ' pcopk's, speaking iliiilicts of tht' Iro- 
quiiis tiinjruu. The Hwimsor Wyaniliits, incluil 
iiiL' the tribe called by the Frenib the Diononila- 
ilirs. or Tobacrii Nation, dwelt aniuni^ the 
fun sis which bordered the eastern shores of the 
frish ivaler sea to which they have left their 
Tiaiiie; wliih' the Neutral Nation, so calleil from 
till ir niiilrality in the war between the lliirons 
mil the Five Nations, inhaliited the nnrlheni 
shnri's of Lake Krie, and t ven extended their 
I astern Hank across the strait of Niai,'ara. The 
|iH|iii|aliiin of the lliirons has been variously 
staled at from lO.OIN) to llO.tHKI .souls, but ,.riilia- 
Illy did not cxeeiil the former csliinile. The 
I'riiiciseans and the .lesuits were early ainon^' 
iluiii, and from their desiTiptions it is ."ipparetil in Iciiends. and superstitions, manners and 
liiiliits. relijiioiis oliservances and customs, 
Ih.y were closely as.siinilated to their brethren 
if till Five Nations. . . . Like the Five Nations, 
111'' Wyanilots were in some mea.sure an agrieul- 
tiir:il |niip|e; they bartered the surplus priHluets 
"f tliiir inai/.e lields to surroumlin); tribes, 
iMi.illy rii'''vin« tisli in exchanjre; and this 
inllie was so eonsiilerable that the Jesuits styled 
tli'ir loiintry the (iranary of the Alironiiuins. 
Tiiiir prosperity was rudely broken by the hos- 
tihlii s ,,f the Five Nations;" for tliouiih the con 
lliitiiii: parties were not ill malehed in point of 
iiuiiilicrs, yet the united counsels and ferocious 

■ rn i-L'iis of the confederacy swept all before 
'111 111 In the year lli4!l, in "the ili plli of winter, 
t!i' ir warriors invaded the country of the Wyan- 

1 'N. siiirmi'd their larfrcst villafjes. and involved 
nil uilhin in indiseriminale slaimhtcr. The sur- 
uv.iis tliil in panic terror, and the whole nation 
u.,- iiroken and dispersed. Some fnimd retuue 

iini'ii- the French of Canada, where, at the 
'•M-vzi- of Loretle. iiearQuebec, their descendants 
still ri'iuain; others were incorporated with their 
I'linin't'irs, while others airain tied iinrthward, 
i".' 'lul Lake Superii ., ani' soiiKht an asylum 

■ iachi; the wastes which bordered on the n'orlh- 
1 i^t'Mi lanils of the Dahcotah. Oriven back liy 
til'-'' li'Tie bison-hunters, thev next establisliell 
lli'iii-.hes about the outlet of Lake Superior, 
x'l I til.' shores and Islands in the nortliern parts of 
l.i!>r Huron. Thence, about the year I'Wii. they 
lii'iiiiinl to Detroit, where they formed a per- | 

" > ". X.'tr, Api'inilix E, vol. 5. 9 

manent seillennnt, and where, by their suiM'rior 
valor, capacity and address, tiny soon acipiireil 
an aseeiiilaniy over the surroiindliu; .\lL'oni|uins. 
The ruin of the .Neutral .Nalion billowed close 
on that of the Wyanilots, to whom, accordini; to 
.lesuit authority, they bore an i'\ict rescniblancu 
in cliaraelir and maimers. The Scnecas sism 
found iiieans to pick a i|uarri'l with them; they 
were assailed by all the strenj,'th of the insatiable 
conbileracy, and within a few years their 
di'slriii tiiiii as a nation was coinplete. "— F. 
i'arkman. 7Vii; i'''n)*jiinirij of t'<>itti<i'',rfi. \. — The 
same, yVie JiMf/ita ill X'irt/i Aimririt, eh. 1. — 
■Thellrsl in this lociliiy [riaiiii Iv, the western 
extremity of the Stale of New York, mi and 
aroiiiiil tile site of the eit> "f ltulTalii|, of whom 
history makes mention, wi-re ihe. Attiouandar- 
oiik. or Neutral Nation, called Kali kwas by 
the Scnecas. They had their council tires along 
the Nia^rara, but principally on its western .shle. 
Their hiint'n;; i;rouni|s extended from the Gen- 
esee nearly to the eastern shores of Lake lliiron, 
enibraciiif; a wide and important territory. . . . 
They are llrst nieiitioned by Chaniplain 'during 
his winter visit to the Iliironsin llil.'i . . . but 
he was unable to visit their territory. . . . The 
jM'ace wliidi this peculiar |ieople had so long 
maintained with tlie Iroipiois was destined to lie 
broken. Some jealousies and ( ollisiims occurred 
In 11147. whii h culminated in open war in 1(!.)0. 
One of the villiiL'i sof the .Neutral Nation, nearest 
the Jsenecas and imt far froin the site of our city 
jlliiiralo). was captured in the aiilumn of the 
latter year, and another Ihe ensuini; sprinir So 
well-tlirected and cllerirelic were the blows of 
the Iioi|uois, that the total dislruetioii of tile 
Neutral Nation Was spieililv accomplished. . . . 
The survivors Were a'lopliii by their coniiuerors. 
... A loni; periiKl intervi'neil between the 
destruction of the Neutral Nalion and Ihe per- 
inanent <K'i'iiiiali"ii of their counlry by the .Sen- 
ecas,"— which laller event occurred 'alter the 
expulsion of the Seiiecas frnin the Cenesee 
Valley, by the expedition under (leneral Sulli 
van, in i"!!. liuriiij,' the Ki'volutii'iiary War. 
"They never, as a nation, rcsumeil their ancient 
seats jiloni^ the (.Ji'iiesee, but s'iiii;ht and f'lund a 
new home on the secluded b.iiiks ami amon^ the 
liasswiKsl forests of tiie lid svn m;5, or Hutfalo 
Creek, whence they had driven the Neutral 
Nalion Itill years lufnre ... It has been as- 
suineil by many writers that the Kali kwas and 
Fries were iiliiilieal. This is not so. The latter, 
aeeiirdini; to the iii.i,i n liable authorities, lived 
siiiiih of the wi'siein ixlninity of Lake Erie 
until they were iloirnyeil liy"the Iroi|Uois in 
lli."i."). The Kah kwas were "ixlerininaled by 
them as early as UmI. On Coronellis map", 
published in "ills-*, one of the vill,i;,'es of the 
latter, called ' Kalioiiai;i)L'a. a destrnved nation,' 
is I'll ated al or iieai the site of Itulfa'lo."— O. II. 
.Marshall, Tin- .\iii</,ini l-'nuiti, r. ji/i. ."i-si, mid 
_/;,„/ ;...^■. — " Westward of the Neiitials, aloni; 
I he. Southeastern sill ires of Lake Erie, and stnuh 
im; as far east as the (iinesce river, lay the 
eounlry of the Eries, or, as they were ileiionii 
iiateil 'l-.y the .lesuits, 'La Nalion Chat,' or I'at 
Nation, who were also a menilier of the Iluron- 
Iroiiuois family. The naiiie of the beaiiliful 
lake on whose martrin our city [Hullahi| was 
cradleil is their most endurin:; monuineiil, as 
Lake iroriiii is that of the irenerie si.xk. They 
were culled the Cat Nation eillier iiecause that 



IntorrKlltie Imt miscliiovoin iiiiininl. the rnrrcKin, 
whlili tlir fathirs irrc>ni'i>ii«ly rliiswd "■ 
till- filiiii iriii^', wilt the liitriii "f their Iniiliiitf 
rlnii, (.r si'pt, nr in (■•>iisri|Mriu r of llic iiliiiniliiiii"' 
of thut iiiiiiimiiil wilhiri tirriior\ "— W . » 
Ilrvuiit. Iiil<r,i,liwl Airh.h'i.h^ SI<i:U,n tn .mil 
ah.'n,l ll.iff.,'.,. ,.. r,>.--Mr 
iilciiliti.M "T rniifus.s tlic r.rics 1111(1 \\u- Niiilriil 
Nulini, -W U, S,li.w.l(nifl. SLIfh ..f Ih,' Ihfl 
of III, .Xn.iiiiI y.ri'H iliif'iniiillliin llmpichuij I'lr 
Iiiiliiii, rril-K. III. 4. II. i'.'T) , 

Alxi IN .1 Miiii. lu'/i'iri" lt"l'"''>"!f '!"' 
U»t Si' y.iliiiii {Mm., {it. 4. ji 204V — I). 
WiNoii Thf /l„riiii lriiiiii"i-i "f ''■i"'i''" i'lrnnn. 
I!,ii/,,l S-- i.f Ciniiiilii. lHM4i,-l'. IV Clarki'. 
Drii/in mill fr,lilili''n,ll llii.1 i;f Ihf WijilMMIi*. 
-\S K.'trhiiin, lli't vf lliifil'i. '• 1, rfi. 1-2, - 
N. H. fraic, T/n "hh ,i Timi. r. 1, ;>. 225.— N'c 
IhIiiW lltlKJIill!< ('l)NFKl)Klt\( v; ul»(>. Casaih 
(NKW FllAN(K): A. H. ItlllH-llUl; 1«11-1H1I1; 

lfl;U-lt!.'>2; KltO-lTltO— SiT. :iKn, 1'ontiaik 
Wah. iinil fi.r iin lucMiiit nf ■Lord DiimnorcH 
War. " SIT Ohio (Vai.i.kvi: A. I> 1774 

Illinoiiand Miamii.— " I'as'^i"!; "'l' coiiiilrv 
of the Liiiapf iiinl tin' Slia»uiii»s. mikI <1ih<tiii1 
luR till' (lliio, the tnivilliT woiilil liavr foiiii.l itH 
valliv iliiillv ociupiiil by two nations, tlif 
Miiiniis or 'I'wlKlitwt'fs. on tin- \ValKi™li and Its 
brani lift, and Ilii- llliiioi^t. who dwilt in thi' 
n.if:hliorlicKHl of tlir rivrr to whidi tin y liavi- 
ifivin ihiir name wliih' portions of Hum ex 
liiidcd iK'Vond thr .Mi>sis>ippi. Thoiis'li nivir 
sulijimMtcil, as wirr l\w I.cnapf. lioth tin' , 
Mia'niisaiid the Illinois wire rcdiiivd to the last i 
I'.xtr.'niitv liv tin- npiaird attacks of the Jtivi- ; 
Nations;" and the Illinois, in particular. siitTcnil 
BO niMch hv these and other wars, thai the popn 
lation of ten or Iwilvc thousand, ascribed to i 
them by the i arlv French writers, had dwindled. 
diirini;"tlie lirst "<iii..rt.- r of tin- ei>rlileeiitli ceii- 
tiirv to u few small villaires."— K. I'arkinaii. 
fini^jiiriirn of I'liiln'C •■''• I.— See. also, above: 
Al.ooNoriAN Family; an.l below; .'sAi s. Ac_^; 
also C.vNAi.A (Ni;w FuANct;): A. D 1W!!»-1(»*. 
Incas, or Yncas. See I' 

Innuits. S ibove: Kskimm an 

lowas. S( !■ below ; Slot an Family, and I'AW- 
NKi; (<'Mii">\N) Family. 

Iroquois Confederacy. - Iroquoian Family. 
— •■ Althcoutsctof the l'l:h ( eiitnry. wle ii the 
live trilH'S or nations of lli.' Iro,(ii.iis conle-icraiy 
tir.-t bei'.ame known to Kiiropcaii e.\pIorers. they 
w.n- found occ npviiii: the v;illeys and uplands 
of nortlKTii New Yi.rk. inthat pictiiresipie and 
fruitful re^'ion which .stretches westward from 
the hea.l cf the lliid«m to the (ieiiesec. 
The M.. hawks, or CaiiienL'as — as they should 
iiropcrlv l„.<•alled—po^M^^cdlhe. Mohawk Uiver. 
aiidiov'ered Lake (ieoru'eaiid Lake Cliiimplam 
with th. irilolilhis ..f larL'c ealioi ~. mana.L'ed wilh 
the lpol,lMe-.s and skill wliich. lieridilary m their 
defendant-. m:d>i' them siill ihchc-l Ipoatmeii ot 
the North Aiiieiicaii rnds, We;.t of Hi,' Canien 
CasthctiiM i,i;ish. Id the MieiU river and lake whidi 
hear tliciriwnie. . . . W e-t ot tin' I lliddas, the 
imperious ( (ii..iid;iL'as, the ccntnil ami, in some re- 
spi cl-, the niliiii; iiiition of the Leairue, pos-essed 
till' two lakes ot Onondaga and f>k:ine;ilelis. to- 
gether wilh the common outlet of this inhind lake 
svstein. the O-weiro Uivir to its issue into Lake 
<).,t;,n.. St;!! ]ir::ceedi!:L' westw ard. the Imi-s ol 
and windiiiLr stretch 

trail and river led to tin- Ioiil- 

towns of the iM'ople who irave their name to th' 
Like . and iM'vond lliein. over the wide <'XpHi!M 
of hills and iluh s siirroiindini: Lakis Sini'<'u and 
t'anaiidaik'na. were scattered tlii' pomdoiis mI 
lap'sof the Seiiecas. niori' cornelly called Hoiion 
towaiias, or Mountaineers. Such were the name-, 
iinil aboili's of the allied nations. ininilHrs of tlj. 
fur fami'il Kanonsioiini. or Lcaitne of Inil.'l 
||oiis<lioUls. who were destined to Ihcoiiii. for a 
time the most notable and iiowerful coinniiinin 
iiinonK the native trilss of North America, Th.' 
region which has Iseti disc rilsd was not. howev.r. 
theorigiiial s<at id' iIiom' nations. They beloiit:id 
to that linguistic family whii his known toethiiol 
ogisis us the Huron Ir'oiiuois stock. This »I..> k 
(iimprisiil the lliirons or Wyandols. the Atii 

wanilaronks or Niiitnil Niiti Ihe InxjUois. the 

Krics. the Andastes or (one-togas, the Tiiscaroris 
and some smaller bands ThelrilMS of this family 
occupied a long irpgidar area of inland tern 
tory, stretching from Caniiila to North Carolina 
The northern nations were nil iliisieri'd about 
the great lakes; the Koiithern bands held the li r- 
tile vallevs bordering the head waters of the 
rivers which llowed from the Allegheny inoun 
tains The langimges of all these trilMS slio»id 
a close alllnitv, . . . The evidence of hinguatre. 
so far as it has vet Is'cn examined, sieins to show- 
that the Huron"! laiis wi re the older menilHrs if 
the group; and the ilear and positive triidilions 
of all the surviving trilies, Huroiis, Iroquois, aiil 
Tuscarora, point to Ihe hiwcr St. Lawn'iiee as 
the earliest known abmle of their sli«'k lb r. 
the first cxplopr. t'artier, found Indians of iliis 
stiKk at llocliclaga and Stailaeone, now the >ii' s 
of Montreal and IJnelHc. . . . As their iiuint" rs 
increased, dis-eiisions arose. The hive swarnu .1. 
and baud after band moved olT to the west :.iid 
1 south. As Ihev spread Ihev eiieouiitered pco|,|.' 
I of other stiK'ks. wilh whom they had frei|ii. nl 
1 wars Their most constant iind mo-1 dread, d 
' enemies were Ihe tribes of the Aigoiikin family, 
' a her™ and resllc-s people, of iiortlieru orii;iu 
who evervwlicii- siirrotiiiiled Iheiii. At "i"' 
peri.«l. liow.'M-r. if the concurrent lniiliti..iis .f 
hoth Iro.iu.'is aii.i Algonkiiis can be belicM'l. 
these eoiiteiiding races for a lime stayed ih'ir 
.'-trib'. and united their forces in an aliian.r 
against a roinmon and birmidalde foe Tlii^ I <■ 
was the nation, or perhaps the lonfeilenicy. ..f 
the AlliL'ewi or Talligewi. Ihe .semi-civili/' .1 
■ .M. .mid builders' of the Ohio Valley, wli.. Ii ;>•■ 
left Ilu ir name I.> the Alleirlieny river and ii..' .!i- 
tains and w hose va-t earthworks arc still, nl'r 
halfa-centiirv of study, tin- perplexity of an In 
ologi'-ls. A 'desperat.' warbire ensued, wl.i'li 
la-W'.! about a hundred years, and cniled in 'l.;' 
coinpl.te overlhrow and" . lest met i.pii, or c\i ..i 
sioii, of the AlliL'ewi, The si;rvivors of lb. . :. 
olleve.l people ll.'.l .-ollthward. . . . The 1 !;'• 
which has clapse.l since the overthrow ot :!i. 
AlliL'ewi is variously estimated. The most pi' I' 
able conjecliire pl'aees it at a pcriisl ab...' i 
thousand Years before the present day. It " i' 
uppaieiitl.v soon after their expulsion thai i.i'' 
tribes of Ihe aii.l Ihe Alno!.-,!!i 
stocks s.atli-n-d tlieinsilves over Ihe wide n ■-'"'! 
south .if the lireal Lakes, thus hit open to ' ■ i| 
oKiipancv."— II. Hale. InlriKl. In /n,',-/'.i< " » 
„f /;,7,,«.— After the coming of Ihe Kiiroi '■ 
into tin' New Worlil. the French were tlii'l i~' '<- 
I.., inv. lived III iiosiiliiics with lilt: ln>i|iioi- 

ut Uike Cayuga, 

iili.iiu which were eliisterei 

i the ! their early wars with them pnslueed a h 



whldumilil iioviT Ik' <'XliiiK"i''liiil llriicc tlir 
Knv'liili wtTc iilili' to will tlir iilliuiKc iif ilic Khc 
Niidiiiis. wli'ii till)' KlriiifKliil Willi Fnimc fur 
llii' iniisUTy i<{ iIk' Norlli Aiiiirican ciiiilliiint, 
iinil lliiviiwriKlx'ir victory In Unit ulliiinic, prnli 
iiblv, nuirc Ihiin to iiiiy oiImt siii^li' (-iiiirti-. Kiii; 
liinil ^lill rrtuimil the faillifiil fririiilshlp and 
ailiiinii' cif till' Iroi|iiiiis wliiii she caiiii) to a 
•.trui;i;li' "ii'i l"'r ""■>' ciilunii.s, ami alltlic trilM"* 
iMipl till' Oiiiidus wrri' in arms af:iiliist tlii' 
Aimrirait'* in III'' Hrviiliilinnary War. " With 
thr ri'sidralioii nf |iiai r. tlir pcilitiral Iniiisui'tinii'* 
III III!' Uaiiiii' wrri' KwlMaiitiallv i Iipm'iI. Tliis 
wui. ill cirirt. thr tiTiiiiiialiiai i:{ thrir pnlltical 
ixi-ii'iii r Till' jiirisilirtii'ii «( thr I'liitiil SialiH 
was I'Mriiili'il iivrr tlirir am irnt trrritnrirs, ami 
Iriini tliat tiiiir fiirtli lliry Imi aiiir ih'i'i'iiili iit 
iiaiii'iis. Diirinijtlir pmifrrss iif the Urviilulinii. 
till Mciliawks uhitiiiliiiird thiir (niintry ami rr 
iiiiiviit to Caniiihi. tinally I'stalilishiii^ thrniMlvrn 
partly upon llraml Hivrr, In thr Nla>;um priiiii 
•.ulii.'anii partly nrar Kinn»t(in, wlirro Ihry nnw 
rt'siiii- npiin two rrscrvatinus si.'ciirril to tlu'iii Iiy 
the British K"*''"""'"'' ■ ■ 'lit! policy "f thr 
Wall' ipI Nrw York [tmvaril thr Iroiiuoisnalioiis) 
was I'M r just ami liuniaiir. Althiiii).'li thrir roiin 
try, with thr rxirption of thai of thr biiriilus. 
iiiiirlit liavr lu'i'ii {'oiisiilrrril as forfritnl liy tlir 
Hint of thr Ui voliilioii. yrt tl.r Ki'Vrriiiiirnt 
nevir inforiril the rights of i i>iii|UC'>t, Imt i\- 
t'li^riiisliiil thr Inilian tillr to thr country liy 
purrliasr. ami trraty stipulations. A portion of 
till' Oi'i'iila iiatiiin [who hail sohl thrir li;iiils to 
llii' Stair, from tliiir to liiiir, cMrptiiij; our small 
n'srrvation] cinii^riitril to a rrscrvation on the 
rivrr Tliaiiirsin Camilla, wlirrr alioiil 4<Htiif tliriii 
now|lH,"il| rrsidr. Anothrr ami ii l.-iri^rr lianil 
riMiii'.i'il to (irrrn Bay, in Wisconsin, w lirrr tiny 
still niakr thrir homes to the nuinlnr of 7(Ki. 
Hut a small part of the nation have rrinaini'il 
arnuiid till' si'at of thrir ancient coiincil-Iirr . . . 
iii;ir diiiiila Castlr, in thr county of dnrida." 
Thr Oii'iiidapis "still rrtain thrir liraiitifnl and 
si'iliiili'd vallry of OnomlaKa, with siillii irnt tcr- 
ritciry for tlirif coiiifortalilr inaintriiancr. About 
l.Vi biiundagas now rrsidr with thr .S'lU'cas; 
uniitlii r P'lrty arr rstalilislird on (Jraml liivir, in 
CtiiiLtia. and a frw have rrniovril Ut tlir wrst. 
... In till' liricf spare of twrlvr years aftrr thr 
iir~t ot till' while man was cm trd in Cay- 
iiiTi iiiiiiny (17M!I) thr whole nation [of thr Cay- 
ii;;i-i was iiprootrd aiiii pinr. In ITl*."), they 
iMlnl, liy treaty, all their lands to the Mate, with 
ill. . \i I ptinii of one resrriation. w hich thry tin- 
aliy iilKiailnneil alKint thr vrar IH(N). A portion 
'if ihi iiirriiiiivrd toOrrrn iJay, anothrr toGrand 
lii.. T. Mild still anothrr, and a iiineh hir,'xei lianil, 
^I'll'd.a Sandusky, in Ohio, from wheiier tliry 
H( n f iM'ivi'.l liy iiovernnient, a few years siiire, 
ill'" !l.c Iinliin territory, west of the[ipi. 
.\!""ii r.'Ostill rrsidr ainoii!.' thr .Seiieeas, in west- 
irii N' u York . . . The Tii.vearoras. after re- 
ni' .ill- 11,1111 tlirOiieida territory, linally located 
ni'irili' NiMi;:ira river, in the vicinity of Lewis- 
I'll. '■:! a irai I u'iveii lo tlieiii liy the Seneeas. 
I III- ri -iilue of the Srilri-as arr now shut il|i 
•'Vi'li!;i thru- small risei-valions. the Tonawanda. 
Ill' I i":iraiii;iisaiid the Alle;ranv, which, united, 

V. ill 111 I cover the arra of ili f liir lesser 

i".ii!i's iif the State." — I.. II. Mor-aii, yVo- 

/- ' f !h l:-:.^,:..;^^ >.!.■ (, .-!., V_--TJ,,. 1,,- 

'li.:i-i'l the Sialr of New York nuinlier alioiit 
5, "'"I. and occupy lands to the cstiiuiittd extent 


of 87,677 Brrr«. With few exceptions, thesii 

feople lire the din'ct disecnihints of the iiiitivo 
iidiaiiH. who once possi'swd and controlled the 
Boil of the eiitlrr Stair ' - /i''/.r. '■/ Si„,-iiil Cim. 
til Ihi-fli'i'ili- Ih, /nilhiii I'nMi III' nf i/i, Mil If II f 
\ )',, INHH. In ITfi the Kiv'e Natioin of 
the lriM|Uols Confeilerary liriaine Six Nations, 
by the adinission of the TiiscaroriiH. from N. 
Ciirollmi — See helow : IitiiitroiH TitiMKs ok 
TIIK SiifTii — On the relationship between the 
Iroipiois and Ihe Cherokees, sii- alxive : ('iii-:iiu 


Iroquoii Confederacy. — The Legend o( 
Hiawatha, the Founder. See liioijioi. Cun 


Iroquois Confederacy. —Their Name.—" The 

orii;ln and proper nieaiiin;; of the word Iroipioi.s 
are doiibifiil .VII that, can be said Willi cer 
taiiity is that I lie ex planation tfiven by Charlevoix 
cannot possibly be correct. The name of 
Iroipnas, he says, is purely French, iinil ImH 
been fonneil from Ihe tefin ' liiro,' 'I have 
spoken.' 11 word by which these Indians close all 
their s[>eeclics, and ' koue,' which, when lou^ 
drawn ort, is ii cry of sorrow, ami when brielly 
uttrreil is an exelaniatlon of joy. . . . Hut . . . 
Chaiiiplain had learned thr tiainr from Ida 
Indian allirs lirlorr lir or any other Frenchinun, 
so far as is known, had ever seen an Iroquois. 
It is probable that the orii;in of the word is to 
be soui;lit in the Huron lan);ua^'e; yet, as this 
is similar to the IriKiuois toiiKUe, un attempt 
may be made to timl a solution in the latter. 
.Vecordiu^ to Itniyas, the word ' ^arokwa * meant 
a pipe, and also a piece of tobacco, — and, in its 
verbal form, to smoke. This word is found, 
soniewliat disiiuiscd by aspiiati'S, in the Hook of 
Uilcs, -denii;liroclikwaycn, — ' let us two sinoku 
tojri-Uier. '. . . In the ilidclcriiiiiiatc form the 
verb becomes ierokwa,' which isiertaiiily very 
near to Iroipiois It might be rendered 'they who 
smoke.' or 'they who iisi' tobacco,' or, briefly, 
'the Tobacco People." This name, the Tobacco 
Nation (' Nation du Petun ') was given by the 
French, and jirobably also by the .Vlgoiikins, to 
one of the Huron tribes, the Tiouontalis. noted 
for the excellent tobacco wliieli tliiy raised and 
sold. The Iroquois were equally well known 
fortheir cultivation of this jilaiit, of wliicU they 
had a ihoiee varietv " — II. Hale, Irni/iioi.^ linik 
iifUitii.. ii/i/i.. mill 'A. 

Iroquois Confederacy. — Their conquests 
and wide dominion. — "The pinjiet of a 
League (anioni: the 'Five Nations' of ihr Iro- 
quois] originated with the Onondagas, among 
whom it was tirsi sui^gestcd, as a niears to 
enable ilieiii more ctrcciually to resist the jires- 
sine III coiiiiHiioiis nations. The epoch of its 
estaltlisliiiieiii laiiiiot now be decisively ascer 
taiiied; although the circiiiiistani es altei'idiiig its 
formation ale slill preserved by tradition with 
great minuteiiess. Tliese traditions all refer to 
the northern shore of the Oiionilaga lake, as the 
place where the Iroquois chiefs as.senililcd in 
general conijrrcss. to agree upon the terms ami 
principles of the eoiiipaet \fter tlie forma- 
tion of the League, ilie Iroquois rose rapidiv in 
power and inlluence. . . . With the lirsl 'con- 
sciousness of rising power, they turned their 
long cherished rescntmeut upon the .\dirou- 
'i.e !.>. "'' Ir- t! I'} "i'l'l'- — '■'} *(i'-;:i in '.reir ililaiuy 
as a nation, and had cxprMed ilieiu liiini their 
country, in the lirsl slrii.L'gle for the ascendancy. 

;S 8^ 

-. '11-1 



1! ■'■- 


1 " : 



At tlif I r:i of Kriiii li iliv.iv.rv (ITini, (he 
liitlir miiiImii jilii' AilinnnLii k>| ii|ii«iir In liiivi> 
Ihi'II ili>|""«"-'<'<l >>f III! Ii <>ri^iii:il crMiiilry, iiiiil 
ilrivni il>i»n iIm- M Liwn ik i- :ih far ji» (Ju'Iht. 
. . A iHH ir.i riiniMii'iiri'il »iili ilh' IriKiUHiu 

iipMri ihi' r.t.'ilill-'l Ill I'l' llii' Itiildi iriilintf 

iMi^t :il lirahL'i', ii'i» Alliaii). in Dll'i. . . . 
riiriiillv nliiliiiiH Hiri' i«liilili-liiil IhIwhh llii' 
IrtH|ii..i'. anil till' l>iit(li, w liiili riuitiiiiii <l willi 
out irili rni|iliMii iiiilil tin' lailrr Mirri iiili nil 
thi'ir |ii>sM'«>*ion'« u|><>n llii- l[uit>'«>ii l>< lln' Kiii; 
\Mi ill liliil lliiiiii:: lliin |ii riiKl a irailr spraiii.' 
ii|i lir'rtiiii 111. in in liiri. wjiiih tiic lriH|iini« i\ 
iiiatiiri'l f'lr Kiiii'|«an falirirn, liiil innrf r» 
|K( ially l"i' till Hill-', in llir iw of Hliii li tliiy 
wirr I'lfliiwanlv ili ^lilll■ll In lii iiilnr m> r\|i<rl 
Till' Kii;:li~li, ill Inrii. i iillivalril III! .'•anil' nlii 
tiiiiii "! rrii'nil-.lii|i. . . Willi ilir |iii-.m «i.iiiii uf 
tlri' arms rninniriHril iml mily tin' nipiil i Irva 
linn, but aliM'Iiili' snpri'tiiarv nf ihr Irmiuni.t 
(ivi r "llii r liiiliiin nalimi" In HH:'. liny <'X 
iH'lli'il III!' Ni iilir N.ilinti fiian llii' Nianara i«'n 
in>iila anil i'>tal>li>liril a iiiTnianinl M'ttliiniiil al 
IIh' nmiitli 1)1' thai liM r. 'I'liiy niailj cMirinin 
iili'il in |il."i:). till' Krii-. wlm licnipii'i'l llii' wmlli 
siili' mI Lakr Krii'. ainl frnni tliinrc caM In llii' 

(rt'llt'.ti'C. anil thus pn^^i'ssiil Illl'Ill'iIvi'H nf till' 

wlinli' ana nf wrsli rn Ni « Ynrk, iiinl llii' iinrlli 
cm part nf Ohin. Almiit Ilir yrar 111711, aflir 
lliiy hail linally rnniplilnl Ilii'" ili>pi i>inii iiinl 
!mli|iiL'atinii nf'lhi' .\ilirniii|ark» ami lliimns. 

thry liri(llirri| pnsx'>^inll nf llli' wllnli' •ninilry 

lii'lui'i II lakr» iliirnii, Kill' ami Oiilarin. ami nf 
ihi' iiniili li.'iiik nf ihi' M. I.awrinci'. tn Ilir 
iiiniilh nf till' Dtlawa livi r. mar Mnnlri'al. . , . 
Tlii'V al'.n ni.iilr innMant ininaili iipn;i Ihi' Ni'« 
Kim'laiiil Iniliaii-, . . . In UWn. Ilii' Si inias « itli 
(Kill warrini's invailiil llin iniintry nf llic llliimi.'*, 
II,. nil till nf till' M>i.ippi. wliili' I.ll 
Salli' was aninni; llin latlir. . . . Al varimis 
liinr*. Iinih lirfnri' anil aftir this pi'HiKl. iIh' Irn- 
ijiinis tmiii'il thiir warfarr iifiain^I llii' t'hi'i'nkri'M 
iipnii ihi' Titinr>-i'i'. ami Ihi' laiawlias in Smith 
Cainliiia . . . Knr aliniit a rinliiry. frnm tlin 
yiar Hlno In ilic yiar 17i»l, tlii' Imriinis wirt' in- 
Vnhiil ill an alnmst iiniiitrrnipliil warfarr. Al 
till' I Insi- nf this piri'Kl.ihiy hail siiliilinil ami hi'lil 
in tioiiiinal -.iiliji rtinn all tin' prim ipal Iniliaii na 
linijs nriiipyiiii.' till' trrritnrii'S wlliih aii- imw 
cnilir.ii I'.i iii'lhi' Mairs nf Nrw Ynrk, Drlawari', 
.Mai\laml. Ni-iv .lir-i'V. I'liinsylvania, tlii' imrtli- 
ini "aiiil wi'stirii parts nf VirVinia, Dliin. Krii 
luik>. Nnriliirii 'riiim-Mi', llliiinis, Imliana, 
.Mil iiiifan. a pnriinii nf till' Ni'W laiL'latiil Stairs, 
ami ilir priiii'ipal part nf I'ppir Caiiaila. 0\ir 
thi-c iiatinns. till' liaiiL'lity ami iniprriniis Im- 

ipl'iisl.M Tl isril a rnlistalltSlipirvisinll, If lUlV nf 

till 111 linaini' iiivnlviil in ilniiiisiii- ililluiiliii s, a 
ilih L'aiinii nf rliii fs ui III aiiiniii: tlii'iu ami n-- 
st.nil traiHiiiillily. piisi riliiiii; at thr satiii' litiii' 
lliiir tiiiiiri' rnmrin I ' I.. II, .Mnrirati. /...I'/w. .■/' 

(/,, //■■»/ ..,/./. l.i'A. 1,^- "Thi ir |tlii' Irnipiniss| 

war paiti's rnaiiii il nvrr half .\niiriia. ami tin ir 
iiaiiM' was a ti rrnr Irmii tjii- Atlaiitii In ihi' Mis 
hissippi ; hut w 111 11 w I- ask till- niiiniriral stri'iiL^tli 
nf till' ilri'ailril rniifiihraiy. whin wi' liisinvir 
lliat, in till' ilavs nf thii'r lTi atist triuniplis, 
111! ir iiiiitiil laiil'iiis I, mill nut havr iniisti'rnl 
4. noil warrini's. wi- .iiiia/iil ill Ihi' fnily aim 
ilissinsinii vvliirh II ft sn \asi a rcL'inn Ilir pri \' 

..f :: !;;;;;))::! n! h:;!;! ::iar:i'.!: SlT'. I If ill!' t'jlit's. 

I villi 

Inst il 

if thf I 

lliiikly siatti'li 
riiipinis, a sinylr 


lioiim n ninri' iiiiini'rnuii popiilutlon than nil thf 
lin' unliiil irllM'H. '— F I'lirkmiin. Thr C'lnni'ir 
iieit if It'iitifif. i-li. 1 

iriiquoii Confederacy: A. D. i6at-i7oo. 
—Their wart with the French. S<'<'CAS\n\ 
iSkw Kiiamm a I) 1H<>N-1(I11; Ittll-ltlHi. 
ItllH Kl-VJ; HUll ITlKl; IrtWl. 

Iroquoii Confederacy: A. D. 1648-1649.- 
Their destruction of the Huroni and the 
Jeiuit Miiaiont. Sic C'*n.\iu (Nkw Kiumki; 
A l> HUimi.V.'. lllsn, iiIkivi', IIiiiiinh. 

Iroquoii Confederacy : A. D. 1684-174^.- 
Surrenderi and conTeyancei to the English. 
Si'i' Nkw YmiK: A. f>. HWJ. iiml ITatl. Viu 
nIMA; A. I>. I74J; Olllo (VaII.KV): A. I). KI'H- 
17."il; IMti.Ii SrvTiKiii'' Am. : A. D. 17tW-17iw 

Iroquois Confederacy: A. D. 1778-1779, ~ 
Their part in the War of the American Reio- 
lution. Si'i' rMTKii STArKKuK .Vmkhk a; .\ H 
177H NK— NiivKMiiKltl unit (Ji l.Y); iiiiil 177'J 
(.\I lilHT— SkitkmiikiO. 

Iroquois Tribes of the South.*- " Tin' 
sniitlii-rii lrni|iinU iriln'M iK'ciiplL'il Clntwan IOmi 
anil ill! Iriliiitary Mri'iinm. Tliiy were IkiiiiiiIhI 
nil Ilic cast liy tlic innst Huuthirly I.cnii|ic Inl" s, 
who were ill i>n»»cn»inii of the low cmintry al m; 
till' Kill Hlinrcs. iiiiil those of AllM'iiiarh' ami 
I'liiiiliin Sniinils Towiirils the wiiith unil tin' 
west they eMcmlcil lieyoml the river Ni n-i 
They appear to have Ihiu known in VirKinin. 111 
early times, iimler the inline of Moniieaiis, ii» 1 ir 
north UN tianii's Hiver. . . . Ijiwmoii, In ins 
aieoiinl of the North Canilina Inilluiix. cniinuT 
iitcH the ( llouan'^. the Mi lierrins, ttiiil the Nit 
Inwiiyji, asliavliifr lofjetherll'l wiirriorsinllii Mar 
1711H Itiit the MeherriiH of Tiitelocs nml ilii' 
N'otloways Inlmliiteil respcetlvelv the two riu rn 
of that name, anil were |irini'ipally waliil in 
Virt'inia. We have hut inilistinct iiotii'cs of ilir 
TiililiK's. ... It iippcarH hy Ucvcrly that ilie 
Nnllowiiys hail preserved their linle[)i'mli m r 
ami their numlMTs Inter lliiin the Powhiiliins, mil 
that, at lliecnil of the 17lh century, they liitl 
still \',Vt warriors. They do not appear tn have 
mik'raled from llnir ori),'iiial seals in 11 liody In 
the year IH'.'II, lliey are .said to have tweii rciliM nl 
to '.37 snuls. and were still in pos.s«'s.sioii of 7 nmi 
111 res in Soiilhampton county. Virginia, wlurli 
had lii'i n at an early date reserved for lliiii 
. . . The Tusearoras were by far the in 'si 
powerful natinii in Nnrth ('arolina, and oniii i"i 
all the ri'sidiie of the tcrritor.' in that cnl, uv, 
w liieli has been ilescrilied as Itihabitcii hy 
Irniiunis Iribis. Their principal s.als in ]''» 
were nil the Neiisi' and till Taw or Ta • riv'-. 
and accnriliiiK to Lawsniiihey had l,2l»l)wiiii rs 
in liftii'ii Inwtis, " In 1711 the Tusi.i; ■ i^ 
attacked the KnL'lisli cnlmii.sts, inassacriii- ' ■'■» 
in a sitifile day. and a tierce war ensued. In 
ilic antiimn of 1712. all the iiihabitiinlssoiilh ml 
southwest of Chowan Hiver were oblimd 1" !"■■ 
in forts, ami the Tuscarnriis cvpectcd assist ■,.!■ 
frniii the Five Natinns. This cmild imi I ; '■ 
been irivcii without invnlviiif; the cniilcili r.i' ;i< 
a war with (Jrcat Krilain; and the Tiisim 11- 
wcre Icfl 111 their nun ri'siiiirces. A Inrcc, > 'ii 
sistiii;; iliii'lly nf sniilhern Indians unili r In 

inniliialld nf Cnlnllcl Mnnre. was lIL'llin si ii ' }' 

the unvcrninciit of Sniilli Carnlitia to assi.- in 
iinrihirn (ninnies, lie iK'sii'L'cil uiid look ii 1' 
■f the T'.isearnnis. . , nf si»i i 

nvir the 
niic niiulit 

■arrii'd tin 

lip tn till' Sniilhcrn Indians. 
In South Cnrnlitia to sill tin 

• s. ,. .\..t,., .\p|Mtnlix K, M'l. 




lUvcK. Tlif Kii»tfriiTii«<i>riirn«, wlmni' |irlii<'l|iHl 
tiiwii »i« "II II"' 'I'll*. Iw'iiljf iiill<-« lll»Hl' 
W.i«liliiul'>n, IniiiMilliilrly iiimlr |ifii<i', uikI ik 
iw.riic.ri wan K'ltlnl It fiw yi'iirs ttfur north <>( 
t|jr ILiiiriokr. iiciir Wliiil«.ir, wliin- tlii'y rmi 
tliMir.l Mil Ihi' viiir IWKI Hut till' KO'iit IhnIv nf 
III,- nilliin ri'iuiiviil in 1714-1.1 to llii' r'in' 
N:iii.iiM,wu« ni'ilviil lis ilic SUlli, ami liiin »Iim r 
jh.iri'l lliilr full- "—A (liilliillii. Si/iu-imn of Ih, 
l,„l:iH Trihrt {.Irrhtnit'yi'i Amrrieuiui, e. 'J), 
i„ln«l . met. i 

Ai.tM. IN .1. \V. Mi-iiT, Ih-I ■<( y r,in>/iH,i. 
1 I. M a. — Sii'. ulwi. iiIkivi-; iHiHtriMH Con 

(tilt ItVCY. 

Itocoi. See iilKiVf: CiIIWrtAx 

Itonamoi, or Itonomoi. Hir bImivi': Anhk 


iivara, or Ji*>ro. f«<i' almviv Amikkianm. 
:«h-kw>t. !H<iFilMHr: llriioN", Ac. 

KaUpooian Family.—" Imlir llii.« fiimily 
iiiiiiK' Siiiiiirr pliM'va twii trilH'H, tlii' KiilapiHiliiii. 
liihiitiiiinir till' fcrlili' Wlllumal (iliiliis ' iinil llii' 
V^iiukiillii'. Hlio llvi' 'iiiiirr ill till. Iiitiriiir, 
luvMiriNllii' wiurrcHiif till' Wllliiiimt Uivir ' . . , 
T\if irilii'K «{ till' KHlu|i(Miiiiii fuiiiilr liiliithlti'it 
Hi. Milli'y iif Wllliiiiirtti. Uivir, Ori'tfim. iiliiive 
Ihi'TilN. — .1. \V. I'DWi-ll, Strmtli .{im'i.dltipr, 
thn^ri ,.f Hlhiii,l,»j!i, /I, Ml. 

Kanawhai, or Canaweie. Sir iilmvi.; 
AiiiiAiji IAN Family. 

Kansai, or Kawt. -Si Ik low Shhax 

Kapohn, Sir iiIhivi ; t'AllIll!' AM> TlllJll 

Karankawan FamilT.— 'Tlii' Kaniiikiiwii for- 
111, i!\ iliMJ, ii|>i>ii Ilii' I'l-xaii i(«i»l, arninliiii; In 
>ilil,\ u|iiiii an islaiiil or pi iiiii>.iila in llii- l>ii.» iif 
M i;, nmnl (Miitau'iinla . . . lii IMHI Mr. 
liit-diit fi.iiiiil aTmikawiat Kurt (irilllii, TiAa.., 
HI.,' , liiiiiiil til liavr fiiriiiiTly IIm'iI aliiiilii.' Hn- 
K ir iiik.iHii. Kriiiii liiiiiii vuiali ilii-yuf Iwiiit.v 
li\, I, run \va.< ulil.iiiiiil, Hliirli was all uf tin- 
laiiL"Hi;i. hi. riiiiriiilii'ri-il. Thi- viirahiilary . . . 
Ml, h IS it is. riprrsi-iils all nl' tin- laii:.Miai;i. that is 
M.iiii .liiilu'iil liv this vmalmlary till- laniruaL'i' 
«, 111- 1,1 111- ilistiiii't not iiiilv froiii"lhi- Altakapa 
Iriit in.iii all iiilii-rrt.'— .I.'W. I'liwi-ll. -S,,-. ;,M 
.1 -' /.',/•.. /f. Ili,;,i.i nf h:iln,..f-:i!i. ;i. H-.>, 

Karolts, or Cahrocs. Sn- lulmv: Mnliins 

Kaskaskiaa. tSn almvi-: Ai.hiimjiia.n I'm- 
II. ^ 

Kaus, or Kwokwoos. Si i- luluw: KisVN 

FvMM ^ 

Kaws, or Kansas. Si i liili.w : Shuan. 
Kenai, or Blood Indians.* SccalHivi.: Hi.aik- 

fi-.i r. 

Keresan Family.— 'Tin' . . . i-iiililiw nf 
N, ii -111 sl.iik . . . ari. .silualril in Ni-w Mr\ir,i 
'I 11.,- ii|ip, r Hio (iraiiili', mi M-vi-ral nf il^ small 
«, -1, ni alllililits, ami mi Ihi' .li-liir/. ami Saii 
-I ■- "liirh also ari' Iriliiilariis of tin- Kin 
llr,!^,-.' -.1. W. I'liwi'll. S,,;„il, Ai.inhil lt,/,l.. 

a -I .>f h:ii,i,oi,Hjfi, IK s;i.— si-i. i'l'Kiii.u. 

Kikapoos. Sii. aliiivi-; Aiiiiisi)! ian Kamii.v. 
; l..l,.\v; S.M s. Ar.. anil I'awnkkiCaiiihiax) 



iillwrii til thi' I'tTrit that till' InnKiiaKc U "f tha 
sainrKtiH'k ait till. Cnniaiu hi-, ami. wliilcitilmlttinK 
that llii ri'latiiiiinhlp in riniiaiii hi' !• Kntitir lliaii 
til any nthir (aniil) Ihinka that thi' Ilkriii'nK l4 
iiirri'lv Ihi' rraiilt iif ImiK Inlirriiinniiinhallmi 
IIU iiphiliin that ll is i minly ilistliirt (rmii any 
nthrr iMnKiiaiti' liaH lK.f'n liiil,.rsi.|| liy lliiM.'!^ 
iiianiiaml nihir aiiihnrllliH Tlii- family U ri'p- 
risi nliil liy llii' Ki"W» trlhc Mii iiilliiiati'ly 
asunlaliil with Ihi' Ciiiiiani'lirs havi> thi' Kiiiwit 
111 I n «iiiri. kiinwii til hisliiry tl t It in imt easy In 
ill ti-rmliii. Iliiir prislini' hniiii'. . . . \''<\«s ili ll- 
iiitrlv linali's till' KiiiAa In thi' valhy nf Ihn 
I ppir Arkaii»««. ami nf limrilnilary. llii' I'lirna- 
tiirv il'iiM Aniniasi Klvir. This I* In milmtanti-il 
air'iinl with lhi. utali nicnlH nf nilii r writi-rs ..f 
aliiiiil till' saiiii! pirlml. Si lii-rin. rhiirn (l"l','| 
plans till. Kliiwa nil till' hiaiU "f tliii Arkansiu 
ami riatti' KarliiT still tlii-y appi-ar upnn thu 
liiailwati rs nf tin- I'lalti- — J. W, I'liwi II, 
Smith AiinniU Itil'nl, ilnrniu iif Hlhlinlii/I/, ji. 

Kiriri, Cuyriri. Sii- almvc: (h;c« or 
Ci) odmii I'. 

Kitunahan Family.— "This family wuh bawd 
iipimatrllH' vurimisly lirniiil Kitiiiialia, Kiiti.|iay, 
I'lHititml, iir KIhiIkiw, liviiii; nn tlir Knnienay 
Ulnr. a liraiirli nf tin- Cnliiinliia in On-nnn. — 
.1. \V. I'nwi-ll. Siitiit/i AiiiiniU lit lit , lliirniii i/ 

Hlhn,il,i'iy, /I. M. 

Klamaths. Sit lulnw: .Moimh-h. 

Koluachan Family.— " Drrivatinu: Kruin the 
Aliiit wiiril knliisli. nr nmii' pmpirly, kalnira, 
iinanini; 'ilisli.' thi' alliiriinu In ini; In llu' ilisli- 
sliapnl lip nnu.ini'tits This family was liasnl 
liy (lallatin ipmi tin' Knlnsihi n trilu- itlii' 
'I'shinkita' ' Marrhamll, ' » Im iiihaliil tlir 

isl.iiiils a ^I'arilii'l mast frntii tin' liiith to 

till '•['•.Ih 1' nf nnrth latitinli, " — .1. \V. 

I'nwrli. .S , I Anllihll Ill/it , ll'irul'l "f h't/i- 

/,../'"/,'/./.. S(i. 

KuUnapan Family.— " Tin. main tirrilnry 
nf till' family is li,iiin,|,il mi tin" 
wi'st My till' I'ai ilii- llirali, nn tin- i asl liy tliii 
Viikian ami (npiliaii lirritnrii-s, mi lln- iini'ili liy 
till' wati-rsliiil ..r till- l{iis,ian HiM-r .ml nn tin: 
smith liy a liniilravMi fmin Hmli-iia i, nltnthii 
sniilliwi'st riirinr nf tin- Yiikian ti-rntnry. iii-ar 
Santa Unsa, SniimiiaCmintv. Caiifnrnia." — .1. W. 
I'liwi'll, Sriiit/i Aiiii'Kil lii/it. Il'iifin !■/ Klh 
"■•'"till, I' "H. 

Kusan Family.*— " Tin- ' Kaiisnr Kwiikwniw' 
trilii' is nirrily imntinni il liy Mali' as livini; mi a 
riviT nf thr s.llllr Iialllr lirl wrrll till' rniipia anil 
till- (laniit —.1. W. r.nv.ll, S.,,,,11, Annii.ll 

Kiowan Family.— ■■ Di'rivatinii: Fn 

vvnril K6 i, plural K6 iL'ii. niianiiif; 

i-. ''-m' man.' Thr t'nmanrhi' tcrin ka.\n\vi" 

rat.' Till' aiilhnr »hn lirst fnrmally 

i I I'l'l this family appiars In liavi' liri'ti 

.::iir. . . TurniT. npmi th|. strrllL'th of a 

.alary fiiruishiil liy l.ii'Ul. Whippln, ilis- 

• - I'rnni till' opinimi i.xprcssiil by I'iki- anil 

' -'s.,. \ote, .-\ppenilix K. vi.l. X 

Itii't.. .if Klh,„,l.,i}!i, 

Lenapc. Sn 


/I. Hit. 





Machicuis. Si'u l«'lnw : I'ami-as Tuihks. 
Macushi. Stt.' almvi': Caiiiim ami tmkiii 


Manaos. Sir alinvi.: (!icK iiii (ik ii Onotp. 
Mandans, or Mandanes. Sec lirlnw: Sioi \N 


Manhattans. Snalinvi.: Ai.iinNijriAN Fam- 
ily, anil, alsn, .Mamimtan Island 

Manioto, or Mayno. .Srralinvr: .\ni>esia.nh, 

Mapochins. Sn-Ciiii.K: A. 1). U-Vi-IT'-M. 

Maranha. Sir abovr: Uii'K im Ciioo 

Maricopas. Src t«.low ; I'ikiilos. 

Mariposan Family. — " Drrivatinn: A Spanish 
vvonl meaning 'butterfly,' appliiil to u county in 





A n 

* I*, 





•> ■ f~^3^^^M 






-* ;^^^B| 


J •' T^^fl^H 


t, ^^^^B 




! M' 

I i 

A^IKIIH .\N Alli»U|(i|NK.« 

I'Mlif'irnhi iiiiil >iili«'i|ii< filly luki ii f<>r thi' fiiiiillv 
iiiiiiM' l.ailiMiii iiH lllll>n^• ilii' n mil iiit^ >>r llini- 

i||><IIhI lr.|llil'< <>l I'll' I .11 "III "II I IK li »illi lu 
i.\> II LilinHiti ill 111.. iMTlli lit M,iri|".»il rmiiiU 
'III. -I ar.' il,i--. il l.n;illiir iiii.lrr Hit- iit"'>. 
haiiii Mi.ri' MiMllv Ihr lull., •i|ii'.ikii.K 
lili^iia^'. 1 iilllr.l I.I III!' (."i.lirni liii>|. ImiIi 
ir. i'mI i.f uii.lrr III.' raiiiiU iiaiiii- V..kiil A-, 
li"».>.r. 111. >i". k ita^r^^lii .1 l.v l.iiliaiii.ii 
II ...iiii.l iia«i-. Ill- II iiiii- ii li. r. r. -I..r..| — I N\ 
I'.Hlll, .s, ..,//. .{„,..,, t l!,,.t. II; ../■< ./ A.". 

"///. i> 



Mascoutini, or MaKonltni. 

^>. - A. 

Maaiachuuttt. s.r alu. ,\i...imji un 
K»>iii ». 

Matsguajra*. >iiIIi>> Vii..iii..inm i> 

IIMlll >M» 

Majrat. "In lil-< 111..111I v.i>at:i. ('..Iiiiiiliiiii 
111 ir.l >aL'iii' riiiii.'r* iif 11 iiiaiiiliiiiil »iil»uril 
frmn .1 .111 lua ami Ciiliii. at a ill-l iin r.if li lulajii' 
j..iirn. > inaiaH'H' . . . iliiriii!.' In- fmiiili ».•> 
itUi' I I'lii.t-'li. wliiii III' wai <'i|.|.iriiii,' till' liiiK 
k.MilliH.-l fri.iii ( iilia. Ill' |iii kill ii|> It cuiiiK- 11 »iil< (I.I I. Ill rliitliiiii; varhii'»l> iIm'iI TIii' 
uiilln > III it i; IX' liiii' III UMiir^taiiil tliat tin y 
wi ri' iiiiTrltaiiti*. mill ( aiiit' Iroiii u laml illi.l 
Main Tliii Ik iIh' llr>t iiii iilimi in liiAliiry •i llii' 
ttrrll'iry imw lallnl Yiiialiiii. iiiut (if tlii' riii c of 
the Mi\a-; f.T iillliiiiii;li 11 |iriiviii('c of siniilar 
Iiaiiir was fi. 1111(1 ill llic »( st( rii ( xirciiiily nf the 
I1.I.111.I ..( Ciiliii. till' hiiiiilarily was m . nl. iilal, iiit 
till' (xi.lciKc IH ( ..III IiikIxi' thai nil C'liiiiy nf tin* 
Maya', wiii fi.iiiiil "ii lln' Aiililli- . . . Miiyu 
wa» llic |i atrial iiaiiii' ..f llir iiatiM h i.f Yiicatiiii 
It « isili. |.r..|.(r iiaiiiii "I tlir ii..rili(rii |i.iriiiiii 
I.f till' |.. iiiu-iil a N.i hiiii;!.' |ir..i iiii c Imrr il iit 
tlic (laii I.f III.' ('.iiii|U.'^t. anil |.i Lalily it liail 
Urn liatiil..! il.iHii 111 11 CI IK ric 1. nil fniiii tlw 
licriinl, al...iil 11 iiiilury U furc. wlirii thin wliiiic 

(li'.lriil Wan uiiilcd iinil niivcinnuiil . . . 

Wliati'Vir tlir priiiiilivr iiiiiiii; ami timt a|i|i|l- 
(aliiiii (if tlii'iiaiiii' Maya, il iin.nv ii>i'il I.. !.ij.'iiify 
i.iv(( ili( ally tin' iilii.rii.'iii('H(.f ViKalaii. Iiiiniuirc 
(Xldliicil M ll-c. Ill llic r\lili'»i..ll 'till Maya 
family,' it N iiii(l(rNtii.Nl t.i cmliiuic all trilM's, 
will ri'v. r f..nii.l, «li.i »|> related (lial.i'l'* prc- 
KUiiialily .1. riM .1 fniiii tlic ^aiiic iiii('i( lit M.icli lis 
till' Maya |.r..|.(r. . . . The liital niiiiil" r (if 
liiiiiaiis"..f purr IiIimkI Kpcakiiit' the Maya pnipcr 
lllav l»' ( a- In arly iir ipiilcaiHI.IKH). liiiift 
I.f 111. Ill ill Ml.' p.'htiial liinit'dif tlii' ilipartincnt 
I.f ViKalaii, I.. Ilii-r sliiiiilil III' iiililcil nearly 
pill .1.111 ,,1 niixeil IiIibkI, i.r i.f Kunipeaii ilc-cent, 
wli.i 11^.' till' li.iicne ill daily life. Fur il furins 
nil.' .il ihe rail' exaiiiple- (if Aiiierieaii laiiL'imp'H 
pi.—i "iiiL' \italiiy eiiiiimli ni.l .inly t.i iii.iiiilaiii 
its i.'r..iiiii|, lull ai'iiially M f..ri.' il-ilf mi Kiini- 
peaii -I'ltli-r- ami supplant tlnir native ^pe('(-ll. 
. . . I'll.' Mavas dill 111. 1 ilailll t.i lie illlt.icli' 
til.. II.- Till if l.'U'iii.l- ri'I'erri'.l tn tlnir arrival 
liy liii -. :i fr.'iii 111.' La-i. in n iimli' linn -. under 
till I' .lir-liip.'t It/anma. Hi. ir Inr.. L'.'d, ami 
at-., t'. a i. -- niiiii. r.'ii- iiiiiiiii:rali..ii Ir.'iu tlie 

We-t, Ulliell u:i- . iilin. eli'.l «llll the lli-li.ry (if 

aiii.ilii r In M -lid, Kiikiil I an. Tlie lir-i of llie-e 
llpp. :ir> I'l III' w li'illy Iliylllieal. . . . 'i'lie sei 
tra.iiln.ii d. -. i\' ' 111 "T.- iiiti from the hi-- 
tiiriaii . . It e;inii"l i.e denied thai Ihe .Maya'^, 
the Ki. In - |.'r (^iii. hi-l and the Ciki liiipiel-, in 


(lllidti* n'(il»c iiddlliiiiml ImpiirtiiiKc frniii 11,. 
preaaiKc nn tin Kln.n ■( III III! Ml xliiiii till!! 1 
the wall r« I.f the riM r Vaiiin.i. in. nil i.f \... 
( rn/. i.t a pr..inini nt lir Ii if iln Maya fain.: 

Ihe llllu-li.H The l.hll -ilk'L'i«l» IImII II.' 

till HI' Here the rear unard i.f a yrial itilifraihui .1 
the Maya family (n.iii the inrflii Inward 1' 
-..illh ViippLrl'l- iiiii 11 III tliU li,» tlielrdi'.l. ' 
will, h U lii..>l ( |..-( ly akin nf Ihe T/i ini .N 
I.f Tali.i-i .1, the III Mil -I Ma\a rai e t.i tin -..iilh ■ I 
tin III, ami iil-ii li> ^.ry am lent Iradlliniis i.l il.. 
A/iei« It l< miii Mnriliy Ihattlii -.' t«.i pa 'i.illv 
.niliyi.l rill-. Ihe Mavas Hinl tin .\/i.i- 
llmim'h dillinin.' r.nlii iilly In lan;.'iiairi', h il 
le;,'! nils n hi. Il I I linn .| a i..niiiiiiii|i\ nf nriuln it. 
-nine iinh liniii l> ri ninie pa-l W . Ilinl tin -1 . n 
Ihe Nt,i\ a ^i.ii il irr,ili .1 in the miiiti d li. M.k ..I v. 
Klihi-,' the I' N'llli. ill tin lak.hi'i .1 
''< I.f 'I'll pall Alillan,' and in van. .1 
pure Maya ".'uriis . . , Theaiinalniif tlie .\/i. • - 
1 mil ilii iri .pi( lit allu-|.iii'( tu th.' Iluantci >• |i 
It llrilll. 1., ill M'lilH i'lir.omlin, ii,lr.„l 
' ( li.i« ly ( liVI ln|Mi(l in III!' (h ll-c fnresl* (if ( hi I 

pan, (iiiiiti mall, Yucatan, ami llniidiiniH, ih. 
ruins (if w'V.ral am 'cut (itics liavc IscM dl-i ' » 
(Till. »liiih arc far >iii|n rh.r in exiciit ninl iini.' 
niliei'iKi' In any "cell In A/t( c terrilnry, ami •! 
nliiih a (It laihil di -iriplinn may U' fniiiid in il.. 
f..iirtli M.luinc (if this »i.rk. of Iln m' ( I'l - 
«ire iiliandnin.l ami nmrc or le-s iinkn(HMii.| ih. 
lime nf the |>|iani-lil ( ..n.|iii'-l 'I'liiy II. ir 
hii riikdypliic iii-eriptiiins appall iitly Ideiili. d in 
(h.iraitir, in nllnr re«|ieei« liny re-enilile 1 i< li 
(illier nmrc Ihaii tiny re-einlile the A/tec riiih- 
iir (Veil (illnr and apparcniU later wnrk- 111 
(iilatemala and llniidiiras. All the-c liliiaiiH 
iHiir ('ti(h'tit niark'i nf treat aiilii|iiity. . 1 
deem the L'1'..iinds -mill ieiil . . , Inr aidpiiii,; 
thi- (1 111 rid .Villi ri( an eivilizathm nf the pa-l 1- i 
fail, n l.rriiii.' il nut In iincvlinit aniieii) r e • . 
Inn III the iliriit anii-lnrs nf Hie pcnph - -'ill 
nKUpviiiL' the (niinlry with the ."-paiiiard- ml 
appl; liiL' 111 il the name .Maya iis dial nl tin In; 
^uaL'c ^^ liieli lias claims a- sirniii: a- any i" !- 
cnii-idered the mnllnr li.iiL'iic (il the liiiL'iii-'.' 

family meiili d. . . . Tin re arc m. data I . 

«hiili III IK the |«ri.Kl (.f the nriniiial .M n 1 
I'liipire. nr its dimnlall nr lireiikint,' up Int.. ii< .1 
failiniis liy (iul ami Iniemii \\ar-. 'llic (ili. -■ f 
Yiidilaii, as is (hiirly sin. » 11 liy Mr, Mcpln i ■ 
were, many nf llieiii. (H(iipi(il !iy the dex . i I 

lints nf the rs dnnn In the eiimplc-l. .! I 

cniit.iin s iiiic reiiinaiil-nf wnnil wnrk -nil in 1 I 
pri -I rvalimi, iililn.iii.di sniiie nf Hi.' -inni.' - 
appear til lie l.iiilt nil the ruins nf nllnr- > : I 
.-..inewhat ililleri III type. I'aleiniue and I 1 
(III the I ..nlrary, liavi' im trace- nf «ii.«l ..r ■ r 
peri-halilc niaierial, ami wire iiiiinlialiil. .1 I 
priilialily iinkin.Hii in the Itilh ( ( iitiiry. Im 
iii-s nf'llie key In wllal lllll-l have In i 1, :. 
iidvaiiiid -y-liiii nf hii r.'iily pliic-, while 
spnkcii laiiLriiaire siir\i\..l, i- al-.i an iinli. i' 
.if i:r. .'it aiiiiipiiiy, (..nlirnii'.l li\ the tact Iln 
llilii 111- -Inn Inn - III liiialcmala dill(lid lu 
allv trnlll llm-e nl Ihe llcre ilieii'lll cp.s h i 

II. It that the .Ma\.'i i mpire in il- ml. . 
cniiliiiu. .1 l;iii r than llic ltd nr -llli n i-' 
alili.iilL'h il- ( ilii- liiav have lieeli ililialiile.l i 
lalir. ami I -Inillld I'i.x the cpiH'hi'f it- hi 
p.m. r It a date pri'K .lini; rather than Ini' 
Hie! liri-iianera.' -II, 1!. \^' 

iniir.ii. il Iri.iii iln' imrlli nr u.-i In. in 

uf ilie pri -.11 


.f .\1. 



,,/ I'. 


I'ljir St it,! 

.■r.ih. _V,/ 

■■I,, i : r. 4, i-h y-ii 

.'.V r.-iii. 


S..' Ill 


v Km- 

SlOIXN Kamiiv. 

AMEi:irAS AnOllIOINFA IN Miin|iil' ilo Nmlnlllni', P),h„l:rlf 
Am,ne.l. rh. «-T.- .1. I.. .Hlipllih.. I»n,l,t,ll of 
/V,i../i/i y 'inil'l II : II nA I'm,,! Ill l\ iilrnl Ann rinl, 
,1 "11. M Niiniuiii. Il'im'i/ri ill ■'i';it,iii.— 
|) fluirliiiv. Aiin.nt Clint. ■/ thf A'.f W'll.l — 
N. ul-i, Mk<i>'i; Aiiii-M. iiii'l \rxv.v ami 
M\> k I'M ri K>. WiiniN'i 

MaxoruM, or Barbuuo. 

Mcnominect. KtinlHivi' 

II Y II i ^ \t J*. \l\ 

Metoact. fir kIbiH'; Ai.<hiM(1 un i'lMil.Y. 
Mi»mu,orTwightwtt». NihIkiviv Ah.on. 

^1 l\\ KlMII.V. ll.l.lM'H, Ullil >M ■>, Ai 

Micmtct. S..HII.H.': Ai.i.hnwi un K\mii v. 

Illm|{Or». -•' rim imiiii- iif Min.-n.i.r Miiil'>m'. 
br Willi li 111!' IrmiiioU Win- l>iiii«ii to iIh' 1»i li 
tmnnuiiil ilii' 111 litT will liirii Alk'niikliw. i< »ali| 
to 111! a rniilriH lion nf llii' l.rii:i|ui wiml ' Mil- 
hmiB»i.' iii'iiiil'if ll"' 'l'iii|ili- "if Ilii- M|iriiii:< ' 
Thf lriM|iiiiiH pi"«(M«i«il 111!' Iiiiiil wiitiTH iif llii' 
rivim wliicli lliiwi'il tliriiiiirli tin' rixinlry of tlii' 
IVIiiwnriK."— II. Hull'. Thr /;-.«/>(..i» link i/ 

mi,: ./;.;• . '"■'-' •!■ 

Minntconjou. S.i' Ix low : 

Minnetareei* >ii' iilMivr 
Iwl i« : Mill A.N Family 

Minquai. !<<•'• Ix'lim : .sim^ihhnnk- 
aliii\i ; AiiioMi'iAN Kamii.v. 

Miniii, Munuet, or Minitinki. Si r alnivr 

l^^ 1A» (lll.ll, lllllt Al.lHlMJI I VN KlMII.V 

Mi-mha, S<' uUivc: <ii i k nit ('<h uliiiori'. 
*' -if'.i. 8if Ik low: SiiiiAN Kamii.v. 
Mi< , Sic lnl'iw : /ai'otki «, K.rr. 
Hi. .«. SclMldwr /vriHMs. kti' 

MOLUVlt. Sc txlllW: I'AMl'VH 'I'ldllKH. 

Modoci (Klamat'-i) and their California 
and Oregon neighbora,—" Till' iirimiiiiil triln. 
<«rii|i\iiii; tliit rmiiiii ("f Nurtlirni ('iilifnniiii 
(nun l(<>;.'iii' IliviT nil till' iiiirlli to tlii' Ki I llivi r. 
Miiiili{ uri' 111!' Klunititlis. who live on tlii> luiiil 
H;i(i ri of Ihc rivrr iiutl on tin* tiliort'ii of the laki- 
if til it iiuiiii'; till' MmliMH, on Lower Khiiiiath 
I.:ik" uiul liliiiii: l.oit Itinr; the Miii>tin<. totlir 
« 'iiili Hist of till' IjikiH: thf I'itt Itivi r ImllaiiK: 
till' KuriKs, on tlir Klanialli Itivrr iHtwrrn 
\\ril«|iik mill till' <'oii.»t; till- < iliri"'<. on llii> 
Khniatli Itivrr from a uliort ili-'i.-iiin' alhiM* tlir 
piniiinn of till' 'I'liiiily tn tin' Klaiiialli .Moiin- 
iuii>; till' lloopali^ [it, It trilii! of till' 
,\t!i.o-a'f.iii l'aiiiil\ 1 in lliNipali Vallrv on tlir 
'Iriitiiy iii-ar its junrtion with tin' Klainatli; 
iniini riHii trilH-s on tin- from Y.i\ Himt ami 
llinHl«i|ilt llay norlli. siirli as ilii' W. iv'.i^. 
U iliiis, TolrHali'i. III'., anil llii' Uoi:iii' HiMr 
In 11 oi'*, on uuil aliont tlir rivrr of that iiaiiir. 
Till Niirihrrn ('alifuniiaiii an' in I'M-ry wav 
>.;i'i''r to till' iTiitral ami xoiithrrn triiii'<." — 
II. II llaiiiriin. ri„- X.ilir,' /.■„,',.,, 7' //„' /•„.'//'.' 
.-■ '■ : '■ 1, I'/i I — "(In thi- Klamath thiTi' liu- 
til! ' ''Mimi trilK's, I'ulli'il till' Vii rnk. Kamk, 
ii'.'l Ni.'. link, wliii'h ii.'inii'.i ari' saiil to iman. 
r-ii..iiMly. 'ilnwii the rivir,' 'up tin' rivir.' 
■ Ill '111 111 of till' rivrr.' . . . Till' Karck arr 

I I 'il'lv till' liui'vt tiilii' ill ('aliliiriii:i. . . . 

II ii'Valjiv. Oh lilt' Lowrr 'rriiiiiy. i< till' 

1 f |lln'" llii pa]. Ni'Nt afliT till'" K.irok 

III' . :iri' ilii< lini'^l rill' in all that I'l'L'inii, ami 
t; . 1 \. II 1 Mil till 111 in thiir statiiralt. ami in 
!'■ -'n.' iiilliitiii'i', or prrhiip'* liriili' fnrii', 
'^ • ' ti 'hi y rxTriii-i' over tin' viiinal trilns, 
'' ■ ■;:-■ :h. il'iMatiwu Noni;rrn Cai::" :r:;ia ;:i 
tl.' 11' \.tliir aiiii tlirir Hiili.'-ri':u'liinir '.iiniinioii^; 


ihi'V ari' 111!' KniH'li In Uf r^lrniliiil (llfTioInn (4 

llnlr lanniiaiii' ■' Tim Mi»lok«. "mi tin- Hitoli- 
. . . iirn ratliir ii rlialilNli. Iml' 1< nt. onlinarlly 
(Toiiil miliinil run, hut triinl" rmii iit iHittoni, 
mllin whin iinuirnl, iiotorioin for kicplng 
I'linir fulili, lliil thi'lr hrimry nolHuiy mo 
liiipiiM li or iliiiy; llnlr liiroii' iiinl Imiif ilrfrniMl 
o( lliiir '•iriiiijlinlil iiifiiinst tlii< Rpplianri'i n( 
iniNlirn I ivili/iil warfari', Inrlinlliii; that arm >u> 
u«(iil 111 Ml v a i.'i H — thf iirlillirv — waK alniiml 

till Iv fi atnri' that lint rii-pi rl alulii v to lliilf 

«rililii'i| trii^'i'ily of Ihi' l.iiva lliil< ll-*::!! "-S. 

I'llWirS, yV.'i.H »/ lUlil'in.iit {I „i,tri>„llin,i» I,) 

V .1. /■yiiii.'l-jit. r. Ill, i-h. I, 7, .1"/ '.'7 —"The 
hoiiii' of the Klumiili IrilK' of Miiithwrntirn 
I In coll lii"< iilmn till' ciiti rn «|ii|m' of Ihi' wiiitli' 
iTii ixtriinitv of till' t aii'ailu Itniii:!', anil vi'ry 
marly cnliii lili i with what wi' may call the 
hiail wall r<4 of llii' Klimath Klvir, Ihi' main 
courM' of whirh lin in NmlhiTn raliforiilii. 
. , , Tim main wilt of till' Moilof pi'iipli' win llio 
vulli'y of l^ist Hlvir, the nhornt of Tn; ■' ami of 
l.itllii Klninuth l.aki' , . . Tin' two main limllia 
forminif Ihi" Kliimatli |m oiih- urn (1) tin- K luiimth 
Ijikn Inilliini; (J) llio Mi«1ih; liullun: Th« 
Klaiiialli IJiku Inilliina niimlHr more II in twice 
lilt many ii« tl.i' MihIik! Iinliaini. They hjaak the 
iiortlnrn illuhi't Hinl form tlin imrthirn rhlif- 
lainiv. . . . Till' Klamath iMophi |ki'«''I'« no 
hlHiorin trailitioiH (."'inK fnrtln r hark in tiniu 
than a cintiiry, for tlin dlinph! ri'iwon that llure 
waHikhtrirt law proliihitiiii; tin- nniilion nf the 
pirsoii or »rt4 of a ilnraiiil iiiiliviilnal liy using 
ilii naini'. . . . (iiir pri'Miit know IiiIko diHi not 
iillow UH to riinnirt tin' Klamath 1ani:imi;e 
(iini aloiriially with an) of tlin iitliir lanKiiuKi'a 
rompanil, hut , . . it HtamU ui a liimnintlc 
family for ItM If. "—A rt. (in-rhit, Thf KlniMth 
Imliiiiit (l';i,tr,'inliii„ii I.I S. .1. Elhiuilii'liJ. r. 2, 
^,t. 1). — 111 .Major I'iiwiHh liiijiiiistir i'la»»illrii' 
lion, the Klamath ami .MmliK' ilialirtu are iiii- 
hrari'il in n family lalleil the l.utnamian Fiimlly, 
iliriviil from ii' I'it Kivrr wonl nit'iilfjlng 
"lake;" the YnrokH In a family talli'il tlio 
Wi'itspikan; nnil the Til Kivir Imiian lilalirtk 
am provisionally m t apart in n ilislimt familv 
nannil tin' I'alailinihan Family.—,!. \V. I'owill, 
Siniilh Aniiiiiil llifirt. li'in.ri ./ AV/i «<'/i/;/y, yp. 
HI) mill UT. 

MohaTca (Mojaveai. Sm aliovi'; Ai'vche 
Guiii I'. 

Mohawks. Sir almvi'; Iinxitiiis Cos- 
Ki;iiiaiM V. 

Mohegani, or Mahicant. Sm almvi'. Ai.- 
iniMji IAN Family; ami U Imv : Sim KLItilMiK In- 
tnvNM; al>o, Nkvv .\. I>. 11137. 

Moi.tagnais. Sw almvi': ALiidNmiAN Fam- 
ily; ami .V niAfAx AN Family. 

Montauks. Siialiovn; Ai.ooNifri \N Family. 

Moquelumnan Family. — " Di rivatimi; From 
the livi r anil hill of llie Kami' namn in lalavmis 
Ciiiiiily, California. ... It was not uiilil l»5d 
that till' of tin' liiiu'iiislie family was 
folly Ml fo'tli liy l.atliain. I inlir tin' Inail of 
Miii|ni'luiiiiii'. thisanlhor LMtlnr* siviral v.Kalni- 
latti-i npri'-ii'Tiling ililfiTi'lit Ian/ ilts anl ilia- 
liTl.H of thf saliln stoi U. Tin m' i' llii' '"alatill 
of Hale, thi' Tuoliiinni' from looliratl. tlio 
.Sominia iliaii'ct.s as rrpri'si'iitn' y tin- 'IMinko- 
vriii viH'aliiilary, tlieChoi'iiyini ami Voukiiiii'ino 
1 "patirnostrrs. ami tlir Ol.amrntke of Kostro- 
niitiirii'v in Ha-r's iv.iir.'ij-. . . T!;'- ^^"^li-'- 
Iniiiiian family oi'iiipiui the ii rrilmy biumiK-d 


I-. fJ-1 

'■H u 

•.' 'Ai 


i:, '..'1. 

10 1 



on the north l)v tlie Cosunme River, on the south 
by the Fresno 'UiviT, on tin- f;vst t>y the Sierra 
Neviiilu, anil on Ihe west hy tlie San Joaciuni 
Hiver. Willi llic esception of ii strip on tlie east 
hanli (Mcupied 1)V tlie C'liolovone. A part of 
thin faniilv oiinpi'cs also a tirrilorv iMninileil on 
the south iiv San Framiwo Bay. "—.I. VV. I'owell. 
S'i;„l/i An'nuiU Jint., Jliimfi of KOiHoUKjy, pji. 

Moquis. See below: Pikhios. 
Morona. See above: Ani>ksi\ns. 
MOXOS, or MojOS. See above; Am>F.SI.\NS; 
also. Bolivia: Ahoiiioinai. Imiaiuta.nts. 
Mundrucu. See below: Tin. 
Munsees. See above: I)i:i,awauks. anil -Vi.- 
ooM;riAN Family; also Mamiatian Isi.ami. 
Mura. Seealiove: (!i iK ou Coi o Citoi r. 
Muskhogean, or Maskoki Family.— "Ainoni; 
the various nationalities of the (lulf territories 
the Maskoki family of tribes i«i iipieil a central 
mill eoininanilim; [losition. Not only the larf;e 
extent of territory hiM by them, but also their 
numbers. Ibi ir prowess in war. ami a certain 
decree of mental culture ami Mlf-esteeni made 
of the Maskoki oiicof Iheinost imjiortaiit jiroiips 
In Indian historv. From their elhnolofjic con- 
dition of later li'mes, we infer that these tribes 
have ex niled for manv lenturies back in time tlie Atlantic to the Mississippi .•iiid beyond 
that river, and from the .\palaihian riilL'e to the 
(iiilf of Mexico. With short intermissions they , 
kept up warfare with all the lireumjacent Indian i 
communities, and also amonjr eaeli other. . . . j 
Till' irresolute ami ciruti-tie puliey of tlieselribes 
often cau-ed serimis diltieuliiis to the l'ovitm- 
nieiit nf the KhL'lish and Freiieh culonies, and 
fome of them eoie-tantlv wavered in their adhe- 
fliin beiweeii the Pr. lull and the Kn.L'lisli cause. 
The Am.rii an L'ovenimeiit DVireame tin ir op]i"- 
siiion easilv w believer a c.aitliet presented il-elf 
(llie Seiiiin'"le \Var biriiis anexi epiiniii, beinusc., 
like all the Indians, they never knew bow to 
unite aiiaiiist. a ccimmoii foe. The two main 
biallc le s of tin' stock, the Creek and the Cbalita 
bir Ilidiiins, were i cin-lanlly at ^^ar, 
and the reinembranee of llieir deadly ci.ntliits 
has nnw passed to their dev,-. ndaiils in the bam 
of bilk Inre. . . . The only eli.iraiieristie by 
vvhieh a ^ulHlivi^illn of the family can be at- 
tiiiipted, is that of laiiL'iiaL-e. Foll-'wins; their 
anc ienl ti.p.i.:rapliie lucMtiia; from cast to wi-~t, 
we ..btaiii 111'- loll"«ini,' svn..psi->: Fir^t branch, 
or prnp.r: The Civi k. Ma-k.ikaliri or proper, sitibd on ( oosm, Tallai -a, 

tpper and Middle Chatahuehi rivers. Fnan 

these bralichid otf by se::nielilal inn Ihi! Creek of the S.-miIiimIi s. c.f the Vainassi and of 
the linle Vamaeraw c. .iiiniiinily. Second, or 
.Vp.ilai biaii branch: This s.iullM:i~tern ilivi>ion, 
which inav be called aUo 'a p:irte poticri' the 
llitcbiti connection, anciently eompri>ed the 
tribes on the Lower Cb.ilabuc hi river, ami, ca^t 
from there, tie- exlinct .\p:ilie|ji, the Mika-liki, 
and the llileiei' poriioti of the Seminoles, Vii. 
ii.a>si and Yain.ierius. Third, or Alib:imu 
Lraiieh. compriM.l the .\lib:inm villaL'es on_ the 
river of that name; to them belon^'id the Koas- 
eiili and \Vilumk:i .iii Coosa riv. r, its nnrlheiii 
alllmiit. Fourth. We-tern or Clia'bta [Choi taw] 
hnincli: From the main people, the Cleihia, 
nettled i ilbemiddlepoiiioiisor the State of .Mis- 
nissippi. the Chica-a. I'ascatrouhi, liiloxi, lluiiia, 
»nd oilnr trilHSonee became separuted tbioofiii 

•>.!■ Nitr, .\|ip.ll.|i\ K, VcjI. 5. 1 


sejrmpntation. Tlic stronRost evidence for a com 
mnnitv of origin of the Maskoki irila's is fur- 
nishcil bv Ihe fact that their iHalects iM-lonjr to 
one lin;:uisiic f.imily. . . . Maskoki. Maskoui. 
isti Maskoki, desijinatcs n single [Hrson of the 
Cnck irilK', and forms, as ii collective plural. 
.MaskokiilKi, the Creek eommnnily, the Creek 
people, the Creek Indians. Knp'isliauthors write 
this name M.iscoL'ee, Muskho^rce, and its plural 
MiiscoKuluee. The tirst syllabic, as pnmnuncecl 
by the Creek Indians, eolilaiiis a clear short a. 
. The accent is iisuallv laid on the mid 
dlesvllable: .Maskoki, Maskoki. None of the 
tribe's are able to exidain the name from their 
own lanKiiane. . . . "by dhl the Knulish colo- 
nists call them Creek Indians Y Because, when 
the English traders entered the Maskoki country 
from Charleston or Savannah, they had to cross 
a nnmberof .streanisorcreeks, especially between 
the Cleitahuchi and Savannah rivers. OaUatia 
thoutfbt it probable that the iiiliabiUint.s of the 
country adjacent to Savannah river were callid 
Creeks from an early time. . . . In the southern 
part of the Cha'hta territory siveral trilas, repre- 
sented to be of Chalitii lincajre. apjuar as dis- 
tinct from the main binly, and are always men- 
tioiied separately. The French colonists, in 
whose annals tbev lijiure cxieiisively, c;ill tin m 
Mobili.-ms, Tohon'ies, I'ascoL'onhis, liiloxis, Mou- 
fronlachas, Bavo^'oulas and llnnias ((»uin:i-.i 
They have all liisippeared inonrepoeb. with tii- 
exception of the Itiloxi [Major I'owell, in ll,. 
Seventh .Vnnual lieport of the liureauiif Ethii.i- 
o:;v, phices Hie Itiloxi in the Sionan Fanblyl.'of 
vd'ioni scattered remn.ants live in the forests of 
l.oni-iaiia. soiilh of the Bed Biver."— A. S. (Jal- 
1 lief, .1 Mii/nilnoi r.,;/, iiihjtl,, ('i.ikliiiloiii'. i: 1. 
;,/. t. — "The lebees and the N:itclies. who no 
botli ineorponileil in the |.Miisklio-ee or Creek| 
eoidechr.icy, speak two di-linct lan;;uai.'es alio, 
ireiher dilTereiit from the .MuskboL'ee. ThcNat- 
ihes. a re-idue of the well-known nation of that 
naiiii'. c.inie from the banks of Ihe Missi>..,ippi. an. i 
joined the Creeks le~s I ha none blind red years a:; o. 
'The oriL'inal se;its of the V'cliees were cast of tli.' 
Coosa and jirobablv of the Cliatahoochee; an 1 
they coiwider tin ms'elvi s as the iiio^t aniieni in 
iMiliitaiils of the country. Tliey may Icive b. . k 
the same nation wbi. b is c;illed Ap:il:iclies in tia 
acconii'^ of l>e Solosexpedition. . . . The foi.r 

preat Si uiliern nations. accoriiiiiL'tn Ihecsti ii - 

of the War Department . . . i oiisi^t now [If.y^i 

of tiT.IHIO souls, viz.: TheCherokeo, l."i.00il; il,.' 

Clioelaws (|s,.-|ltO), the Cbicasas (."i,500), 21. One, 

the Mu'khoL'ees, Seminoles and llilchitli . -. 

2(1,000; Ihe rehees. Alib;inions, Coos:idas, at i 

N:itclies. ■.■.IliK). The territory wot of tl:i; Mi- 

' sissippi, fjiven or olb red to Ihem by the liii'- i 

j States ill e\cliam.'e bir their l:inds c;i-t of t!i 

river, contains tii.iKMI.O"" aci s. exclusively ■ 

what'mav bi .."olted to the ( Id. ;ls:is."— A. (. 

< latin .■<,ii,„i,MK„f till IikIi'.u, y, /'.,» (.1 ir/,,!../.. • 

.lm./7>.;(..., /'.'Jl, *.'Mi.— Seebrlow; SLMINOII 

i Musquito, or Mosquito Indians. — ' Tliatp 
1 tioiiof Honduras known as the Mnsipiito C : ' 
I derived its name, not from the abiindaiici- ^ 
: tbo^u troubhsome in^e.ts, but from a n:i':^ • 

tribe who at the di-.eovery occupied the s'li 
i near Blewtleld I.ML'oon. They are an iiilellij' ■ 
people, short in stature, unusually dark in lol ', 
with linelvciit features, and small straiu'ht le- , 
— not at 'all negroid, except where there I: ^ 
liteu uu admixiuri; of biuud. They liii!"' 





about 6.000, manv of wlioiii lmvr> bicn piirtly 
tivilizcd liy tlic t'ltorls "f iiiisnioimrics, who Imvo 
rcluiril tlie l«n)Iiiai,'c to wriliiiK iiiiil ])iil)lislnil 
In it 11 miinlHT of works. The Tiiii^'liis arc orii- 
of thi' siili-trihcs of th« Miis(|nitos.' — 1). (1. 
Hriiilnn, Tlu .'.mrnCAin, p. ICi. — Sir, also, 
Src viiv'oi-.v: A. D., 18.V) 

Nahuas. 8<c -Mkxuo, Anciknt: The SI.iYA 
AMI N \m V I'Kori.KS. 

Nanticokes. Sec ahove : AuioNiii i.\s F.4M- 

II Y. 

Napo. Sec iihove: Andksians. 
Narragansetts. Sec ahove: .Vt.oomjihn 
FvMiiv; iilso UiioDi: Ini.ANn: .\. D. I'Wd; and 
Xr.w Knoi.ano: A. I). I(i:t7; lli74-l(iT.T ; lliT.^); 
anil KlTH-lins. , 

Natchesan Family.— When llic Frcneh hrst 
iiitercd the lower .Mississippi vaHey, they fouiiil 
llio Naliiiez l.Nii'hteliiJ oeeiiiiyiiij,' a reiiioii 
of foiiritry tlmt now surnuiruls tlic eily 
nliidi hears their iiaiuc. " Ity tlie jicrsevir- 
iie' euriosity of Gallatin, it is estahlished 
Hat tlie Natchez were dislinu'iiished fniiii 
llie triies around Ihein h'ss hy their customs 
and the dejiree of thiir eivili/.ation than hy tlieir 
lanjuasic. which, as as i-oinparisous have ^ 
liii a iiislitiited. has no etymological alliiiily willi | 
anvollar wlialever. Here iiLMiii tlie im:iL'iii.i- 
ti.iti to.) readilv invents theories; ;ind the tradi- \ 
tion husheeu widely received Iliat tlie doniiiiioii 
of llie Nalehcz once extended even to the 
Wahiish. History knows them only as a feehh' 
anil inconsiilerahlo nation, who in the ISIh 
(I iitiirv attached themsilvis to the conl'ederacy 
,,t tlii>"Cr.rks."— G. liancroft, lli^t. ,if Vw V. .■■■. 
(. 1 ';»/,. ,r'>i^.i«« nrX r. 3, ;). UT.— '■ ('liati;aiiliri,.:id, | 
ill liis rharniini? romances, and some of tlie early 
Kn 11. h wi'ileis, whoofien drew upon their fancy 
f irliieir facts, have thrown an inlcrest :iniund 
the Natchez, as a semi-civilized and iiolilu race, 
that has pa-seil into history. \Vi' liml no trices 
.if .ivilization in arcliileeliire, or in their 
M.iiil life anil customs. Tlnir reli:;iou was 
brutal an.l hl.ii«lv, in.licatini; an Azlii- oriiiin. 
Tl.i'V perlidioiis an.l cruel, and if they were 
at ail superior to the Iieiirhhoring triliis it was'ahlv iIih' to the districi they occupi.d — the 
iHi-t hi'autiful, healthy and proiluctive in llie 
vilhyof the Mississippi — and the intluenec of 
iis ailr.ictions in suhstituting ]iermanent 
liHip.irarv occupation. The residence of the 
L'laiid chief was merely n spacious cahin, of one 
aiiari'.acnt, wilh a mat of lia^kct w.irk for his 
III . I an.l a h.g for his pillow. . . . Tie ir govern- 
m.'iit was an alis.ilutc (lesp.ili^m. Tlie supreme 
iliiif was master of their lalmr, their projierty, 
and their lives. . . . The Natch, z consist, d e.\- 
lin-iv.Oy of two cla^ — tlie HI.hhI Hoyal anil 
:•> ..lenexi.iiis, and the common people, the 
.^lil■h-i-nlioki■^plipe, or Stinkards. The t\yo 
c!i-m3 uiiderstooil each other, hut spoke a dif- 
f r, nt dialect. Tlu'ir customs of war, their 
i;- iiiii.Mit ot prisoners, tlair ceremoiues of 
i'lMiiaL'e. their feasts and fasts, their s.ireeries 
: ! rati, dilfere.l very little other 
'i^.s. Katiier (.'hailevoix, who visit, d Nat- 
• t ill 17'.31, saw no evidinres of civilization. 
' Ml i-villaces consisted of a few cabins, or rather 
■ 1 1.-, without windows and roofed with niat- 
'■.::■:. Thi! house ot the Sun was lari;cr, 
i:.-'.!".! with mud. and a narrow heiich for a 
- ii mil he.l. No other furniture in the mansion 
:' t!;;.i grand dignitary, who hits heen tleseribed 

•nii; .\,iu-, A|i|ua,li.\ i;, Mil. i. 1 

hy Imaginative writers as the peer of Monte- 
zuma! "—J. F. H. Claiborne, Miiwimpiii, r. \.eK. 
4.— In IT'.'i), the Natchez, miiddencd by Insolent 
oppressions, planned and executed a general 
massacre of the Frcni h within their territory. 
As a conseipience, the tribe was virtually cx- 
terniinated within the following two years.— C. 
lavarre, I.^uiiiiiiiu, tl» Coluninl Hint, and 
iim.iiir,'. ill «/■(■,», lert. 3 iiiid r>.— " The Na'btchi, 
acconlini; to (Jallatin, u resi.lue of the well- 
known nation of that name, camc> from llie 
hanks of the Mississippi, and joined the (reek 
less than one hundred years aj^o. Thc^ seashore 
from Mobile to the Jlississippi was then in- 
habileil bv sevend small tribes, of whiih the 
.Na'htehi was the principal. H.fore IT*) the 
tribe lived in the vicinity of Natchiz, .Miss., 
ahin;? St. Catherine Creik. After their disper- 
sion by the French in 17;J0 inostof the remainder 
joined the Chicasa and afterwards the Upper 
Creek. They are now in Creek and Cherokee 
Nations, Indian Territory. Tlie lin;;uistic rela- 
tions of the lani;uai;e spoken hy the Taensu trilw 
have hini; been in doubt, and it is possible they 
will ever remain so."— J. W. Powell. Sr,„t/i 
Annual Ilpt., Il'ir,.ni „f Kth,,,,}..;!!!. V- !»«■ — See 
I.oiishna: a. 1>. 171'.»-17.">0. — See, also, above: 
.MisKiiooKvN Family. 

Natchitoches.* SeeTKXAs: TiiK Aiioukiinal 

Nausets. See ah.ive: Ai.iiosijriAN rAMii.Y. 
Navajos. Sc abov.'; AriiAfAM a.s Family, 
an.l Ai'ACiiK (iiioi I'. 

Neutral Nation. See above:, Ac; 
and IitiHjidis C o.NKKDKiiAi v: Tiii.iit CoN- 
ijri:sTs. \c. 

Nez Perces, or Sahaptins.— "The Sahaptins 
or Ncz I'ercis [the Shaliupiian Family ill .Mijor 
[ I'owell's classilieatioii], wiihlheiraHiiiatc.ltrilies, 
j oceupic.l the mi.ldle and upper valley ot the 
' lolumbia an.l its atllucnls, and also the p:is>is (if 
1 the mountains. They were in coutiLTuity with 
I the Shosh.aiesand the AK'onkiu IJiackfcet, thus 
; lioMini; an important position, interme.liate be- 
' tweeu the eastern and the I'acilii- tribes. Hav- 
ing the c.imniereial instinct of llie latt. r, they 
iniule giKiil Use of it."— I). G. lirintoii, Tht 
Aiiiiiir,iii Jl'iir. i>. li;T. 

Also IK J. \V. I'ow.dl. S.i;„th Amri.d It, jit. 
of the llnn.v: of Klhio,h„jii. ,,. Itlli. 

Niniquiquilas. S.ilul.iw: I'AMrAsTniuKS. 
Nipmucs, or Nipnets. S. e above: Al.ios- 
1)11 KN Family; iiNo. Ni :w Em-land: A. I). I(i74- 
107"); 1(17,"); an.l lii7(i-lii7-<lKi>i" I'llILirs Wau). 
Nootkas. See b.low : WarvsMas Family. 
Nottoways. See above: litoijiois TiiniKs 

OK TlIK Sol 111. 

Nyantics. .<!■.■ abov.: Aloon.jiian Family. 
Ogalalas. Se.'li.l.nv: Sioian Family. 
Ojibwas, or Chippewas. — "Tlie Ojibways. 

witli kiii.lic.f, the I'oltawattamii.s, and 
i tlieir the Uttawas,— the latter ot whom 

were fiijiilives from tlie eastward, w lience lli.'y 

had lied tlie wrath of tlie Iro.pi.iis.— were 

baii.l.-'l int.) a sort of confedera.y. T!uy were 
' closely ■ 'iieil in IiIoihI, language, manners and 
i character. The Ojibways, by far tlie most 
] numerous ot the three, 'occupied the basin ot 

Lake Superior, and extensive a.ljacent r(:;i"iis. 

In their boundaries, the career of Ini-iiniis 
I con.(Ucst found at length a check. The fugitive 

Wyan.l.its wiiight refuge in the Ojibway hunt- 
i ing; and tniditiou relates that, at th« 



'I hi- 

■' m 


? 1 

< 1 

, %-r-i'i' 


outlet of I.iikc Suiiiricir, mi Troqiiciis war-party 
mill' rill ■luiili rill 11 ili-.i.'.lnma ri-pulst'. Ill tliiir 
iiii«l" iif lilV, till \' "ire far inon.' null' tli.iii llie 
Irmiiiiiii, IT <vrn tlie siuitlirrn Ali;i>iiipiiii 
IrilHs"— F, I>Miliiii:iii, C'liapinfi/ of I'^, 
ch. 1.— "Tlie iiiiiiii' of till' triliu appiars to bu 
riTfiit. It is iiiil iiii't Willi ill tlic oliirr writirs. 
Till' Krriirli. w 111) wiTi' tlif liirlii >t to iiuia tlicni, 
in lluir iriliMl si'at at the falU or Saiilt ile Stu 
Maiii', iiaiunl thrin Saiilliiir, from this lircuiii- 
hlaiHi'. .M'Krii/ii'UM^llii' tiriii • Jilnvay.'asllie 
t'liuivali'iit of this lirni, in his voya;;is. Tlicy 
ariTcfirrcil to. wiili liiile ii,ir<ri'iiii' in ihu 
ortli'iLTiphv, ill (ii iiiral Wasliiiiiiloirs riport. iu 
17."il.~of his trip to I.e lio'uf, oii I.aUi' Kric; 
but aro lir^t. nioixnizcil, aiiioiifioiir tn alytriln's, 
in till' giinral tri ,ilv of tirriuvilli', of 17U4, iii 
whicli, with till' Olfawas tliuy ci.-cli'il the islanil 
of Mirhiliiiiaikiiiac-, ami crrtain iliiHiiilrucii'S, 
coiiiiikil bv tluin at fonnir piri.Kls to the 
Fniiili. . .'. Till' ihijiprwas are concTiUil, by 
writirs on AiniTiiaii philoloi.'y ... to sprak 
one of the piinst forms of the Ali;i>nipiin." — 
H. U. S-liiMilcTaft, Iiif'inii.ilini. reKi^i-rinii thu 
llii't., Omditiiit and' I'l-ffiurtx of the Jiulittn 
Tnl',\, i,t.:<, }i. 142. 

Also in- ti. fop-, V, 77if OJilnrni/ X.ittoii.— 
J. 11. Knhl, 7i7r.'/. ./lim/.— Srr, also, I'liNTiAc's 
Wau: aiiilubovu: Aioom^iian Family. 

Omahas. Si e bilnw: Sioi AN Family, ami 
I'awm K (l'Ai>i>i>AN) Family. 

Oneidas. See above: luiKiLois C'onkkuku- 

Onondagas. See above: lucHjriiis I'oni-ku- 


Orejones. Siebilow: I'ami'As TuiiiLs. 
Osages. Se bilow: SiotAN Family, iiml 
Pa»\i.i: ^('Al)llo^N> Family. 
Otoes.orOttoes. .Selulow: Suhas Family, 

ami 1'awnke H ai am Family'. 

Otomis.— "Aicoriliiin to Aztec tnilition. the 
Otoiiiis were the earliist. owners of the soil of 
Central Mexieo. Their lanL'iiaije was at the 
conipiest one of the most widely distribiiteil of 
any in this |)orlioii of the continent. Its central 
re;''ions were the Slates of Qiieietaro ami Gnan- 
ainato. . . . The Otoinis are below the average 
stature, of ilark color, the skull markeillyilolicho- 
ceplialic, the nose short ami tlatteiieil, the eyes 
sliixhtly oblique,"— II. G. liriiiton, The Aineri- 
Clin /i'.;.v, ;). i:!"p. 

Ottawas. See above: Aniosgt Ian Fa.milt, 
anil«AS.— See, aKo, 1'ontiai s Wak. 
Pacaguara. See above: Andksians. 
Pacamora. See above: Andksians. 
Pambcoes. See above: AloonijI'Ian Family. 
Pampas Tribes. —'■Tlie chief tribe of the 
rain|i:i> Imli.ins \\ as elitilleil (Jileramlis by the 
Spallianl-. altliiiil:;h tllev calleil llieinselves Pe- 
hiieli lies |or I'liells — thai is, the Kaslern]. Vari- 
ous sei;iTiMils of thi~e, umler ililTeri lit names, 
nieupii.l till iiiiiiii live trait of LToiiml. between 
t!ie rn' r I'.oaiia ami the lepublie of Chili The 
(Jiieramlis . . . were the y,rc^t opponents to 
Mithiiunt iif the S,iaiiiarils in Itnenos Ayres. 
The Aiie:i< i.r .Sraeaiiiios Imliaiis |see 
Ciin.i-I re-iiiii| oil till we-i oi ibe I'aiiiiMs near 

II, iii, :iiiil I liiiii iMtiiue ..-iMiil ihi (^ueran- 

liis ill lr,i!i-|"inili:; -l-.liil lallli aerii" Ibe Ciir- 
(lilli i-MN The --i.iilhi 111 part of Ilii Pampas was 
liiiupie.l bv Ihe liallhitav rilileln >. Tellllel 


li-ilial tjii 

Mil .,1 »IlI.I 

ieh, - Imnle 

l.raliehes of 

Mle i;u:iralll lll- 


(Hans were the most famou.s of the South Ameri 
can races. . . . Of theGuayanasliorilelhere weie 
several trilHS — iiiih'lHnili"nt. of each other, ainl 
speakini! dillerent iilioms, altlimigli Imvini; the 
same title of race. Their territory exiinili il 
from the river (iiianii, one of the utllmuts into 
the I'rngiiav, for many leaiiiies northwarils, 
ami .stretciic'il over to tiie Parana opposite the 
cilv of Corpus Christi. They were some of the 
most vigorous o|i|K>neiitsof the Spanish invailer,. 
. . The Nalicurgas Inilians, who li.eil np la 
near UP S. lat. were repiitiil to dwell in caves, 
to be verv limiteil in iiiiinber, ami to gocnlirily 
naked. Thetiaiisarapos. or (Iniichies dwelt inlliii 
marsliv districts near where the river Gausjirapo, 
or (iuncliic, has its source. This stream cnlira 
from the cast into the ParaKiiay at ll»^ 1(5' 30" S. 
lat. . . . The Ciiatos lived inside of a lake to 
the west of the river Paraguay, and constituted 
a very small tribe. . . . The Itrcjones dwelt on 
the c:isterii brows of the mountains of Santa 
laicia or San F'ernando — close to the western 
side of P.iniguay river. . . . Another tribe, the 
Xiniqiiiipiilas, liad likewise the names of Potre- 
los, Siiimnos, Uarcenos, and Lalhanos. Tiny 
occupied a forest which began at about 1!»^ S. 
lat., some leagues backward from the river Para- 
guay, ami separated the Gran Cliaco from the 
province of I.o» Chiipiitos in Peru. . . . Tl.i 
Guanas Indians wire divided into eight separate 
segments, for each of w hicli there was a particu- 
lar and diirirent name. They lived between L'o' 
and 2i° of S. lat. in the Gnin Cliaco to the west of 
Paragiiav, and they were not known to the Span- 
iards till" the latter" cros.scd the last-named river 
in ItiTi . . . The Albaiaa and Payagiias Indians 
... in former times, were the chief trilies of tlie 
Paraguay territory. . . . The Albaias were 
styhd Macliicuis am! Kiiimgas by other authors. 
At the time of the Spaniards' arrival here, the 
Albaias occupied the Gran Chaco side of the 
river Paraguay from 2(P to 'i'i' S. lat. Here 
thev entered into a treaty offensive and di fea- 
sive with the Payaguas. . . . The joined funis 
of Albaia-s and P'avaguas had managed to exteuii 
their territory in 1«73 down to H" V S. on the 
eastern side of Paraguay river. . . . The .\I- 
baias were a verv tall and muscular nice of 
peo|ile. . . . The 'Payagua Indians, iK'fore ami 
up to, as well as afier, the periiMl of the cmi- 
quest, were sailors, and domineered over tlie 
river Paraguav . . .The Guaicarus lived on Ilie 
Chaco side of' Paraguay river and subsisted en- 
tirely bv huntiug. From the barbarous ciistiia 
which their women had of inducing abortion to 
avoid the pain or trouble of < hild-beariiig. ih y 
became exlermiuati il si«in after the conqiU't. 
. . . The Tobas, who have tlie titles nf 
Natcciet and Yncanaliaite, were among the li -t 
lighters of the Indians. They occupy the (Jrai 
Chaco. chiclly on the banks of the river Veriin ,". 
and betwccirthatand the Pih-omayo. Of lb' -e 
there are soiiie remains ill the present day. . . . 
The .Mocovis are likewise still to be found in Il,e 
Cliaio. . . . The Ahipones, who were also sn ! <1 
Kcu>giiia and Quiabanabaite, lived in the Ch e •. 
.sii Imv down as :;«' .south. This was the li: i- 
with whom the Jesuits incorporated, when lli. y 
erected the city of San Oeronimo, in the (ii in 
Chaco, and nearly opposite Goya in 1748. "— I'. 
J. Hutchinson, ']'fii'J'iiniii<—"'Vbf .M 
pones inhabit fin the 18th century] the prim- n 
Liiaco, ! he centre of all Paragua> , llie> hi" ■•> 




ti\((l lilioclis, niir liny liiMiinlarirs. oxccpt wlmt 
f, :ir "f iliiir mitrli'")"'^ l'^"* i ^lulilishid. Tliiy 
rnim rxtin.-ivclv in cvt ry dindioii, wlicncvir 

ll |i|Mirlnnilv" of iillarkhi); Ihiir tiicniii-i. or 

III,' riicTssilv (ll avoiding tlii-m niiilcrs ii jimrni'V 
ii.lvi-alilf. Till- niirllicrn slii>rf of the liio (iriindf 
ur 1!. riiu'j". Hliirli till' Imlians lall Inatf. was 
lliiir iia:ivc land in lln' la~t ciiitiiry |tlii- lTlli|. 
Thciicr Ihcv ri'Miovi'd. lo Ihr war carriid 
(in a):ainst' Chaid liy llic S|ianiar(ls . . . and. 
n.i-'ratin:.' tiiward-i llic sonlli, took possession (.f 
11 \T(I1(V formerly held liy tlic ('al(l(a(|nis. . . . 

Krniii what rcL'io" their aneestors ca there is 

,1,1 , m for conjecture. "—>r Dolirizholler. .lr,-l. 

ni I'l, .l''(/"'"'». '". '-'. <■''■ 1- — "The AliipoiKs are 
ill ;iii(ral ahove the middle statnre, and of a 
loliil-l eonstittition. In sinniner they i,'o (loite 
icikiil; lait in winter cover tlieinselves with 
-l,iiis. . . . 'I'hev paint themselves all over with 
.liifircMt colours". ■■—Father Charlevoix, Hint, vf'l.n/, l,l.\ 7 ( c ll. 

Ar^soiN ■/■//. ,<r,inil,inl y.iffiml lliitori/ (J. S. 
Kih'i^liil. I'll.). '■■ •>. jip. ■J.")(i-'-'lW,— Sec, also, below: 

r( IM — (!lAll\M- 

Pampticokes. See aliove; Ai.dONiiiiAN 


Pano. Sec aliove: Am)Ksi.\ns. 

Papag-os. S(c below: I'iMv.N Family, and 

I'l T.lil.os. 

Parawianas. Sec above: ('Aitiiis and TiiKiii 


Pascogoulas. Sco above: MisKiKxiKAN 


Pass<. See above: GiiK oit ('o< (> (Inot r. 
Patagonians and Fueeians.— " The I'litajro- 

II ins call themselves Choiiek or T/.oucca, or 
liiikcn (men, people), and by their Fanijiean 

III i i_'lili(irs arc referred to us Teliiicl( 'he, southern- 
([s. 'ri.iv do not, however, belonj,' to the .Vii- 
(aiiian stock, nor do they resemble the |'am)ic:ius 
pliysically. They arc C("lelirate(l for their stal (ire, 
iiciiiv of "them rcKchinfi from six to six feet four 
iiiilies in liei^dit, and built in proportion. In 
( they are a reddish brown, and have a(|uiline 
niM^ aM('l trood foreheads. Tlicy care little for li 
siili iiiary life, and roam the coast as far north as 
IliiKiii N'ei;ro. . . . On the inlinspitablc shores 
of I'll rra del Fnci;o there dwell three ii:itions of 
(liMTse slitck. biU on about the same plane of 
culture. One of these is the Vah^'uns. or Yapoos, 
(-11 ihe Heinle Canal; the second is theOnas or 
Aniiik. to the north and east of these; and the 
tliird llie Aliculufs. to the north and west. . . , 
The opiniiiii has been advanced by Dr. Deiiiker 
(if I'ari^. that the Fiietfians represent the oldest 
ty i.r variety of the Aniericiin nee. He be- 
lli ■. that at "one time this type occupied the 
wlnlr of South America south of the Ain:i/.on, 
:iii'l that the Tapiiyasof Hra/.il and the FucL'ians 
KTr i!s survivinix nicmhers. This intercsiint: 
I'n iTV demands still further evidence before it 
( 111 l«aci(|ilcd.' — 1). O. Urii'.ton. '/■/"• .{min''-<ni 

Pawnee Family (named "Caddoan" bv 


r I'owelh. — " The Pawnee Family, ll 
^■■iiii- of it,s branches have loin; been known. 
i- |i' liiaps in liistory and laii:.'u:L'e cue of the 
" -1 iindi-r.-lood of the import:. lit tribes of the 
V' . ~| lu both respects it seems to constitute 
.( ili^linct irroup. Duriiii; recent yc.irs its 
iMi.'iiic northern aiKl southern brauclics have 
( .I'll I'll a tciidcKcv to Iileiiil with siii'i'iijin(liti>: 
^ "k>.liut the < cniral brain li (cn'tiiiiiiM^ t!i( 

Pawnee proper, maintains still in its iidvanced 
decaih'nce ii bold line of ddnanation lii'tween 
i'sclf and all adjiiceiit tribes. The iiicinlHrs of 
the family are: The Pawnees, the Arikaras, the 
Caddos, the Iluceos or Waeos. the Kee( hies. Hh- 
Tawa( (lines, and the Pawnee Picts or Wichitu.s. 
The last live may be designated as the Southern 
or Ued Uiver branches. At Ihe date of the l.ouis- 
iatia purchase the ( ■.iddos wire livinu about 4I> 
miles norlhwest of where Shrcvcport now stands. 
Five vears earlier their residence was upon Clear 
Lake," ill what is now Caihlo Paris'' This spot 
they claimed was the place of tin ir nativity, and 
their rcsidi 111 (' tidiii timi' immemorial. . . . They 
have a tradition thai they are the parent stink, 
from wliii ha 11 the southern braiiclicshavespriinf;, 
and to some extent this ilaim has been rcco^- 
tii/ed. . . . The live Isouthcrn] bands are now 
all ;,'atlicrcd U|ion a reserve secured for them in 
the Indian Territory by the Oovcrnmenl. . . . 
In iiiaiiv respect.s ." till ir metlKKl of bnihliiii; 
hulucs, iheir cipicslrianistn, and certain siK'ial 
aiul tribal usaucs, they ipiite closily resemble the 
Pawnees Their coiinection, however, with the 
Pawnee family, not till reeeiilly if cvermentioiicd, 
is mainly a matter of vairue conjecture. . . . The 
name Pavvnie is most probably derived from ■ pa- 
rlk-I.' a horn ; uiid sicms to have been once used 
bv the Pawnees thcm.selvcs to designate their 
peculiar scalp-lock. From the fact that this was 
the most noticeable feature in their <'ostume. the 
name came naturallv to be the denominative term 
of the trilH'. The vvord in this use once probably 
embraced the Wiehitas (i. e.. Pawnee Picts) and 
the Arikaras. . . . The true Pawnee territory 
till as la" 'X:» may be ilescribcd as extending 
Iroiii til .lobrira soiith to the Arkansas. They 
frequci 'Hinted considerably beyond the Ar- 
kansas lition says as far us the Canadian. 
. . . (Ill ihe cast they claimed to the ■Missouri, 
thou^'h in eastern Nebraska, by a sort ot tucit 
permit, the OtiMS, Poncus, and Oinahas aloiiR 
that stream (xcupied lauds exteudinjr us far west 
as the Klkhorn. In Kansas, also, east of the Hig 
Blue, they had eeused to exercise any direct con- 
trol, a.s several remnants of tribes, the Wyaiidots, 
Delawares, Kickapoos, and lowas. hail lieeii set- 
tled there and were living under tin' guurdiau- 
.shipof the I'nited States. . . . On the west their 
(rrounds were marked by no natiind boundary, 
but limy perhaps be (lcs( ribed by a Hue drawn 
frimi the inouth of Snake Uiveronthe Xiohrara 
southwest to the N'ortli Platte, thence south to 
the Arkaiisiis. . . , It is not to be supposed, how- 
ever, that they held alto;;etlier undisturbed pos- of tbisterritory. On Ihe north they were 
iiicessaiilly h. issed by various bands of the Da- 
kotas. wli"ile upon tlic south the l)sai;es, Coniaii- 
clies, Chcyenncs, .Viapahocs and Kiowas (the last 
three oriuMiiallv northern Iritics) were ei|iially re 
h'lille^s in their hostility. . . . In 1*1:1 the Paw- 
nees surreiidered tothel'nitcd Slates their claim 
upon all the above deseribed territury ly ini; .south 
of the Platte. In IN.'iM all th( ir rciiiainiiu: terii- 
torv was ceded, except ii reserve :iO miles lotur 
anil l"i wide upon the Loup Fork of the Platte, 
its eastern limit bci:iiiiiinLr at lii aver Creek, in 
IsTl til, v .sold this tract and removed to a reserve 
s, (urcdfor them by the (lovcrniiient in the In- 
dian Territory, between the .\rkansasaiid Cim:ir- 
roii :it their" junction.^'— ,1. H. Dunbar, f/ia 
I'l.r,.,, /,,,/,,(/,:. i.lAw. „f Ant. J/ial . Alilll. 1S80. 




I1 1 

■; ^ ■ ; «■! • 

,i • I 


Al.w) IN I!. It. (trillllcll. I'nn,,. ll,r,iSt.r{.ii. 
— 1). (}, liriiihiii. 77,1 .\,n,n.,in I!:!'-,, rr- !'■'>-"' 
—.1. \V. I'liw.ll, S,;i,t/, .\„. U.iit. ,./!/„ 
yf KHiinJ''!/;/, jf. ."lit. -Si'i, ;il-ii. alM.vr: AdaihuikI [ 
Hl.A( KKKI T. ! 

Payaguas. Si c :iti".i': 1'\mi'\s 'riiiiii;^. 
Pehuelches, or Puelts. N i- al^M ; I'ami-as 
Penacooks, or Pawtucket Indians. Sir 

ullnvi : All.iiNiJIUS TVMIIV 

Peorias. Sr(':ih>ivr; Ai.imin(;i i \\ K\mii v 
Pequots. Sic iiln'vi-: Ai.i.i'Mjihn Kwiiiv; 
iiikI IhIow: Siia«am>k; iilsc. Nnv I'.m.i.vmi. 
A. I) lii:!T. 

Piankishaws. SichIdvc; AT.i.oMii i \s Kam- 
II, V, mill Sais. ,Vi'. 
Piegans. Si i- almvi-: |{i.A(KIh;t 
Piman Family.— •Only a -mall portiim of llii' 
tcrriluiy nriii|.iiil liy this family is iiiilmliil 
wilhin tlir Iniinl Stairs, tlir L'Vi-.itir purtioii 
btimr ill .Mexiiii. whrri' it t'.vii nils In tlir <iull' nf 
C.ilirnrr.ia. Tlu' family is rr|iri ~i niril iu Ilu' 
I'liiti'il Stall's liy tli'riT tiil«-~, I'iiiia nlla. 
Snliaipiiri. .•uiil I'a'paL'". 'riii' former liavi- livcil 
for at li:i-t tun iiiitiiriis witli tlir Maricnp.i nn 
the liila ]{iM r aliiiut llio milis fniiii tlir niiuitli. 
Tlir jMili.iipiiri iiri upiiil llir Santa Cni/. mill San 
I'rilru liivrrs, triliutarirs uf tlir IJila. 'iiit arc tm 
lmii;rr known. Tlir I'ap.iu'o tirri'ory is iniii li 
nmrr rvtrijsivr ami rxtrmls to Ilir south acro-s 
thr honli r. ■— .1. \V, I'ouill. .•<■.■, nt/, .\ii„'i,'! 
I!,, J.. Itn,.,i.i :/ }-:ih„.,l..,i,i. /.,,, !)s.!l|). _Srr 
llrlow: I'lKIlIos. 

Pimenteiras. Sir aliovr: <iirK nu t'lmi 

(illol 1- 

PirU. Sir.-il.ovr; Amii.-ixns. 
' Pit River Indians. >rraliov(: MuihhsiKi.a- 

M \ 1 ll^i, \i . 

Piutes. >,ilnlou: Siior-iiiiM;\N Kamii.v. 
Pokanokets, or Wampanoags. >i i alwur 

.Vl.i.liM;! UN I'\M1IV; al-o, N I.w KSoUMi 
A 1> ltiTl-|ti7."i; lli;."i; UiTli-Un-^iKlMi I''s 
Ponkas, or Puncas. Sir In low; Sun w 

KwillA . anil aliovr; I'AW NKl; ll ' Mllli HM KaMII.V. 
Popolocas. >rr aliovr; ('lli)MAI.S. 

Pottawatomies. Sn aliovr; .Vi.iaiMjt ian 
F\\IM V. u.nnw \s. ami Sai -. itc. 

Powhatan Confederacy.^ " .Vt tlir timr of 
thr tirst srtllrinrnt liy t'lr ii Inis 
linn r-timatnl that tiurr wrrr not inorr than 
'Jil.iMiO Inilians within ihi' limits of thr St.ilr of 
VirL'iiii;!. Within a i inuit of tio niiirs from 
Janirstowii, r.ipiain Smith says Ilirir wnr 
llhi.lll ."i.lllHl ..ouls, .iml of thrx- sr'arrr l,."ilMI wrrr 
warriors. Thr whoir trrritory lirlwirii thr 
nioimtriins .ami thr si ii wa^ ornipinl liy nmrr 
than III trilii-, :iil of whom wrrr iinitril in a roii 
fnlrrai y iimirr I'owhitaii. wliosr ilomiiiions, 
lirrriiii:iry :inil .11 i|Uirri| liy roniinr-l. rompri^nl 
thr w lioir I oiiiitrv bit w. rn thr rivrrs .lami s ;inil 
l'oioni;.r. aii'l i \ii ml"! into thr inti rior .is tar a- 
thr l.ilK of ihr priniipal rivrrs. (.'.iMiplirll, in 
l.i^ lli-lory of \ir;:ini:i. >t.iti^ thr iiuinlirr of 

Powhatan s s;l!ij[i l~ 1m li.ivr llrrll K.IHKI, I'oW - 

ha. an wa.. a irinark ililr man; :i sort of sava^'r 
N'a; ' oil, who, by ilir fon r of hisiharartrr ami 

tllPSUprriorily of lli,^ t;llrnl>. h:iil raisrii him-rif 

from thi' rank of a pi ily < liirft:iin to -omrthin;.' 
of iiiiprrial iliirnity ainl povvrr. llr h;nl two 
pliiirs of abmlr, onr r;illiil I' wlirrr 
Hii:m:':::!i innv >iamls. :iia! tir- "tlirf ;t! \Vf!"V^"- 
comoei), ou the north siilr of York Uivrr, withiu 


tlir pn'M-nt roiinty of liloiii-rstrr. . . . Rcsidi - 
thr larL'r loiifrilrrary iif wliirli Powhatan w,i- 
Ilir rliirf, tlirrr wrrii two olhrrs. with whii h 
that wasoftruat war. Onr of Ilirsr, «':ill<'il tin 
Ma:itialioars, consistril of riixlit Irilirs, anil (Haai 
pinl till' loiiiitry lirtwrrii till' Itiippahaiinoi 
anil York rivirs; tlir other, consisting; of tivr 
trilirM. was eallril Ihr Mon.'iiaiis, ami wasseitli.l 
lirtwi rn York miil .lainc s rivrrs aliovr thr KalK 
Thrrr wrrr iiNo. in ailililioii to tlirsr, many se;it 
IrriiiL' mill imlrpenilriit trilies." — (i. S. liillanl 
/.//; if (\, 1,1. ././'./, S.iiith {'niry ,>f Am. lU,«i >, 
cli -f. — "The Kiii;li-li investeil savairr life with 
all the iiii:nity of European courts. l*owliat;in 
was styleil 'Kini.'.' or ' Kmperor.' Ills prinripil 
warriors were lorils of the kinirilom, his vvivi^ 
were (pieetis, his ilaiiixhtiT was u' princess, ' 
anil his caliins were his various seats of rrvi 
ilriice. . . . In his youiitrrr (lays Powhatan h;rl 
lieeii 11 great warrior, llereilitarily, he was tin 
chief or werowanee of eii;lit Irilies; ilirougli roii 
i|Urst his(lo:iliniolisli:i<llleelle.\trllileil. . . . Tie 
iiami' of his nation ami the Imliaii appelliitioii o! 
tin' .lames Hiver was Powhatan, lie liimsiil 

E(is.sesseil s.'veral names." — K. Kgglesfoii aint 
. K. Seelyc, l''ii;tliniil„a, ,-h. It. IN (apt .loliii ."smith. Ihifriiili'iii uf IV' 
giiii't, iiH'l iiiiitnil Ilixfi'iii "/ r./. {Arf'n-f 
njiriiit if ir..i'^i, /i/i, IM .iii'l litiO).— See, also, 
llliove; .\I.iaiNi(l I VN FaMII.V. 

Puans. >i'r lirloH It AN FaMII.Y. 

Pueblos. — "The n i, omailie semi civili/. .| 
town ami aurieultiiral ,i .iples of New Mexiii 
ami .Vrizoii.'i . . . I cM'''ihr Piirlilos. or Town- 

proplr. flolll purlilo, tow II. population, peopli . 

a ii;imi' ifiveii liy the Spaniiirils Iu such inhalii 
tantsof this rrixion as were frunil. when tir-.i 
ili^eovrrril. prrinanriitly loeateil ill eoinp;irati\. ly 
willliuilt towns. Strictly speakiin.', the trnu 
Puelilos applies only totlir villairrrssrltleilaloMi; 
the hanks of thr Hill (iramlr ilrl Norte ami il- 
lriliiit:irii s lietwreii lalitiiiles III' .f.")' anil ;il'r 
liii, anil alllioUL'h Ihe name is rmployeil a~ a 
irrnrral appelhition for this division, it will lir 
iiM-il. for thr most part, only in its narrower ano 
|iiipul:ir .-en~e. In thi^ ilivisioii, lirsiihs tin' 
111 fori' mentioneil I'nrlilos proper, arc eniliranl 
the .Moi|iii,-. or vilbLTirs of ra>ii rn .\riziinii, .in I 
thr no'i nomailie a L'ririilliiral nations of thr low. i 
Ciila rivrr. — thr Pimas, .Marieopas, Papai'.'-. 
ami coi^iiiitr trilirs. Thi'tiiuiiir> of the Town- 
people, if wt' mav crnlil Linitrnant Sinipson. 
is onr of ' alino-t iinivrrsal liarrrnnrss.' yet int. i 
spei'.sril with fertile spots; that of theaL'rieulliir.n 
iMlions, tliiiui.'li ilry, is more urnerally pn. 
iliictive. The fame of tills so calleil civilizali"; 
11 ,11 111 i| .Mexico at an early ihiy . . . in eXaiTL'. 
;iiii| riiniors of gre;it ciiii's ti'> the north, win 
|ir"inpti'il the cxpeiliiioiis of Marco lie Ni/;i 
l"i;;!l. of Coninailo ill I."i III, ami of Kspr jo in I '- • 
ll.'is;!!. These ailveiiiurrrs visitril Ihr n..rili 
ijur^t of the f;iliiilon^ kiiiiriloms of iniivn 
Tontoiitrar, Marata anil ollirrs, in w' 'cii i;i' 
riches Wrrr siiiil to exist. The nami of Qui> 
w;i^ ;ifti'rw arils applirii by tlirm to one or nr 
of the pueblii lilies. The iiainr Cibola, fro' 
■('iliolo.' Mrxiian liiill, ' bos bi.son,' orwilil ox 
Nrw Mrxico, vvhri'r Ihr .Spaniards (irst eni-ini 
lered liiilfalo, was L'ivi'ii to seven of the to\\ ' 
which were afterwards known as Ihe Se\' 
Cities of ( ibola. liut most of the viliaps kn.i.^ ■, 
at *hr j.resi nt day w;t.-' m* nti.-.ncd m *'"■ r; po; 
of the early f.\peilitiiius by their present naiin 



Till' towiH (if tlic I'ucliliw lire (isciitially 
(,Mii|iii'. iiiiil 111"'' '111' il'iiniiiiiiil fi'uluri' of llicsc 
ii!».riL'i»iil»- Siiini' I'f Ihi'iii arr siliiatnl in 
iiillivs. (ptliiTs ini iiic"-iis; siiini'tiinrs thi'V arc 
|il;iiilril iincli-vatiiiii'* aim' 1x1 iiiai'ii'»>il'l''. ria<li'''l 
(iiily In- arlitiiial L'raili'-'. nr liy xlip- ciil in Ihi' 

Mili'l I'll' k. Sii! f III!' Iii« ns ari' nf an illi|ili 

r;il -liap''. wliili' nlli'TH arc sc|iiari'. a lnwn lii'in;; 
frii|M'iitly lint a lilni'k nf linililin!.'<. Tlius a 
riitlilu '■*in>i'its of one iir nion* sunarcs, ca' h 
iiil,willi\ ilini'iir four linililini;sof from l!iHii<i 
liMI f<it in lini;ili, anil aliout I")" fcl in wiillli 
it till' liasi', anil from two to seven slorii's of 
frmii liL'ht 111 nine fi'i't cacli in IniL'lil. . . . Thr 
>tiirii'S arc linill in a scries of crailalions or re 
tnatinu' surfaces, decrcasinL'' in size as tlicy risi', 
lliws forniini; 11 simcssiiin oi icrraies. In some 
i.f ilic tinMis tliesc Icrrai'cs .111- on liolli siilcs of 
the Imililini;; in olliers liny face only towanls 
tlic oulsiilc; wliilc a);ain in olliers liny are on 
the insiile. Tlicsc Icrraees are alioni siii feel 
Hiile, anil cxienil aroiiml llie tlirce or four siiles 
ef the si|iiarc. fiirmiii!,' a walk fur llic ociii|ianls 
iif llic story rcslinn upon it. anil a riHif for the 
siiiry licneatli; so witli Hie stories almve. As 
there is nil inner (■iimnmnical ion u iihoncanolhir, 
the I illy means of iiioiinlin!;tii lie in is hy laililcrs 
whidl slallil at (■onvcnicnl ili^tani es aloni; the 
M Viral rows nf Icrraiis. ami tiny may lieilniwii 
M|i at pleasiirc. Ilins cnllini; oil all ii'uvcleome 
iiitru-ioii. The onlsiile walls of one or i.iorc of 
the lower stories arc cnlirely soliil. havini.' no 
"peiiiiiL's of any kiml. with the e.\ec|iiioii of, in 
^ijiie towns, a i'ew loopholes. . . . To enter the 
liininson the (.'rnniiil lluor from the oiiisiile. one 
Millet monnt the laililiT to the lirsl lialeony or 
h mice, then ilcsi'cnil IhnniL'li ii traji iloor ill Hie 
!l. 'or liy another laililer on the insiile. . . . The 
-. virai stories of these luii;e slniilurcs an 
iliviiii'il into intilliliiilinoiis compartments of 

LTealer or less size, which .'ll'c apportiiilleil 111 the 

M\eral families of ihe Irilie." -11. II. Ilanirofi. 
\:lir, ll,i,;x.f ','„ I'.li-iri'' SI'lt'K. r. 1, r/i. .">.— 
"Tliere can lie no iloiilil that Citiola is to lie 
lonkeil for in New Me.xien. . . . We cannot . . . 
rifu-c to ailopt the views of ttcneral .Simpson 
:,iMof.Mr. W. \V. II. Davis, ami to look at the 
|Mi. lilo of Zuiii as in'ciipyiii!.'. if not the actual 
-ill. at li ast one of Hie sites within the Irilial 
iiv.i of the "Mven Citi's of Ciliola. N'or can wc 
pl'iseto ill. iilify Tii^ayan with the Moi|iii ills 
trill, anil A'lico with .Scon ■ ' — .\. !■', lian 
iMirr. Ilixl. liitrtxi. t,iSt'i,ll,.i,i„ ■:,'ith, S,,l,!it.ini 

I ' i-v ,,,' .V, M.J-I,:, 0''lf" ■■/ "" -I '"'"A"/. 

' ■' -f'.lw.; .1//., Sn',«. r. 1), 

,\i,-ii I\ .1, II, Simpson, I'/ii M:iril, ,,f ''./•.. 

•', — 1., II, Mor-an. //."(«,« ,i,ul ll-ii., -Iif, .,f 
" .1'.., AlKiri'iiiHH {Cniiln'liiili.hx I.I .V, .l/«, 
::■' ,..J.~:;i. F. 4). cli. H—V\ II, Ciisliin;;, ,1/v 
,1 / ' nfn'M in Z'lTd {!', nt 'It'll, r, :{ -h, — The same. 


he iliviileil, 'These races rcscmliU'il one another 
incMTy respect Inil lani:iiai.'''-" ■ ■ , 'Ihe Irilies 
of this" family have hccn larefnily slinlicil liv 
i'ovvers, to whom sve are imlclitcil for must all 
we know of their ili^trilMition Tiny iKciipieil 
tile eastern hank of the saeramentn in < 'alifornia. 
licL'inninir some Mil or UK) niile~ from its inoiilli. 
ami I'Xtenileil norlhw.iril to within a short ills 
lame of i'it Uivir,' — I. \V, Towell, 
,l„/,./.(' I!,/,/.. ,.f Etloi''l',ijii. I'V- 
Puncas, or Ponkas. See hi lo 

ami alio 

Si; III h 
Slur \' 


I'.VWM.!, iC 

Ciiil.t;: A II 14:>U- 

I'\M1',SS TlilllKS 


i- AMIIV , 


IT'.' I 

Quapaws. Siehclow; 

Quelches. See ahovc: 

Querandis, or Pehuelches, or Puelts. 
aliiive: r.wiins rutni;s. 

Quiches. — Cakchiquels. — 'Of the aiicieut 
races of .\ineriea, those which approaclieil the 
nearest to a civilizeil conililion spoke relalcil ilia- 
lects of a toiifinc. which from its principal niein- 
hers has licen calleil Ihe .Mavi l^iiiehc liiiiiwislic 
stiM-k. Kvcti is estiniateil that half a 
million persons n^e these ilialeets. They are 
seattcreil over Yucalan, (iiiateniala. anil the ail ja- 
cent territorv. anil one hrancli formerly occupieil 
the hot lowlaiuls on Ihe (iiilf of Mexico, north 
of Vera Criiz. The ,so-calleil ' met ropoliian ' ilia- 
lecls are thosi' spoken relatively the city of 
(itialeinala, anil iiii linle the Cakchiiitiel. the 
Qiiiehc, the I'okoiK hi anil the Tziiliihill. Tliey 
are ipiile closely allicil, anil are niiiliially inlclll- 
D it lie, resenililini: each other ahont as iiuicli asiliil 
in ancient (ircece Hie Attic. Ionic ami Doric ilia- 
Iccl.s. . . . The civilization of these people was 

such that tiny 
approai i.ini; our 
their inythiilii.i.'y 
or less cotnphtc. 
prevcrvcil. The 


/ \l,,,t. I'ltli, I! 
,/./., 47:)-lsp,.l-K, \V, 


''I I't' Kill ii"l<";!f, Sjuiinxh 
in.— See, also, 
ihove: I'IM.XN 

tl„ Siilllnn^t. i\ 

A'li l:l! V I'llKIMsloltlc, ami 
I'-Mii'i ami Kkiik,s,vx Family, 

Puiunan Family, — "'I'he followiiiL.' trilies 
'■' il' ]'l:i.iii in tlii> LTroiip iiv Latham. I'njuni, 
X ' ■nuMi, Tsainak of Hale, aiel the ( ii.hna of 
■- !.'oli rifi. The name ailopteil lor Ihe family 
'~ ■ ill iiatiie of a Irihe iriven li> Hale, Tlii^was I 
"t the two races into wliii h, upon the infor I 
''!'!! o> Captain Sutler as ileriveil hy Mi ' 
I ' 'I I ill Ihe Sacramento trihcs were helicvcil to ' 

• -.', .\|i|.,.M.!,.x i;, I,.-.. 10 

lis nitii iiiciuc sii;iis, 
ilphahct. to rci nril ami ncall 
anil history, l'ra::nients, more 
. of these traiiitions have licell 
.1 nolalile of them is the 
ilional leveiiil of the Quiches of (Juati'mala, the 
su-caMcil I'opol Villi, Il was wrilleii at an un- 
known ilale in the Quiche ilialei t, hy a native 
who was familiar with the ancient reconK,' — I), 
<;, Hrinton, /■>->v.i "f' i'-' .^;/./■^■l'/<^'^ //. Iii4. 

Ai.sii IN 'I'he same. An n.ii^ ••flli, I .i/.r/ii'/iiilK. 
-II, II, Haiicrofi, ,V../,V, /,',;,,., ,,/ th, I'.irijh- 
Still, «. rh. U.— See, al>o, ahovc: .M was, 

Quichuas. Sec T'rnr. 

QuijO. See ahove \M)i;sIANs, 

Quoratean Family.— "The trihcs oeeupylioth 
htiiiks of the lower Klainatli from a rauirc of 
hills a little aUivc lla|ipy (amp to the pinc'ion 
of the Trinity, ami the' Salmon liivcr fnen its 
tniiutli to its sources. On the mirth, i^uor.-ileati 
trihcs extcnilcil to the .Vlhapascan territory near 
the l)ri L'on line, " — I. \V I'owell. ■•>viiiUi .inu'iiil 
li,),!.. ,.f Elliwi ■'::!. ,,. ini. 

Rapid Indians. — .\ name applieil hy various 
writer^ to tlic .\r.ipaliiic., ami other trihcs, 

Raritans. Snaliove: Ai.ooM;! ian Kamii.v. 

Remo. SceahoM: ,\mii:shn~. 

Rogue River Indians.* See almve; Modiks, 


Rucanas. See riiir, 

Sabaja. See above: (!i ' K oil ( iico Cuiirf 
Sacs >Sauks<, Foxes, etc. — "The S:iuks or 
S:inkics 1 While (layi. anil FoMsor (InlaL'amies, 
xoe:illeil hy the Kuropcans aiiil .Miroiikins. hut 
■.'. ho-i'inic!iai!!e is MiLsijU'ikkiuk lU-.-,! Ihivi, ;ire 
in l;u i hut one nation. The French missine irica 

i •<",, 



'- f 

i r-:-^'- 

i> > 



on riiinliie lirst in cnntact wiilitlicm. in thcyi'iir ' the Sastcaii family is tlio rrcirm draintMl by tin 


(-(■ found ttial tlit'V s|>n)<f tlir MUuc Ian- Klamath Hiv(T and its trihutarit's from tin 

t.'iiiii.'c, and that it dilTiTiil friiin thr Al^'onkin. wrslcrn hasc of the ('! 

tlioiii:h li('loni;iiii:t(>thi'san]r stm'k : 

iilalMithat whirr the Klamath tlnws 

this ]anix<i 

id(! raiiKc 

to the poiiil 
the ridi! 

was rommoii to the Kickapoos. hills last <if Happy Camp, which forms th> 

id toiliovi- Indians thr V railed Maskontrns. 



last nation, if it 
tinci trilii'. In 

' h.'id 

iimdary iKtwi'in the Sastian and thf ( 

m cvistcnc'i' as a dis- < families. In adilition to this ri'^ion of the Kl: 

lirrly di^appeareil. Hnt we are , math, the Shasta e.vleiidi'd over the Siskivt 

inform, il liy Charlevoix, anil .Mr Sehooleraft eor- J ran^'e northwanl as far as Ashland. Orr'^on.""- 

■il ■ .Maseontinek' ; .1. \V. Powell. Stit nth Annfiiil Iti/it., liiireiin • 

roliorale, ihe lac't. that Ihi' 

means a eoiiniry wiiliont woods, a ptairie. The 
name Masi ontens was therefore U'-ed to desijrnatc* \ 
' priirie Indi.m-.. ■ And it appears that they t'<tn I 
Hisied prinei|>ally of .sauks and Kiekapoos, with | 
an oeeasional mixture of I'otovvotamies anil j 
Mianiis, who prolialily catni' there to hunt the 
Iluiralo, Tile (ounlrv a>~ii;n<d to those Maseon- I 
tens lay south ol iheKox Kivi r of Lake Mielii- i 
flan and wi^t of Illinois Hivir. . . . When lirst i 
discovered, the .siauks and Foxes had their seats 
toward the southern extremity of (ireeti Hay, on j 
Fox Hiver. and u'eiierally fartln r east than the | 
country whiciitliev latelv iKcupied. . . . liytlic j 
treaty of INiil, the'Sauksand Koxes ceded to the 
Inilnl Slates all their lands of . , . the j 
.Mis-'issippi. . . . The Kickapoos hv various i 
treaties. INiill to IMlli, have al^M .iiliilall their | 
hinds to the Inileil States. Tli, y el.aimed all the ■ 
country between the Illinois Uiver and the j 
W iliash. north of the parallel of laliiude passinjj 1 
bv the mouth of the Illinois and south of the 
Kankakee Hiver. . . . The territory i'laimed by 
the Mianiis and Piankishaws may he ;rcnerally 
stati'd as haviimlieen lioundedeastwardly by the 
Maumee Hi\er of Lake Krie. and to have in- 
cluded all the country drained by Ihi' Wabash. 
The i'iankishaws occupied the country border- 
ini: on llie Ohio" — .\. Callalin. Si/ii'fpKi'iKf l/ir 
Ihili'n, I'ri'Hx {.\r'h<t"f"'jnt .\iiiiri''iii,<l. v. 'Jt. 
i/ttr"il., turt. ■,* — The MaM unteiis, or .Maseoutins. 
"seldom apj'car aion. . but almost alw.-iys in 
coimcciion Willi their kindred, the I lltaiiainies or 
Foxes and the Kickapoos. and like tlieni bi'ar a 
character lor treaciury and deceit. The three 
tribes m.ay have in earlier days formed the Fire- 
Nation [of the e:irly French wriler^j. liiit. as' 
tfallaliii oli^erves in the .\relia-olo:;ia .\mericana. 
it is \tr\ doiibttul wlielli. r the .Maseoutins were 
ever a liistinit tribe, II this be so. and there is 
no reason to rej. ct it. the di>:ippearance of the 
nanie will not be strani:e. ' — .1 (I. Shea. Ihirf 

Inform. III'. h ll.>)i,.-lii,<i Ihili-iii Tril:!'. j.t. 4. ;.. 

■Jl."o, — .Se alio\e. .\l.i.oNi;l I\N F WIII.V. — For .-111 Ml the lilai k Hawk War see Illinois, 
.\ 1) |s:;j 

Siihaptins. .Se above Ni,/. I' ks. 

Salman Family -This name is unven bv 
.Mij'T I'muiII lo I lie ^all .SiUoiiio.'ind San Mi^'ui'l 
(liai'it^ spoken In l«o tribes on the Js.iliiias 
Kivi r. .Moiiierev (oiiiit\. ( 'alibirnia. — .1. W. 
I'ouill. .•^.. ..l!,' .\f,„ 'l;,i..,il. Il' ,./ Ell, 
I. .•'■"III. /.. |ol -See Kss|;I.K\nN FvMII.V. 

Salishan Family, See above: iii.Aiis. 

Sanhikans, or Mincees, See above: .\ii.on- 
*^ri \s FvMii-v 

Sans Arcs. Sn lulow Sun \n Famm.v. 

Santees.* S.-e below ."sioi \n 1-'\\iii.\ 

Sarcee iTinnehi.* Sn ab"M> lii.vikKCKT. 

Sastean Family. The -mjle tribe upon the 
laniTMwe ,.( »!,i. h !!:.!•■ l-sed hi- name was 
hrtaleil by liijil lo llie soulhwe-t of the I.uluallli 
or Klumatli tribes. . . . 'I'iie former ♦erriiorv of 

Et}u,„!,«i!i. )i. m\. 
Savannahs. Sceabove: .Vi.uoMjiiAN Family 
Seminoles. — "The term scmanolc,' or 'isii 
Simanole.' siijnilies 'separatish' or 'runaway,' 
and as a trilial n.ime points to the Indinns who 
left till' (reck, cspcciallv the Lower Creek settle 
nients, for Florida, lo live, hunt, and tish there 
in independence. The term iIiks not mean ' w ild,' 
' .savage,' us frequently stated: if applied now in 
this sense to animals, it is bccans*- of its oriirinal 
meaniiu;. 'what has become a runaway.'. , . 
The Seminoles of miKlern times are a people 
compounded of the followini; elemeiiis: scpara 
lists from the Lower Cri'ck and llilchiti towns; 
remnants of tribes partly civili/.ed by llie 
Spaniards; Yainassi Indians, and some neeroes. 
. . . The Siininoles were always reiranled as a 
sort of outcasts by the Creek tribes from wliii h 
they had seceded, and no doubt there were 
reasons for this. . . . 1' Indians showed, like 
the Creeks, hostile intentions towards the thirteen 
states durini; and after the Ucvolntion, and con- 
jointly with the I'pper Creeks on Tallapoos.i 
river concluded u treatv of friendship with the 
Spaniards at Fciisjicola in .May. 17^4. Althoimli 
under Spanish control, the Seminoles enteri'd into 
boslilities with the Americans in ITtlltand |n1,'. 
In the latter year I'ayne niiko | ' Kinc Payne' | 
waskilleil in a battle at Alaihua. and his brolher, 
the intluenlial l{owle';s, died soon afler. These 
unruly tribes surprised and niassacrcd American 
settlers on the Satilla river, (ieoriria. in l.><17, and 
another contlict bei:an. which lerminateil in the 
destruction of iIh' MIkasuki and Suwanee river 
towns of the Seminoles bv (leneral .lackson. in 
April. IN|M. |See Fi.onniA: A. D. ISlti-lHlN. | 
Afler Hie cession of Florida, and its incorporation 
iiiloihe.\nierii-an rnioii(|Sli)|, the Seminoles gave 
ii|iallllieirlerritory by Ihetnatyof Fort .Moultrie, 
Sept. IMih, is-,>;i, receivinir inex'changepiodsaiid 
annuities. When the yovcrimicnt, concIuih>d lo 
move these Indians west of the .Mississippi river, 
a treaty of a conditional character was con 
eluded with tliein at Paynes landini;, in If*:;.'. 
The larircr portion were removed, but the more 
stubborn jiart dissented, and thus ^-ave oriirin lo 
one of the gravest contlicts which ever iK'curri .1 
betvveen Indians and whites. The Seminole w :ii- 
beiran with the massacre of Major Hade's com 

mand mar Wal swainp. Iteccniber '^'sth, is:!."!. 

and lontiiiucd v\ iili unabaleil tury for live year-, 
eniailiiiir an immense expendiiure of monev and 
lives. [See Fl.oniDA : A. I). lKri-tH4:i! [ \ 
niiinbei of Creek warriors joined the liosiil.' 
Seminoles in \x'M. \ census of the Seminoli ■< 
t:ikin in Is-.'i irave a popuhilion of .'!,8i(!(, wiili 
sou iiei:roes belouLnn;! to them. The populuti' n 
of the Seminoles in the Indian Territory amounb 'I 
to 'i.liliT in ISSl. . . . There are some Seminoi' ^ 
now ill Mexico, who went tlu-re with their nei.'ro 
-!:;ves." A. S. Catsiliet. .•! Mif:r::!i„i: !j-:i!::! -! 
t.'.t I 'nth IiiiliilliK, r. 1. ^it. I. Kirt. 'i. — " Ever silti .■ 
the lirst settlement of these Indians in Florid. 

■ -M'l" 

i.iix I-;, 



thrv liiivr been cnf;agoil in a ntrifn with the 
wliitf!) ... In tlie uiianimntiii jiiclf^mcnt of 
iinprijixiiced wrilere, tlie wlillps have ever been 
in tli« wmng." — D. O. HrinUin, \i>lr» «n ihe 
Fhriilian I'tniifula. p. 14H.—" There were In 
Florida. OctolKT 1, 1880, of tlie Indians com- 
monly Itnown as Seminole, 208. They eonsti- 
Iiilcd";i7 families, living in 23 camps, which were 
Ciitliered into Ave widely separat<'(l jfroiips or 
hillliMicnIs. . . . This people our (Invernment 
hm iiiiir tieen able to conciliiiie or to conipier. 
The Seminole have jilways lived within our 
iH.nlt-rsas aliens. It is only nf late years, and 
llin>iij:li natural nece».si'ics, that any friendly 
intTKiiirsu of white man and Inilian has Ixin 
sti iirid, . . . The Inilians have appropriated for 
llicir service some of the imKluets of Europe.iu 
livilizatiun, such as weapons, implemenls, 
domestic utensils, fabrics for ilothini;, &c. 
Mentally, excepting a few nligious ideas whic h 
they received loni? ago from the t<-achin>; of 
S|iiinish missionaries, and, in the southern settle- 
mints, c.xceptiuK some few Spanish wonls, the 
Seminole have accepted and approjiriatid prac 
tic;illy nothing from the white man. " — C. Mm- 
Ciiuley. Thetvmiiuile Indiaim i>f Flirida (Fifth 
All. li/it. if the Bureau of Ethnuloijy, 1883-84), 
tutntti and eh. 4. 

Ai..*o IN J. T. Sprapue, The Fltriihi War. — 
S (1. Drake, The Aburiginal Itaceiif .V. Am., bk. 

4. eh. 6-21.— See, also, above; Miskhooean 

Senecas; their name, — "How this name 
iiriL'iiiated is a ' vcxata ipiiestio' among Indo- 
unliipiariansanil I'tyniologists. The least plaiisi- 
hie supposition is, that the name has any 
nfinnif to the moralist Seneca. Some have 
supposed it to l)e a corruption of the Dutch term 
for Vermillion, einebar, or cinnabar, under the 
ass\iTiiption that tile Senecas, beini; the most 
warlike of the Five Nations, usi'd tiiat piirment 
more than the others, and thus gave origin to 
tile n.iine. This hvpothesis is supported by no 
itiithi)rity, . . . The name ',Seiinecas* tirst 
appears tm a Dutch map of 1616, and again on 
.',;ih le Latt's map of WXi. ... It is claimed 
IV son. ■ I'liat the word miy be derived from 
■ SiiiiH ko.\,' the Algoniiuin name of a tribe of 
In'li:iii.s sjiokcn of in Was.senaer's History tif 
Europe, on the authority of Peter liarentz, who with them about the year 1626. . . . 
^^i!!lout assuming to S(ilve the mystery, the 
wriitT coiiteiits iiiinself with giving some data 
wliicli rn;iy possibly Jiid others in arriving at a 
rrlhilile cum lusioii. [Here follows a (lis<'Usslon 
of the various forms of naiiie by which the 

5. IK I ;is tiesii;naled tliemselvi-s and were known 
t" \h'- lluroiis. from whom the .Jesuits tirst 
111 ir.l "f them.] liy dropping the neuter pre- 
li\ II. the iialicmal title became ' Nan ilo-wah- 
L'rtili.' or ' Tile great hill people.' as now u.scd by 
titr SriMca-;. ... If the name Seneca can legiti- 
rii.iiily Ipc derived from the Seneca word 'Nan iId- 
wiliLMair . . . it lanonly be done by preli.xing 
'S-'ii,' ji> was the <-ustoiii of the .Icsuiis, and 
'lr"|i|iiM4.' all unneiessary letters. It would then 
• "nil the wiird ' Son-iion-do-w a ga.' the tirst two 
a:i I ]:i.I ^yllaliles of whii'll. if the Krelich souili's 
'•' III' IvtiiTs are given, are almost iih .itical in 
111" ; iHciation with Seneca. Thei'hief diHiculty. 
li" ii ■., r. would be 'a the disiios^il of the twci 


svllatites. Thev mav have been I ('iiilicnthe 


in the composition of Indian words — n reimlt 
which would be (piite likely to o<cur to a Si'iieeii 
name, in its transmission through two other 
laoguagi'S, the .Mohawk and the Diilch. The 
foregoing ipieries and suggestions arc thrown 
out for what they are worth, in the absence of 
any more reliable theory."— I). H. .Marshall, 
//ittorioiin'ritiii'/ii, p. 2111. — Seenliove: Iiuxjuoig 
CoNKKDKii.uv, and IlfKONs, ifcc— .See, also, I'oN- 
•ri.\cs \V.\ii, and for an account of Sullivan's ex- 
|>eilition against the Senecas. see I'MTKli .SiWTKs 

of .\M. : .\. I) ITTlt (Al lit ST — SK.ITKMnKH). 

Shacaja. .Se above: A.M>Ksi.\Ns. 

Shahaptian Family, .See above: Nkz 

Shastas. See above: S.\«tk.*n F.vmii.v. 

Shawaneie, Shawnees, or Shawanoes. — 
"Adjaient to the I.eiiape [or Delawans — see 
abovel, and assiaiated with them in some of the 
most notable passages of their history, liwelt the 
Sl.awiUHH'S, the i'liaoimiions of the French, a 
trilM' of bold, roving, and adventiinms spirit. 
Their eccentric wanderings, their sudden appear- 
ances and disiippearances, perple.x the anticpiary, 
and defy research; but from various scattered 
notices, we may gather that at an early period 
they occupied the valley of the Ohio; that, lie- 
coming embroiled with the Five Nations, they 
shareil the defeat of the Andastes. and about the 
year 1672 lied toesi'iipedestriiclitin. Some found 
an asylum in the country of the I-enapc. where 
they lived tenants at will of the Five Nations; 
othi'rs souiiht refuge in the Carolinas and 
Florida, wliere, true to their native instincts, 
they soon came to blows with the owners of the 
s.iil. Again, turning nortiiwards, Ihey f<irmed 
new settlements in the valley of the Ohio, where 
they were now sulTered to dwell in peace, and 
whi're. at a later perio<l, they were joined liy 
such of their brethren as had found refuge 
among the I.enape." — F. I'arkman. 'The Con- 
npiraeij nf P>uiti'ir. eh. 1. — "The Sli:iwnees were 
not found originally in Ohio, but migrated there 
after IT.-iO. They were called (liaouanons by 
the French and .Shawanoes by the Kiiglish. The 
Lnglisli name Shawano ch:inged to Shawanee. 
and recently to Shawnee. Chaouanon and 
Shawano are obviously aitempts to represent tin; 
same sound by the ortliography of the twii re- 
spi'ctive languages. . . . .Much industry has 
been used by recent writers, especially by Dr. 
Hrinton, to trace thisnoinailic trilie toits original 
home; but I think wilhout succi'ss. . . . We 
lirst tind the Shawano in actual history almut the 
year 1660. and livini^aloui; thcCtirnlierland river, 
or tin- I'umlierland and Tennrsscf, Am.iiig tin' 
conjectures asto theirearlier history, the greatest 
proliability lies for the present with the earliest 
account — the account given liy I'lrrut. and ap- 
parently oliiaiiicd by him from the .*>h;'waiioes 
theniseives. about the year lIWi — that they 
formerly lived by the lower lakes, and were 
driven thence by the Five Nations." — M, F. 
Force. Sniie F'lrh/ A'"f(><.« <■/ t/i, ]„ill.ii,^ ,f ii},iii. 
— "Their (the Sliawnees| dialect is iiurre ukin 
t.i the M..liegaii than t.i the D.liiwar.-. and 
when, in 161(2. they lirst appeared in the area 
of till' Ki. rn .Vlgiaikiu Coiiled.riKy. tlu'y 
came as the friends and relatives i if the former. 
They were divided into four hwiW. ' — i'lipia, 
prnniTly I'ikoweii. Mequachake Kisearinkoke. 


■s :•: 











••♦ i 



i'lil in the priK'css of contraction so common | Pennsylvania was the Piki 


•or these, that which settled in 

well, will 

■II pied 


and );;ivptlii'ir imiiio Im iIm- I'miiii valli v in l,iiii 
i';isiir niiinlv. AiciTilim; !■> iiiiii^ iii Molir^MTi 
tniailiuri. Ilii". Nrw KiiL'lMii.l l'.i|ii."ls «( ri' nu-iii 
liir^nflhis liiiii.r— l> '• ltriiif"Ti. /7o /,./,.!/, 
,1/1./ r)„ir l.,'l, i,ih. fli. •-' - rii( ~Atw. T/n S/,,l,r 
,„,. .,,„/ tl„,r'i- I III'' .•/■"/. '■ 1". 
\Hm\] -.•■■riicSliaHam^'. wliox- vill:i.'i< wirci.ii 
Ilii- «r>l.rii Iniik Inf llh- Mi-.|iiiliaiin;i| 1:1111c 
Inliillii. valli V |.>f \V\ ill:; I fr.iiu lluir tnriiicr 


sioii of the IliiiiniMk held tlir tliii»t iiorliun f 
s.iuiliwiHii'rn Miiiiliinii. wlii'iicc ii|i|iiiriMil.v iln . 
wiTi- iHiiiii im^lii'd wcdwiinl iiinwa Ilir iimuir 
laiiisliv llhiikficl I |ii.ii Ihrriistllii Tukimril I 
i.r Sli'cc|ii"iliri h' I'l llir Yrlli.wstmic l':,ik 
ciiiiiilrv. whiTc Ihiv wirr hunlirc'il h\ llir (<inii ,1, 
tcrrilcifv. wliili' Ihi' Wiisliaki ik< Mpicil m.iiiIi 
Niiirlv Ilir riilirr 

juiM ti'in < 
to vvhii li 

nilhitr |i 
lli'lllc-. Ill 

til.' ■dlii. 

lit til.' •f.'rks I'l till' MciiiHarr' itiii' 
if till' liilaHari' ami l.i liii-'ii. at Ka>.t.iiii. 
pM'iil tliiv lia.l Imtti iii.lnii'.l at Kimir 

ri...l til iiiii-'rati' iMiii larliir 
ir till- 111.. mil ..f llir riv. r Ualn^li, in 
I rii.'i.'n.' 111"'!! till' inviiaii.iii nf tlir 


Wl-trtll W V.illlillL' 

taiii.'iH part i.f ('..luniilti wai lii'l.l li> I In' mai i il 
lianiliiif thr Itr. till' iii^tini ami M.iilliiavi. in 
parts ..f till' Stall- luiiii; iiil.l n-p. 1 livrly liv 1: 

Diiawarti, This was Iti.iiaii ilipi'.iiiaiy. f..rtlii' 
I>iia»aris wiTi' (li'sir.ais (11..1 l.ciiii; iipnii tlii' | 
iii..>t friiii.liv tiriiis Willi tli.' MiiiL'.'s, ur Six [ 
Nalii'li-i t.i "a.ciltinilal.' 11 f..r. .' against tli.isr I 
ivwcrfiil iiriL'lilKirs. Hut. as iiiiL'lit Im' rxpi'ili'il. 
liicv ili.l iKit i.iiii; liM' ill piac wiili ii.w 1 
ftiiii's . Till- Siiawani-s.' |ali.iutl7"i."i. ..r s.Hin 
uflir] wiTc ilriv.ii lint of tin' valloy liy tliiir 1 
iiii.rr powirfiil m inlilior-. thi' Dilawari's. ami \ 
till' caitliit wliiili riMilt.ii in llnir li'aviiiK it ] 
prrw .Mit iif, or was pn ri|iitatr.l l.y. a very 
tritlini- inii.irnt. Wliili' llu' varri..r^« of tlir 
Dclawar. - wi ri' cnvMLM-.l iipi.n tin' nionntams in a a iiiinilnri.f sipiawsiir fi'tnali- 
Imlians friiii Maiit'liwanwani.- wire u'allii'r- 
inu wii.; I'rnits aloni; tin- i.iarL'iii of tin- rivir 
til low tlii't.iHii. wlnTi' tiny f..iinil a iinnilu r of s.piaws iin.l ti-..irrliililr.ii, wim liul 
irossi'.l till' rivrr in tliiir<am»s ni.on thr Naiiu' 
liiisimss. A iliilil 111 loiiLTitii; t.i tlii' Sliawanrv- 1 
havini: takin a lari.'.' L'ra^lioppir, a .piarr 1 arose 
mnoni,'tlii' i iiil.l:. 11 f. i tin' p..ssis^i,.n ..t it. in 
wliiili tnollnrs s..on P.ok part, . Tlir 

iinarril liciann' trimral, .1 pon tli ' ritnni 

of till' warri.irs l...tli trilii-s pri'liari.l fMrliallii- 
Til.' Sliawani'M- , . , w.r.' alil.' to Mis 
tain till' c.iilliit, ami. iil'trr tin' loss of aliout half 
tliiir tril>r. tin' r. niaimiir wiro forci'.l to lii.' t.. 
tlnirown si.l.' of tin' rivir, sliortly afti r wiiiili 
thi'V al.amioin.l tliiir town ami ninoviil to tin 
Ohi.i." Tills war lutw.'.n tin' Dilawaris ami 
Shawani-si' lias lii'ili lalliil llic (irassiioppir War, 
- I„ II, Mimr. 77.,' y.dl,;i„f ll>.//,/7.;/. /'. :i-'.— 
Si'C. also, aliovr. Al.iioNiJi I VN !■" will. V. ami IlKI.-X- 
WVHKS — Ni' al'o. I'ontim's W.Mi; rvtrKti 
SiMKs okAm, : A, 1> ITii.'i-nii-*; ami if..raii 
air..uiil of ■l.or.l Diiiinior.'S War") mi- <>iii.> 
(Vmi.kv ; A l> ITTl 

Shecpeaters iTukuariltai. S..' I., low Mm 

slloM.W l'\\lll,%- 

Sheyennes. S.i-ali.iv.'; Ai.o.imji i,vn I'amu v, 
Shoshonean Family. ~- Tiiis imp iri" t 
fainil\ o. I npi.'.l a lui^.' pirt of tli.' int. rior 
iiasiii' ..f tin lliiti-.l .-stati'S, Ip.'ii tin' norlli 
Siiosliomaii tiili.s .Miinli'.l in!" (ir.'ir.iii. 
nn .tiiiL: Slialiaptiaii tiTritorv on aliout lln- Ittli 
Ii.'irall. 1 .'f al..ii- tin- lilm- .Mountains, I pon tin' 
iiorili.'ist th.'.a~i.vii limits. if til.' pristiiii- lialii 
tat of til.' .'s|i.,sl,,,ii. :,u trill, s an' iinUii.'Wn, Tin' 
liarraliM "f l..wi, :.n.l Clrirl.:.' .'.mtaiiis tin' 

i'.\piii'ii slatini. Ill tint ill" Shosl i in- 

i.iiiiit.ii'.i upon ill.' ... lT.'rs..n Uiv.r, un.'-.' siun- 
nn r In. mi' was ii|...ii lln- lirail wal.r- ..f tin' 
( .ilnnilna. fornn'rl\ liv..l witliiii tinir own 
r.'i'oll.. ti..n in tin' pi .in- i.. tin' . of tlir Itorky 
M.. 111. Lulls. <\l,. I.. . ;;,. V ,>,r, iirivrn i^i iin'l;- 
trials l.v ih.' Miiiiii'larii' lAlsiiiai, 



rap.'iho ami Cliiyinm' 1 AlL'on.piiaiil, an. I tl,. '.KioHiini, To tin' soutlii'iisi tin' I • 

...nntry iinlmlnl tlir Ilnrn ilrainiii.'i' of il,. 

San .li'iati. I'Miinliiii.' larllii'r last a short .li- 
taiui' into N.'W M.'viro, Tlir Conianrlii' 1 
sion of tin- lainily fartlii 1 .list tliiili 

othir. , , liou'ri;itiniiil f nl a Ciilliiil 

irilii'oii llii'iipinr Kansas Uivrrin IT-J4. An 
iiii: to I'iki' thi' ('iiiniiiirhi' trrritory iKirihril 
till' Kaiowi' on till' north, tlin fonniT iK'riipv u;.- 
Ihi'liiail «at. rs of tilt' I pprr Idil Kinr, Atkiu 
sas ami Hio (ir.iinli'. How far 'o tin' sinithw.i.l 
Shoshoiii'.'in trilii',-! cxtinili'il at this i-arly prri".! 
is not known. tlioiii.'li thr I'viihini' tiinis tosiiow 
that tiny raiili'il far ilown intiiTi'Xas, to tlin ti rii 
tory tiny havn ornipiiil in iiiorc rncrnt yi':ir», 
vi/.. thi' I'Xti'tisiM' pl.iiiis from till' HiH'ky .iloan 
tains rastwaril into Imliaii Territory atnl T.'Si- 
to aliollt !IT , rpoll tin- soillll Slioslniin'an ti 111 
t.iry was liinitt'il giiiirally liy 'he I' 
Itivrr , . . whiii- tin' Tnsayan iMokii hail .- 
talilislii'il tin ir si'viii pni'lilos . . . t.. llir lasi ,.| 
the Colorailo Ihi.iuito. In tho Mi' 
slioinaii trilics hail imshcil a<'.-os> ('.iliforni:! 

slioinaii trincs nan iiusncu a<'.os>> .unonu.i, . 
t'lipvitiL' a Willi' liaii.l ..f roniitrv to tin' I'arili' 
— .1". W. I'owi'll. Sr.i.lfi Ann' l;,i'<-- !'""■' 
„f t:ihi,„l,„iii, y,/.. lliH-IIO, — "Tin' I'a.i I'tis.' 
nipv till' irriator part of Ni'vailii. ami i'\i. 1 
soiiiliwaiil, . . , The I'i I'ti'S or I'iu.i's iiih,,! 
Wcstirn I'tali, from Ori-iron to Niw Mi'\i' 
. Tin- llosh It. s |(i.isniti's| iiihaliil llu';: 
trv \, I St of (Jriat Salt Lake, atnl exti-inl p. il 
I'ah l.tis."— 11. II. Haniriift. A.'//.- Hi;- 
Die I'acilie .^latts. r. I. i-/i. 1. 
Siksikas, or Sisikas. S, n almvi' : lti..\c kh i 
Siouan Family.— Sioux.*— ' ' The nat i : 
whiili speak the Sinux lan,LMia);e iimy be I'l 
si.l.reil. in reli'rini'e liotli to their respeiin 
.lialeets anil to their t;i'oirra|.hii'iil positimi : 
consist ill!.' of f..iir siili.liusi..ns. viz,, the Win: 
liaL'.HS; the Sioux prup'-r ami the AssiniP. 1 
till' .Miiictarc t;roiip; ami the (Isaires ami '■' 
^..iitlnrti kimlrcil trilns. Tin' W iiincli' 

ealleil liv the Ak'ol 

kins, Put calleil I'lian- 1 

ealleil iiv iiie .imoiiMiis, ...o ..o.... 

also Utciiairras by the Kriiieh, ami IIoro,|e 1 
eaters') In the '( Imaliaws ami other smii 
tribes call tlielllsilvis, .'l 

tribes, eall tlielllsilvi 
•Trout ' nalioii. The <iri en 
L'aii ilirives its Krencli nam 


lla> of Lake .M i 
e from theirs ii: 
the War 1). 1 

lies I'lians) Xceoi'.iii.. 

inellt tliev alnolltlt \\'*Mi\ to 4. lie I souls, al 
pear toeiiliivale lliesoii to a eoiisiiierableil 
Tinir principal scats an- on the Ko\ Hi 
Lake Mieliii n. ami tin 
Uock Itivcr f llie Mississippi. . 

.iniowessie,. names (;iveii to 
r.iiikins ami tlu' Krencli, eall them- 

ill sollletinKS •(lellcllte Sliak. 

Fires, ami are iliviihil in'o ' 

sciv eoimeelell toiletln ' 


liv the Aii: 


or the Seven 

heails .'I 
. The .^. 

moiiiit.iiii ri 

who hnl ohtaine.l tireariiis 

l.uter a 1 


il-- i|c 

apparently imhpen. 

lelit of each other. 

nut 11pp. 

ir t.. have been known tii 

the Kl 


i.h\ I.. 



1,1 fire till' year HMM) . . . Tin' fcur iiidsI cimiirn 
iril"-"f till- Kiiliciilii'* iirr khiiwii In Ihr iniiiii' 
I I ihi' Ml riilrwiilikniitiiiiii. hf (iiiit ilii l,.ii',' 
U;ilik|iiiliiaii mill \Vulik|ihknliiaii. nr 'rniiili' 
i.l' ilir I.'.iM'*,' mill Si-ili'aiis. , , . Till' llinr 
ui ^!i lU Iritu''. till' Vmiktiais, tlir Yaiikti'iiaii^. 
aiiil ilii- Ti'Ii'iiH. »anili r lii'tui'i n ilir .\1i»>i-.i|ppi 
luiil till' .Mi'-~airi, . . . 'I'lir A'-'inilii'iiii iStmii' 
liiiliili-i. as lliry an- rallnl liv tlii' Ali;nr.kiiis, 
:iii' a Diiliii'la Ir'ilii' M'|iaratiil 'irnrii llir ii>l nf 
Ihi' M:ilii>n. anil mi thai airmiiil lalliil llnlia i>r 
' Idlii 1-,' I'.v llii' iilliir Siouv. 'riii-y ari' siii.l i.. 
liaM' III iili- part iirk'iiially of lilt' Vaiiklniis. . . . 
Aii"iliii' Irilii'. callnl Siii'yciiiHs nr < 'iry i inn-, 
«r re • III! MTy ri iiinir |a'rii»l srali il III! Ihr li'll 
l,.,i,k '•,' lii'il liin-mf l.aki' Wiiiiiipik. . . . 

Cirvi. rirkiiiis llii'iii as 111 f ihi' Simix iriliis; 

iii.l Maikrii/ii- liil'iiriiis iis that liny wiri' ilrvrii 
iiiiay In tin' Simlx. Tlii-y innv |1h:IIH livr (Ui 
ilir iiiailwalrrs 111' llii' rivir Mnyiiiiii', a mhiiIi 
ui-lirii liiliiilary nf tlic Missuiiri. ... I liavi- 
hii 11. Imwi'ViT. iissiiriilliyii Will iiifiiriiii'il pcrsnii 
utiii Iraili'H with tliriii that thry speak ii ilisliiicl 
l;iiu'uai;r, fi>r wiiirli tlirri' is im Kiirnpi'aii iiiti r 
I'liiir, . . . Till' Mill! larrs(.Miiii'larri' anil Miiir 
I iiir-l coiisist of tlirri' triliis. sprakiiit: thrci' 
.'.illiri'iit laiiiriiai." s. whirli In Iniii; In a rniiur'Hi 
-iK-k, Its allliiitirs with tin' l>:',liiiila arr liiit 
p iii"ti', hut liavi' apprari'il Millhii'iit tii iiitilU' 
'iiriii to III' cniisiilcn'il as nf till' saiiir family. 
Iwii III' tli'isi- trihi'S. till' .>Iaii'laiH s, whusr iiiiiii- 
'', r iliit's nut I'M'i'i'il I.-'i'Ml. ami tin' stjiimiary 
Miiii-iari's. aiiii'Uiitiii;; to It.niMi si-iiIs. iiuluiliiii: 
;li"M' ralliil Aiiiialiawas. ciiliivatr tin' snil ai. I 
Ii ' ill villauis sitiiati'il mi nr near Ihi' Missmiri, 
h. niiii 47 ami 4.H^ iinrlli latitiiiU'. . . . Thi' 
thirl Miiirlari- liilii'. is ihai kimwii liy tin' iiaiiii' 
I't thi- ( 'niw or I'psaroka [nr Alisiiroka] iiatinii. 
|.nili.ilily ihi' Ki'i'hii Isas nf I,.wis ami Clalkr. 
Tiny a:i' an irratii' trilit-. w ho hunt r-milh of Ihr 
Mi^-'iiiri, hitwii'ii till' I.ililc .Mis-,miri ami the 
»i.iitlii asii'i'ii lirainhis of tin' Vrllowstmn' UiviT. 
. The southirii Sioii.x cniisisl of ci^'ht trilics. 
-ii'iikiiii; four, oral most livi'. kiinlrcil diali't'ta. 
I'lM ir liTritory oriu'liially cxlcinli'il aloui; the 
Mi«-i»sippi, from liclow ihr iiimitli of Hie 

.Vikiiisas to Ihi' f irty first ilii;r f imrlli lati- 

•ill' . . . Tlii'ir liimii:!!.' u'roiimls i-Miinl as far 
u.-i IS iln- Sliiiiy Moiiiiiaiiis; Im! liny all ciilti 
\.t!c fill' soil, anil till' most wrsiirly villa^ri* on 
'111 Mi'.soiiri is ill alimit IIMI wisf loii^itinh', 
T!ir ilin r most wcstirly trihis arr llii' (^iiappas 
r .\rkausas, at the iiimiih of the river of that 
II II'.'-. iii'l the Osaiies ami Kansas, u ho iiihaliiti-il 

•' miry soiitli of the Missouri ami of the 

•: > K iii-as. . . . The OsaL'es, |irop.-rly Wan 
Will- more luiim-rmis ami pouertiil than 
, "I Ih'- ini^rhlimirini: trihes. ami perpetually 
'S 11 uiih all the ollii-r Imliaiis, willioni ex- 
-■ii)^ lie Kansas, who speak the same ilialeet 
■1 'in iii-elves. Tiny were oriiriii 'My iliviihil 
' ami Little OsaiTi-s; inn . " ni forty 
r- lU'i almost one half of the iiaiion, known 
1... eaim- of Clianeers. or Clenin'iit's lianil 
I'i'l from the rest, anil leinoveil to tln- 
■ Arkaii-a. The vill.mes of those .si'Mial 
ii.iMoiis are now | l^':i')| on the heailwaters 
'" riMT Osau'e. anil of the Vei-i!i;;ris. a 
■:, Ml triliiitarv sireanmf the Arkans.-i. They 
:.i: I', ahoiit '.">.IHK» souls, ami have eeileil a 
■: -11 of Iln-ir lanils to the riiiteil Sl.ites. re- 
elves a lerritory on liie Ai 



• Arka 

W- m.rth lutituile, exteuiiiiif; from U5^ 


In IIHI' west liini:itiiili'. on a lireailth of V, to SO 
miles The II rriiory allolleil to the < herokeea, 
the Creek:, anil the ('Iiik laws lies siaithor thai of 
the (»sai.'i'. . . . The Kansas, who have alwayx 
llveil on the rivr of that name, have In en ut 
pi ai-e with the (Nap' the last thirty years, 
anil inteniiarrv with tlieiii Tlnv ainoiint to 
■ ..■.IKI soul- .m'l oeeiipy atrai-l of alimii :i,(iiMi.(H)0 
aires. . , The live oilier Iriln-s of this siili 
ilivisioii an- the lowavs. or I'ahoja (Ifrev Simw-). 

the MissolIlK or Ne-'ijihe. Ille llllois, "or Wall 

tootahlah. Hie llmah.iHs. nr Mahas, ami till' 
I'lineas . , ,\II the liatinlls spe.lkillL' lallL,'llai;('« 

lMloiii.'iiii: tn ihr ijreat Siniix Family may . . . 
he inmpiitiil at more than .'lO.OIld V.ilils "— A. 
• iailatiii. Sii/n./.^iM (i/l/c li,:li,in Tii'n'i {Arflum 
I'liji'i Ann fi'-.i,"'. >■ -.'i. s"-t -I ----iiwiii'^^ to the 
faet that 'Simix' is a wnni of repmaeli and 
iiieans snake nr enemy, the term his In en ilks 
eanleil liy man\ lati r w rilersas a f.imily ili sii:na 
linn, ami ' llakoia.' wliiili sij.'iiilies friiinl or 
ally, lias lieeii eitiplnyiil ill its .sti'ail. Tlw 
two wnnls are, however, hy no means prop 
erly synmiymnus. The teriii ' Siniix ' was wm^iX 
liy liallaiin in a i miipn lieiisive nr family 
M nse ami was applieil In all the trihes enllec- 
tively know n In him In speak kimlreil ilialeets of 
a wiilespreail laiiuniaL'e It is in this sinse only, 
as apiilieil tn ihi' liiiLriiisiie family, thai the term 
ishere emplnyi il. Thelinil ' l>alieiila iDakotll) 
was i-orreelly applieil hy liall.iliii to iln' Dakota 
trihes proper as ilisiiniiiiishi il frniii the niher 
iiieiiihi rs nf tin- liiiL'iiistie family who are nut 
Makotas in a trilial sense. The iise of the term 
with this siLMiiliealimi .-.linuM be perpeliiateil. 
It is only nil inly that a ilelliiile ileeisinii hits 
hei II naiheil n-peel illL' tin' n lal iii|lslii|i nf till 
Catawha ami Wmi-nli. the latler all extilii I trilM' 
kllnwil tn huve liei II lilli;ilis| ieallv 1-elaIeil to the 

Catawlia. leill.-itiii thoiii:ht that' he was alile to 
tliseern some allinities of the Cat aw han laniriiai;t' 
with ■ Miiskho;,'ei' ami e\eii will- Choelaw-,' 

llloll;,^ll these Wi re Hot sllllii ii nl tn ilnliii-i' him lo 

(lass ihem tnmther. Mr. (iaisilnl was tin' lirsl 
to eall attiiilinii to Ilie presein e in the ( atau ha 
Iaii;riiaL'-e nf a inii,-.ii|i ralili' iniiiiher nf wnriia 
liavini; a Siniian allinity , Keeeinly .^l^. Hnrsi-y 
has iiiaile a eritieal exaniiiiatinii nf all thd 
Calawlia liimuislie niati rial a\ailali!i-. whii h has 
heill materially im nasul hy the lalmrs nf Mr. 
(laiselni. ami ilie resiiii seems I.l justii-y its in- 
i-liisimi as mil' nf tin- ilialiilsnf the wiilespreail 
Simian faiu!l.\. ' Tiie prim ipal Irilns in tin' 
Mnllall l-'aiiiily nalinil hy Ma|nr I'nWill are he 
Uaviita lim lllijill*,^ Salltte. .SNi^-ilnll. W'.ihpelnn, 

\'.* ikinii. \ ankiminai-. Ti ton — lin- l.iii. r em- 
lilai illLT Ihllle. Sail- .\l-cs. Hlaekfeet. .Milineenii 
jnii. Twn Ki Itlr-. t l^.ilala, Iln papal. .\sviii:ilinin, 
Olllaha. IN'Iii.l. Kiw. Osa'je. I^lliapaw. Inwa. 
t'liie, Miss.iiiri. \\ iiineliaL^o. .Mamlaii. ttms \'iii 
In-s. tni". Till. In, liiinxi (sir Ml -kiiin,i:.\N 
1-'\MII.M. ( 111 lulii ami Wix-enn.— 1. W I'nuell. 
.S, ,,,.-// .l/,;n.'.// n.^t.^'flln Jl' ../- AV,', „../..VV. 

/. n-,' 

Also IN .1, 1.) Dnl-siv. .l//.,,-.<^.,„,. ,./ >,,,„, III 
■/'/-('...> i,l/;,i/,.-.ii. Xll,ir,l>,.-:l. r. -,'11, .l/„,,7,i.— 

The same-, /iV/".r(' Ii,ii;.ti,« -f /..n./;,,i i I. /' 
.K^'r.-v. .1. .1, .1 >■.. IsHWi,— See. al...v, IllliAls.v. 

Sissetons, See almve Sim .w r\Mii.v. 

Six Nations. See ahovi . Inoiiniis CoN- 
KKiuai \rv. 

Skittagetan Family.— A tainily ilesmna- 



relaineil for the tribes of the Quoeu 




.... J. .' . 1 I . . •_..>..:.. I * 111 I...1 •....-.. il l> ill. Illli.r 11 u II (- 

lull.'l ilui'l.'i Kr 


.1 Ihr I.I 


.1 III. 

ITC' lull w.r.' 

(Iwiiiijiiiik' ii»av 


1-1 »iili iiiliiri 

;il:l llll (ii hlr M inilill: 

I .if llll' IrilM' 111 

II. i-lil'iriiii.' K"In-'Iii" liiMiil.v. I'r I'raii/. I!.;.. 
I« hii liiinl 111 .i.ii^iili I lliMt Ih. i«iiiiri' L' iill> 
r.l:ilr.| 'I'll. i«i. LiML-iiaL'.s ].. ^M .« a ii'h«iil. r 

lllili lilUllli.r III' Hiril- il llllli.M. Iiill ,1 IniTr 

llii.riiii.h iim -li.Miii II i- ri i|Ul-il.' (nr Ihr -i Hli 
iiMui Ml III. ,|'i. -'iMii .1 U I'lUM II, .v.,/,f/. 

.1- „..,./ /,'., I /.'•■•, ./■/ .'(■ l:tl,,..i..:,i. I, I'.'ll 

Snakes. .-• i :ilin. > ii..m.\s r\Mii.-i 

Stockbridge Iiidiann. Hi. m.'. kluiili:.' In 
(li,ili-"i lii.n.,u; ilU II I' 111 .'I 111.>ll. U 
Trill.' I Mull. L.iiii-|. Ill "l.'iii ill.- I.ii:i-l:iliiri- ..I 
Mii—iiiliil--. 11' i; "1 -i.iir. .1 a t.."li-lii|i 
.llll ruani .alli.l Si... kl.riili:r| ill 111.' ,Mar IMil 
'rill ir iiiiiiili. r \\a- in. na-. .1 li> Waiiimi:;. rs ami 
Mi.liiK mil. 1-, mill I'lrhilK iil-.. In^ I" 

.1 I 

Im^iii- I.I ..Airar iiili.r iriL.v Imlli .'I N. » Sli.a. .V"^ 411 r. ' 

Kn-laiiil iiinl Nrw V.'ik Sim i- ilu ir r. ninval I" 

Xi » SI... kl.ri.k'. ami lln.Ili. ri.'ii. in tin- ». -I. rii 

iiarN I'f Ni " V.iii, Ih. y lia\.' In.ii juiniil \>\ 

M..|i. l:all^ .111.1 iillii r lllilialis frmii I'.a^t Ciilillf. 11 

cut. ami i\.ii Irmii Uln-I.' l-laml ami Lmi;.' 

Islaml ' A (i.ill.ilin. ■••//'"•/'■"•. ':'' /'..'i''" TriU' 

Al.Mi IN A. ll.ilin.'S, . I. ./„./....( .1... . 17:l«(.', 3) 
-> Ii l>rak.'. .I.'.../-/.,'.,.../ /,'.".., /. 1.".. 
Susquehannas, or Andastrs, or Conestogas. 

— ■ Uiiiili ami Sniili-li HMii 1- -pi ik I'l a irili.' 
rail.. I Miii.(iia-. Ill 11. II. iiiiii 111. ill 

lllak.' Iri'.iu. Ill allii-i"]i- 1 I 111'' "iaml i-l"--ii.'^ 
inii.rc l.ri.lh Aii'l..-i.'-', .. nil'. Iri. iii|l> I', il" .i 
alii. -.. 111. iliiii'iiv an I villi ly .mini.- .'I il..' 
Ir...|ii..i-. 1 III r -nil I'l iin-\ li nil 1 « ril. r- -lii ak 

l,f 111.. ( .'11. -I". 1 . III. Til'.' 1'. uhii 11 l.ii " .11 li. 
|,,l,".'l II; 1 111' mill uliiill p. a! III.' 
h.iii.l- .'I i|,. I'lM'.ll lii.X- .\llll"il 'Il ll.illHill 

ii, l.i. 11, II. I Uiiunl liy li.iiii lull. I'lan il III.' 
.\i,li-!i- mar l.aki- Krii, my r.-i ar. II. 1 l.'.l 111.' 
I,. 1, 1 1.1 1 I hi-, an. I i.l.niiry 111. Sii~.|ii. haiiiia-. 
.\iim|iM. .\iiihi-ii'- i.r <'ui'>. ami I 'Hi.s- 
l.'ja- .1- I'l iiiL' all llll' >alii.' irili. , 111.' lirvt nam.- 
I.. III. a|'|iari nlly an a|.|.. Il,ili"ii L'iMii tlnni l.y 
III' \ ii-iiiia Irilii'-. llll' M.-.'li.l tlial ;;i\.n lli.'lll 
! 1 ih. AU'i.iiijiiin- I'll till' Ihlanar.^ «liili-(ian- 
la-i "ITU.'' a- III.' Kr.ii. II. ..r C.m'-I.ii.'a ai.. llii' 
r.ii-li-li «' il. "as tlii'ir i.«ii iiaiiii . 
III. .liiii;: raliiii |ii.l.' 11'.. II. Nali.. I', rliniriini. 
Ir"iii Amla-i 1.' a . aliiii |'. . , I' I.i IWm 
ih'Ml-'|Ui hann IS ami lin' Muhiiwks . . . laini' 
"i-imi. aii'l till' Mi-.|m'liaiiiias iiiarly i'\ 

viilviil III III.' >:. Ill r il siis]iiiiiiii I'lilirliiliii. 
III.' I i.l..nisiH iiLMiii-i llll' ri.l iiM'ii. iirisiiii; ..m ' 
iiia,-sH. r. s ..II II..' iM.r.l. rs. Ti.i s.a|ii' ilaiivr il,. 

I r 1 1, aiiin ■. I. ink r. fiiL"' in I. an. as|. r Jail, ainl 

h. r.' III. y «i r.' nil l.iil. Ii. r. .1 l.y lli.' ra\t..ii l..'\ • 
wh.i liurst iiil.. Ih. |.|.ii r I'arkniaii. in liis I ■ n 
spir.ii V ..f rnnli.ii'. |i 111, ihiails ih. sa.l -nn 
'I'll. I.isl llll. r. si .'I llll . iiiifiiriiiiiai.' nil..- 1. ni' r 
in I...LM11, till- Iri. 11.1 ..f till' wliili' man. »li. 
s|.i.'.li i- M. lainillar 1.1 all. Iliat ».' Iliilsl, 
thai il has iii.l siHiaiiii.l I hi' liisl..rii'iil siriil iii> . i 
Itraiii/ .Maw r t y;./.'/'!/'/"'. . "'■ /,."/.... ,i;,./ (,,, 
Mnlnl.l Cn-I,'. M.llit'.in'l lli'l .s..' . I/.'//. I'-.M 
,ii,'l s,„ .VUii.ii, ls()7i l,..i;ail «.i» a I' 
i.iL'a. ill I'th.r u Sii».|in'liiiiiiia,"— .1 

l/.„/,j, r/,„i.i,l,r •■! I 
/',....;,.■, ,,/ M,ini/,ii„liH,,:r,n,^ IS,l,l,.lh,o, .\i,„ 
fiiifi, ."m - Si'i',' als... al.'H.': Ihikji Ciisu i 
i;ii\i V 

Tachiei. .Si.' 'I'iaas Tmk aiiiiiii..inai, r 

IIAIllI \MS AMI llll; SAMl; 

TacuUiei. S..' h. !..« : Atmai'asi »n Famii , 
Taensas. S. .' Nvriiiisxs I-'amiiv 
Takilman Family.* ■ This nam.' was p:! Iiy .Mi. (ial-ih.'l f.'r a .lislinil laiiiru 
siMiki'ii ."ill till' i'..a-l i.f Or.'t;..ii iilinii llif In. i 

jinu'lll' Uivir."— .1. W. I'.IWlll. .N.'..,f/< .II... 

U'i't . l'vn;.,„„X h:iln,:l:'i:i. ;.. l-.M, 
Talligewi. .N i-': All i.iiHANs 
Taftoaa Family. ■ llic Iril.i s ..f tlils faim . 
in llll' Inili .1 Slal.'S rrsi.l.'.l I'Vi lilsi\ I'ly li|i..ii i; 
Kill (iraiiih' 1111.1 ilH tril.iiiarv valh-vs Irmii aln i 
::.: ti,al...lll ;«1 '— .1. \\ '!'..». 11, S.nnll. .1 
yi",.' /.'./'',. /;.(/>. I" ,.f l-:iln,.'l;.iii. /. I'J-.V 

Tappans. S..iiIi..m : AihhMjIIan Kamii . 
Taranteens or Tarratines. Sir uIhivc Ai 
NAKis. Ills... AI.....N41 i\N Kamii. V 

Tarascans.— " Th.- Tarasrans, s.i callc.l fi' ii. 
Taras. Ilii' nam.- ..f a Irilial tml. Iia.l Ilir r. pui i 
lii.n iif III iii^' III.' tail, sl anil'si pi",|;, 
..f M.'Xii'.., Th. y wirr Ilir inhal.ilaiiis ..I in. 
l.risilil Slal.' 1.1 Mi.'liiia. all. ..t Ih.' vail, i ! 
Sli'xii... A..-..r.liiii: I.I 1.1.1. si tra.liti.'ii- -: 
jiirhaps 1I1..SC i.f III. ir iii'ij;lil.iirs. liny lia.l 1. 1 
(.Tall .1 fr.iin tin' iinrlli in I'.inipaiiy w ilh, or ah, m 
Ihr Miini' liini' as, thr Azl.cs. K..r ;'.'". 
y. :'.rs I.. I'.. r.' III.' . ..n.| ih.'y lia.l licin a si'l' -i 
iarv. siini livili/i .1 p.. .pi.', inainlainini; thrii 1 

,, _ ,^ .I..|'i.n.l< nil', iin.l pr..L'r('-sini; stia.lily ill inli .: 

1. riiii'nai'.'.i tln'Muhaivk- in a war w liii h I'asi.'.l \\ h. n lirst i'n.'..iiiit.'ri .1 liy llii- 11.., 

,,i, i,,,i, ■ In Kit: 111. \ ..ll.r.'.l till ir aiil III ihi' ».r.- .iiiil.' c.pial an.l in sninc rcspi-rls aln a.| ,1 

llur' 11- a:;aiii-l ihc li".iii..i-. hav iiii: 1 ,:tiiii war Ilu- Naliiias. , In lli.'ir 1 nsi niiii' tin- 'I ar 1- - 

ri"i- triiiml I', ihi' ii-i' ..f lit-, arms I. V llir..' .lillin .1 . 1'li-i.l. rri.m n.iulili.irs I i- 

>\Mi;i-h -liliirs; liiii III.' |.i'..p.'s.,.l 'alliami' fiaih. r L'arnn ills hi. Ii Ih. y • ' 

lail'il I'lirini: ilir ihinl ipiaiii r nl Hi.- Kill pas-c.l all in .liiraliilily ami In aiily. 1 

I, iiiiiry llii> SI. Ill I.I haw, I... 11 ill alm.-l ...11- Lm was. Imwi'Mr. Ilii- usual nial. rial," — li l 

1i11111.11- "ar "illi III.' I'iw Nati.'iis, iiiilil. in lirinl.m. //.. .l/.../'(.'.i.. /.'.i.'../'. MO. 

\v"< ih.v will- inirihrinvn A Tarumi. .s.c ali..v.'; t'Aiiiiis a.M) TUKiu K i' 

pariv III aliiiul imi au.l iiii.. .MarylamI iiiiKi. 

ami III I aim iiiM'hiil 111. r.' in a war with tin' 

i.i|i'iii-i- nil i w.r.- ■ Tli.' n si ..f 

Ihi' irili.'. all. r inakin- n. rtnris P. I...r.l lialli 

im.r.-. -nl.initii il In III.' I'iw .Nali.nis. ami 

.M ri- alliiw.'.l I.. r.Iain tin ir am Hr"nmls, 

Whin I'.nnsvh.inia «as sitil.'.l. tiny hcaini' 

kiii.wn as ( .iin'sliii:as, ami w. ri' always frhinll', 

t,, till' (■i.|..nisls .if I'l nu. a- Ili.-v lia.l in in I.. Ihc 

ii::;i:i -.v.-A >^^"i'- !•. !T"i 1 ' iii.-.l .^^i-'h, iliiir 

kin:;,' a Ir.aty with I'.nii. ami in tin' ilutu 

Tecuna. S.i' iilmvc: (Jitk <iu Cocn (inm !• 
Tehuel Che. S..'al".\.': I'ataikimans 
Telmelches. Sic alinvc I'ami-as Tnini - 
Tequestas. Siliiliiw: Timi yi anan Fav . 
Tetons. Sec iiliu'.. : Sim an Family 
Teutecas, or Tenez. Sri'li.l..w ZAi'..r - 


Timuquanan Family. — The Tequestas 
■ 1'.. ij-innini- a! tin- .-.ii'.ithca-st. vv.j first ni.-. ' ' 

hisli.ri.' Tiinii.'iia family, tlif tribes of whiili n 

mini Ihiy arc sly'l.'il .Miminaa, Coiichtngas. or .'\Iiurt at tlii- pri'scnt timr, ... In tin 
N.itf, A|.ii.iiili\ 1;. >"..'■.. 112 



iiiiiiirv iIh' Tiiiiiii'iiu liilialiiinl ilii iiorllirrn 
iikI i>ii<l<ll< |ii>rli'iii(>r till' |H hiii-'iilii nl' Kliiriilu. 
III. I .iIJii'iikIi III! Ir lAai I liiiilK tn llir niirlli 
ir uiikhnnii, till') III III :i iHirlliiii nf Kliiriihi 

tM.r-lt'ririu' "H tiinrL'iii. ainl mhiii' i>f tin- I'mis' 
i-hml'" ill till' All.inlli iki'iiii , Tin |«'iijili' 

r. . I inil lt'<iiuiiii' fniiii HIM' "f till ir v ill.iL'i - raliril 
riiii.ii!'»i. . . , Till- iiiiiiir till' iii'< liii'l 'rulir.' 
iTii-trr ciitiimii a.' niiiiiil ii|i<iii, iiiiH-u,' In 
i.iv.iiiii. 'iill'i. :iimI till- |ii I'i'li' ■• imiiii' in «rii 
I, II AiiiiiiH.i I irly in till' l'*ili n Mliirv Tlii' 

I in^u;iL:i^ -I'"!.' n li.v iln' < :ilii>a ami In llir |ii'i> 
!'!< Ill \i in nrili r, tin' 'ri'i|iii^1a. ari' inikiiimn In 
I- Till tallica 111 Mill.' ^..iiiJuM -II rii i'\ 

in ii.ii V nl' ri'ii'iila. iiikI llnir trilial iiaiiii' it lilt 
11 11 nil il ill ( aliiMulialilil. a riv i r xiiilli nf 'riiii|ii 
l,:,^ i>( till' Ti'iiiii -1,1 111 ..|.li' mi llii' ■.i.ulli 

I islilll rllil of till' |lrnill^llla «r kllmv »lill ll »- 

tli.iiiiif till' ( aliisa Iniliaii'-. Tlnri' »a- a triiili 

!i.Il that lllry vurr tlir miIIH' pinpli' «liirll lll'lil 

ilii' llaliaina nr I, mam I-laiiiN '-A. S t!al 

-I h. I I Mi'intli-iH h'ltllil •■t' IhrCl-nk- Intlitli'". 

•■ I, ,'' I 
Tinneh. Sit iilmvi' ; Atiiai'am an Kamii.v 

Tivitiv»i. St'l' lllKlVl' ('Alinil. AMI TIlEIll 

KlMlllI II 

TIaicalani. Sir Mkxihi A I> l'"il» i.Ii'NB 
-Oi iiinKiii 
T'linkets. Sii'ubnvi' AriiAfAw \n K\mii.v 
Tobacco Nation, ^ii' aimvi'; lit konh; unil 

iKiwil ill" ( clMhllt.llAI V Tin.lll NAMK. 

Tobas. Si'i' iiliiivi': 1'ami'as TiilliKH. 

Toltocs. Sir Mixini. Am iknt 

Toiiilcan Family. --" Tin' Tnnika arr knuwn 
iiihiw' i>i'i'ti|iii'i| tliiii* liii atitirs: KirNt, mi tli<> 

I...IM r Yazi.ii Hivi r linmi ; -I'c 1, ra>l slmrc nf 

Mi—i— i| pi Kivi r (aiiinit ITiili; lliinl. in AvuV' 
ill.s I'ari-li, I,iiiii-iaiiail'<I7l, N'l ar Miirk-vill'i', 
ihi' I'lnnly srat iif thai pari.-h, alimil tw'iiityllvi' 
IP 11"" liviinr. " — .1, \V. I'livvrll. Sri jif/i .{iiiiiinl 
l;,nl. III,,,!'! ,.f l-:ihn„l.::i!l. jl. I'.'.V 

Tonkawan Family. — "Tlir Tinikawji were n 
Miijrai iiy piopli' ami a I'ltlluvifs ciiitiuiii, wIimm' 
fur:ii-t liahilal is unkiiiiwii. Tlii'ir lir-.t iinii 
li !i III I ur< ill 17l!l; at that tiini' ami <>vi r simr 
ilii\ roainiil In tin' wi'strrti ami soiitlnrii parts 
if uliil i- niiw Ti'xas." — I. W. I'nwill. S,nnth 
Ah ,'i.ii Hijit.. Iliirni'i I'l' Elliiii,l,i!i!i. /i. r.'tl. 

Tontos. Sri' aliiivc: .Vi'Ariii; (iiioir. 

Toromonos. Sri' Boi.ivn .Viiiiiiihi.nai. in 

IIXI'.I 1 \N IS. 

Totonacos. — ' Hir llrst natives whimi Ciirtrs 
Ml! I'U laiiiiiiii: in Mt'xiio wirii tin- Tiitormcii.-, 
Tilt y OI rupiiil till' ti'rritorv nf 'l^ltoIli^apaIl, now 
ini lu<ii '1 in till' Stall' of \ ira Cruz. Ai'i'iiniini; 
I ■> of ihi'ir in\ n, tiny hail rcsiilril thiTi' 
■"I'll. U-, ino>t of wliirh liiiii' thi'y wirr imlr- 
I :..|.iil. tluniirli a frw Kinimtiiins tii'forc tin' 
^liiiv il of thi' Spaiiianls liny hail ln'in Milijicti il 
■ . !lii' arms of ihi' .Montr/ . , . Saiiai;iiii 
'. iriliis iliini as aliiinst whiii' in coliir, llnir 
i ariiliiially iliforimil, lull thiir fraliiri's 
p .jiilar ami iiamlsoiin*. Ki.lirs of niiton lirauii 
1 lily ilyril M rviil ihi'in fur iranni'iils, anil Ihi'ir 
III! w.Ti' nivirril with samlals. . . . Tlit'si- 
pi, pi,, niri' liL'lily I'ivili/i'il. Ci inpiialla. tlnir 
iipiiil lily, was siiiialraliiiiu livi' niihs tr.iiii tlii' 
N .1. at Ihr jumiioii of two sinains. Its huusrs 
w. r,' of liriik anil ninrtar. anil each wii.s sur- 
r ".li.l, .1 liy a small jraiili'ii. at tlii' fiKit of which 
:i -Ti'.im of frisli wall r was ooiiiluitril. . . . 
''■'.:: :i:V:::itic3 of the Tot.iU.uoS an .iitftruii I,, 
n .li, out. . . Their liiuguiige bus iimuy words 


rriiiii M.i\i riHitK. Iiiit il Iiuh hIsh iimiiy more 
from till' Nuhimll."—T) tl ilriiilnii, 7' /is A mm 

.'.III /I'.i.i. ;. imt 

Tukuarika. Sii«Ikhi' Siiiwiiunkan Kamii.t 
Tupi. Cuarani.- Tupuyai. "Tin iir»i In 
iliaiisuiili whinii till' r..iiiiuii" "I' lainr In r. ii 
till I. on ihiillsiini'ry of Itia/il. lallril tliilnsi Iiik 
Tiiplniina. a liTiii iIitIm,! Ii> llai nliiiui n Iniii 
'i'ii|ii ami Mlia. »iiini thiii'.' Ilkr warrior or nolili- 
iiiaii. Iiv ^larliiis from Tiipi ainl .\ii.iniliit irrl.i- 
thii with till' slLiiiitiiaiioii ' lii'lonv'iiii; to the 
Tllpl triln ' Thrsi' rnpiilui'lloli till I i-t nf 
llra/il. ami w lili 111. ir I iiiL'iiat.'i' tlir I'laiiiuin'-i' 
wrri'sihtii familiar It was foiiml ispi'iially wr 
\ il I' ilili' as 11 nil aiisnf rnminiiniratinii Willi iillirr 
Irilii's. amllhisli i| ihr .lisiiit', I il< r In ili'vilnp II im 
iiiiii h lis po,»ilili , mill inlriMlini' it iis a utiiursul 
l,iiii;iiaL'i' nf inli'iroiirsi' with tlii' Sinairrs Thus 
till' ' linuua m nil llmsilna ' amso, whii li iiiiisl if 
ri't'iirihil us a I'lipl wllh a I'lirtiiu'iiisi' prnniMi 
rial Inn Till' ri-siilt was a surprising niir. fur il 
ri'ully ninri'i'ili'il in fnrmlnu'. fnr tlio trilirs nf 
Kni/il. ilivlili'il In lani;nai:i', u iinitirsul miitiiH 
of I niiimnniialinn. Wilhinil ilmilit llir wiilccx. 
tint of Ihr Tllpl was vrry favnralilr. isprchilly 
siiii I' nil this siili' of ihi' .\ni|rs. aH far ua the 
('ariliUan Sia. tin' rniiiinriit nf Smitli Anicricii 
WHS w ill: Till'' linrih's , . . V*nn Miir 
tins has I'tiili'iiviirril In Iraii' tliiir varlntiH iiii^ru- 
tliiMs ami aliislis, liy wliirh tiny '.avti iu'i|iilrt'il 
II sort nf iiliii|iiily 111 trii|iiial Smitli Amrrlcu 
. . . This hlstnry . . . liinls In thi' mippiMi- 
linii that, hail thi' ilisinvt-rv Im'iii ilrlayiil ii fi'W 
(iiitiirirs. thr Tllpl iiiinht havi' iM'iniiir till' InrilH 
nf raslrrii Smith Amrriia. ami liavf H|irrail u 
lii;.'hi'r iiiltnri' nvir that rririmi Thr Tiipl 
family may lir ilivlih'il. ai'ionliiii; to tlii'ir 
lixi'il aliis'li's. inln till' hoiitliirn. imrthirii, 
I'listirn. wi'stirn. ami iiiitral Tupi; all lliisi' are 
attain iliviihil inln a niimliir of .sniallrr triU'S. 
The sniithirii Tupi ari' usually calK'il (titaniiit 
(wiirrinrsi. ii iianu' wliirh thr .Ii'suits lirst iii- 
InMluri'il. It laiinnt lir ilrtrrmini'il frnm whkli 
iliri'i'ti'iii tliry i-aiiir. Tin* urriiTrst tiiimlMT iiri 
in Paraguay anil thr .VrtJriitinr prnviiirr nf Cnr 

lirtllis, "VUv .Il'Slljts lirnllghl tlll'lll til 11 Vl'fV 

liijih ili'i-T f riulizalinii. Thr i astrrii Tuiil. 

Ihr rral Tnpinamlia, an- srattrrnl almii.' thr At 
lantir mast frniii S;, Catlirrina Islanil In thr 
n'.niiili nf tin' .Villa/., ill. Tiny an' a m ry wrak 
irtlir. Til" V say tliry canu' fnnn Ihr south unil 
wist. Till' nortlirrn Tupi arr a wriik ami wiiU'ly 
srattrri',1 nninant of a lar:;i' triln'. aii'l arr iinw- 
in thr pn.vimr of I'ara. on thr i-laiil of .Marajn. 
ami almiLT lintli lianks nf thr Ania/,ai. ... It 
issmiii'«hal ilmiliifnl if this pracralilr Irilir an 
nally Tupi . . . Tin rniinil Tupi livi- in 
si'M nil fnr honh's liiiwrrn ihr Tni-aiitins anil 
.Mail, ini. . . ('utlinj; nlT thr lirails nf mrniii's is 
in \n'.jiii' aiuniiLr tlirm. . . . Thr .Mumlruru arr 
I spirially Ihr lirail-liunliin: trilir. Thr wistiTn 
Tupi all ii\r in Itolivia. Tliry arr thr mily nnra 
wliii rami' in I niiTai't with tlir Iiira rinpirr, anil 
thrir iliarai Irr anil inannrrs shnw thr intliii'iirc 
nf thi-. ,s.,inr arr a pirtun' of i'hllir (ravrly 
ami pairian li:il inililiiiss."— 77.. si%,i,i„,;i '.V.i/ 

— "In fni|uinl iiinti).'uity with thr Tuiiis wan 
aniillirr shwk, also wiilrly ilisprrscil thrimgb 
Itri/il. rilli'il the Tupuyas, nf wlioni thr Boto- 
rmlns in lasti ru ISra/.il urr the must prominent 
irii.i. T,-. them ;i].-o,; the Oc.s nr.tions. 
I sniilh nf the lower Amazon, und others Tbey 



!' ]!■% 



A ft? 

u m 

I« 'I 



krc on It III 

l-niilr "f 




iiki'il. nut cnllh iiiiiir '•" ""ll iciniruiil •<! iml 


il «iili i>imrl.* Illilili 


I I'h.llh 

mil iiiu^l luiM- inliiiliid- 

iiiillilr\ I Imii; I'"" 

l> li llrilirnll. lilfll 


If III/ 

■.'ii!i ■.';ii 

IIIhiVi rilllll|l\K 




UK (nMrKU 


I liiiHji ii|i riiiiif* or iiih: 

\ M K \ M 1 1 > 


Tuteloei. m i 
Twightweei, or Mmmia. 

Two Kettlrt. S.iiili.m Sim w h'\Mii.v 



Uchean Fniniljr. 

<il I K I'll < IH II l>l|liri' 


ri^tilir liollli 9 I'f III 

tnttiiilili umIi :iiiv lit iiri r I't* 

riiihi ari' «ii|i|>< 

il Im havi' 

Wathakls. ^^ii-hInim' Kiiii»ii< nk\n Ktwii t 
Waihoan Family. 'Hii'< iiiiiiil\ ix ri |M' 

wiiliil In II ■.iiii.'lr »■ II kiiiiwn IrilK'. »lii""' rrih..' 

> Xlilliln) Iriilll 111' Ill Oil lllli' III Ihr I ilili ,1 

riiiillr KmlrMiul. In iIh' l" 


,1 W I'm«.II, 

III 111 li 

l,l/l ,\l4,., /,-, 

rl. I!. 

..I Hit. . 

■<!l. I< 

Wichita*, or Pawnet 

'»W M I ilMilli 

Withotkan Family, 



II' Sim \N Kamii.v 

I'llii il II »lli:lll ill 

iilraiin liiik.'>ii>iii liiititiN iiihI Hull' iikniiMii 

rrnlnii 'Im' iliiili i n 

nliii II 

ilk it 


ii-liii; II 'T III llirlnli. 

'•Iii'iiklni; iliiih I lint ilii^ 1. 1 

iiri il IM rtlpli 

li\ til, 

Vlli ill irr ll"l ll"« 

ririiiiiiii Tlir V 

Imm'Ii vlslinl liy IliSnin iliiriiiL' hi* im iiiornlil 
miirrli. mill till" inwii nf I'Miiiin liii|iii rlirm ' il 
hv llilll. I* Ihlii-\nl li\ liliili_\ iii\i*liu'i' .'I 

lllur -liiiiil ill .-"iilir llllllt nil lili- llll . nf 

llir Siiviililiikli. iiliiiill 'J'l mill -« liilmv Ail^llHta 
If, a« i« -lllilii.-iil liV Milllr illllllnrilii 1, CiililU 
rlllijlll \v It ;i ^' III ill liiWIi, lliii IViilllil liK'illr llll' 
Viirlii ill a Mil lull Willi II. \slirii llr-i kirnvMi Intlie 
whili-, »ii< iinlipii'il liv lilt' .Slmniin Ijlli r 
llll' Viulii n|i|<rHr tnlmvi' llviil wiiiuuliiil fiirtliir 

lIllWII llll' SilVllllllllll. '- .1 \V, I'liWrll. S,r,i,lli 

.l/,/,".i' /I'.y./ . /('(M.r/ :f F.lh„nl,^i,i, II I'.'tl 
Uhilchei, S r iilmvi' 1'imi'\» Tiuiikh. 
Uirina. Sim' hIuim : lin k mt Cih o Oitocp. 
Uncpapat. ,Si|, hIium,; sum .\n Fvmii.v. 
Upsarokai, or Abiarokat, or Crowt. 8ev 

illliiv. Mill \N I'\mii.v 

Utahl. NiilliiiVl' SlIliHIlll.M \N KVMII.V 

Wabenakiei , or Abnakii. SiiuIhim . Aiina 
Wacoj • Huecof. Sif uliuvr: I'awnkk 

l( Mil 11 UN \»lll \ 

WahpCtOnS, >ri illinvr Sim VN l-'lMILV 

Waiilatpuan Fan.ily, llili- i--tiili|iNliiil 

Iliii l.iinil\ iiiiil |<liii''l iiikIi r il till' Ciillniiv nr 
Ciiui-i' "f Uillii|ii„'<. .mil till' .M'llili' Tliiir 
liiiiil.|ii.irlir^ .1- iiiiiii iiti'i liv II. ill ari' llii' iippi r 
|.iiii,.f till' \Viillii Wiillii liivii .,;i ' 'i. . ifv 

iiln.iit Mi'Miii- II I iiii'l Viitiiiiiivi r -' -.,. \\'. 

I'., .s, ,,,,•/, .|„.,..,i; i;,j,.,rl. Ilin.iu ..;• 
/-.V/. , .■ 'v. ,. I'.'i, 

Waikas. Si i- alinU' (Mciiw \Mi liliJii 

KiMiKI 11. 

Wakashan Family. ' I'Im iilioM- f.iiiiil\ 
nini' «.i- liii^iil ii|i"M 1 llll iiliiil.irv i.f till. 
W ,k..-li uii.., II I .ir.liii, t.. '(i,,l! iiiii,' till i-hl|,l "Il ulli'il N,".ll,il >,.||l|i| i- 

-i!ii ,;• .; Ihr I. rill \\.il>.i-ii ' I'T thi^ ] 

^r'.ii|' 'I I in.'iiiii:' s h i^ ^iin < ti ,11 ;.'i tu liillv 

i.'i, .. ,| ,r,.i in 11- |i| II '■,ii 'ir N..,.ll,;i 

r,.|i'llii.i 111 I, 1- llll II il'li'l'lri! 'Ilinii-li In 

llll nil 111-. I. ipiii I iiii'ii.ii- 1 'I'-i .till i'li ii^ I I'lilil ! 

I... 11 -I I lU^ I |. ir |,.|- llir -II I illliil I 

\\ilk,.-li. \i •.^i ili'l ii'lii I iilli, .1 ll!i-il:l-i- 

UMI.illv ..--. liilil, il 'i'!'!' r llir N.ii.lU.l f Illliil. tllr i 
IiTlll \\ ii.,1 II .■!' l^-'i''' ll 1- ]liiiril\ .lll'l lllll-l lir 
rrlili!: .1 W I'.. Ml II, N..'./'. A:,.'i;l /,', - 

j„,,-<, /, ... . ! !•!, . '..,;,■, , ,, |-,".i-|;;ii 

'. ''ampanoags. or Pokanokcts. .Sir ulmvi 

I'lih wi'Ki ; - 
Wapisianas, Si i ilmvi •. ( aimi'.i \m> ■iiiiiii 

KlMUll II 

Wappingers. ."-iialHAi .\i.i,ii\iji Fam 


Waraus. sccubov. . CAiUi:i A.MiTi'iniu Ki;.' 

.a-^t friiiii 

I ti null' 

liilli' 111 lii'\ till' iiiiiiiili III Ki I Itn 

iiltll nf .Mll.l Kit 


ilirlilililli: |i 

iikli llll 

iliiilaih till iiiiiiiirv iilKiiit lliiiiilMikll lltiy 
.1 \V rn«ill. S,,,„'lfi lii-rl. Jl' I 

/•.y/...''"','.'/. /. i:i:i. 
Witumkai. (4<'i' iilxivc: Mi kkiiimikan Vav 


Wocconi. Si'i' iilmvi' Sim IN Kamii.v. 

Wyandott. Sr,, hIuim' Hi miNit. 

Yamasii and Vamacrawt. H<>i- almvi 
Ml KhiiiM.i \N Kamii.v 

Yamco, Siinlmvi' Aniiksianh. 

Yanan Family. ' Tlii' liittirn limiiiilury ' I 
Il Vatiaii ti rritnry Is fnriiiiil liy a r.iiu. 

iif IllnlllltalllH u littli' VM'Ht of UlHtW'tl Iltllti 

anil It riiiiiiiitiiin iinir I'll Hivir. tin ii iftlii rn 
liniitiilary liy ii lint' rtitiiiiiitf Imiii iiorllita'-t ii 
Miiitlnvisl. |ia»viiiir iiiiir llll' iiorlhirii »lili nl 
Itniitiil .Mniiiiiain. Ilirit' mill's fnnii I'll U.'.ii 
Till' ui'Ktirii liniftiiliir) trntii lli'ililitii;>iiiitli»iiiil 

is nil llll alffa^i' III mills in tlir I'll-il nf tl,i. 

Sill ruin iitn ,\nrtli nf lliililiiii; it iivt r,ui s 
ilmililr that ilistiiiiii' nriilM.iii '.'II iiiilrs " — I U 
rnwrll. Sr,„t/i ll,j,ir>. Iliirr.l'l ./ 

h:if,,.:i:;iii. /. i;i.v 

Yanktons and Yanktonnaii. Hcc ulmvr 
Sinl IN Kamiiv 
Yncas, or Incas. Sir I'l iii' 

Yuchl. >': I I MIAN KVMII.Y. 
Yii»,."\rZOngO. ."-l r llllnM .\NIIKflASH. 

Yukian Family. I.,iiiiiil\ illii. ('iilifni-iMi 
-.iilis|.|[ui mil 111. nil' 11 ri siri.itinii In rittii. i;. 
Viiki ami ntlii T liilits, nil, fnriiiirly tin tlin t 
s, ill nf tlii'irilits nf till' liiiiiili. lull liny iil" 

I \ti ll'lili airii'-'- ttir llinuiltilills In till' t n'Ist. ' .1 

w rniiiii, .s..„//i .1/1'..,.'; /I'lyi./', /;/,,.. ,■ 
/v/, „..'...///. ,. |;',ii. 
Yuman Family, ' Tin' 1 1 nlir nf ilisttiluiii ■ 

.,t ill. tllbrs 111 litis l.llllill is !_'l Ill-rillK I 
siili ml In hr Ihr |..,l, r '( iilnriiiln illl.'l I. 

\ llll \. ■ .1 U. I'l'iiill, ,S.'i,.^/, .1,, .' /. 



l...rl. Il'<;.,.i .;/■ /■,■/'..,.,/... 
,\l'\l III lilllil 1' 

Yuncas. S. ■ I'l iii . 

Yuroks or Eurocs. Sir ali'Hi' Mniim s 
Zaporo. :-i r iili.iir ; .\niiisIa\s 
Zapotccs, Mixtuc^, Zoqucs, Mixes, ct. 

■■ ri r, i.:i r llilll 111 iiii\iiiii I Ml \iii.| iiii.l 

III i jhti.'i III J rrji.iiisarr sull nci upii-l l.\ 

/.iipUri ,, llh.i liill llll lil-rll, - Di.lj 1 /'.I. i 

III- iinii iih.iut ■.'li."i,niiii .,(■ tliriii. ill I ."ill II' 

III 1 -pi ilk Until iii_' lull ih iri,.iii-. . t'liiiriii 

..: II 111 liliii s liirl (i.ii-I;i 1,1. 1 il piiwi 
it|.|..prtlltrllt stall . till' (ili/l'lls I.f llllilllii.l 

h nr Im II ijiiiir iis liiu'lily I il ili/.ril as all! li 
i.iT I.f tilt' .\/.ttf liimilv. Tlnv Mirt' a;:r 

ana ii-iu-: 


i.-tniitinu' liiiililingHof ^ 

ii- !:i 

uml iiinrtar I 

AMKUItAN Alldllliil .KS 

I iiiiirkiilili' l>iit li 

V 111 

I Mill I. 

iif llii'v "till r. Mi.iliiiiii' 
■|l..' Mi»i. 

MM UK tli<< only, 

iIm- rniiM 

Ml|<'ilH<l lilt 

/,ii.'.li !•« t.i 111!' »i»l iMiiiilllr; ,ili'M .' lln- 

,,r ii. 


|':ii iftr !•■ iil>'"ii rhr pn 


:tl(liri- till \ Urff C'lU'il (m 111- 
I'll ht'HIM 

fl'i llll Hill 
I ,1, , i-f I 

1. 1 Mil 

111 <>l 

, .if tl,. 


lii'iil ,1 ■ lit fill 

ill iIImI nil 

rl\ hi .tiiriiri. i|m'\ :i li 
ir \ il ir, ■..iviii.'i ly ii'iil . II 
lU 111. rr liUi- I il.-'lii .|i t. r III. 





.S]i Ihi UiU hiilM 

llllll llllll'l'lll 

mnl . 

lliuM V. r Ihii 111 IV 11. 



!». n r .r hiiiiilr. .!■. iif ). ir- .1 |.i i. . lnl, i.-imi ml, 
liiiiiil |i.t1 iif til. i.ii|iiil iliiii luiii. I> l.i/y .Mil 
ilruiiki II Th.i f.iliit tri.litiiiii't nf'tli.-.. 

|,. ..|.|ii |i" 111 111.. Sniitli |..r Ih. ir .iri.'iii 
rill I hiiiiiiiti'i't liiliiiliiii .1 ( liiri Hill I. »|iii h 

i, :l |iiri uf III.' "Ill f iImvi.m . 'I'll. 

t'liliiiiiiii . t hail Imtii ri-iliiiiil li) Ih.' A/I. .-i* :iii I 
MMpIv iippr.-*"!..! Iiy ihirii li ii.ii 111. > 
«. Iiiinii llllll- ^<piiiii.'iril-.:inili liv.r.r- . . . nihil 
null. ■. Iiy uhl. h lli.v ur.- in- iir.- T. i - / 
111 I Tiiiliias. .Ill •.p.-aUiiH.' "H llir iinniiHi. 
i.M'lihipin III.- hi-I.iri'iii iliinni iiifurint ih tliiil 
il iliTiviil IN iiamr frniii Ih. pu. Mn m. lalh-il. 
' IV h<-<.' iiihaliltaiiN wcri- lii-- iii-i-t ri iii-trkalil.- in 
\i « Spiiii f.-r tr.iiiH iin-l in- lin iiimiH ' 
I'lii ^ hill :irh a. ipiiriil lhi ir! nf Imrii luali^hlp, 
Ih \ Mill- -hijilill 111 all kill U -if liiil-i.'. I \. '.Ill 111 
imriiir.., 1 irriril uti a vaii-tv i.f aiN. unit w. r.. 
niihal M'V iiiiirt.'.ill- 111 .' 11 h iilh.T- On.- Iril 
iliii 'II u.ii thai till y "i-ul ri ai lit '1 Cliiipa-i fr.nii 
Niiara^'iii, . . . Ili'i Ihi- m-trr auili- iilii- 1- l'i ml 
i-f til- (ha pa* ur rhapaii.'i'--. ai liny w.'rr pr-- 
1-1 riy 1 ill.-l tr-nn ili-ir t-iiiinii- hinl' Ih.' 1 liapa. 

till ri I 111 I. iw. r-riliil tint Ih.' Mlmh' ^|lll h 

111 'M 'I il'iuii fi iiii 1 iiiirlh.rii laiilinl.', fnll-in iiL- 
'li-u'i ihi- j'aiilii' .-la^l until lli.y .aiiif I" 
H-K-iii-i -- wli-r.' Ih-y, .III- pari . ul- i 
ia.' :li'- iii'iiinlain* ..f » liiapa-. tin- "iln r pn- 

hii- --n 1-1 Nil ar.i_'ii I l> li. Ilrininn. 

r 1 -■ - I'l /.'.-'.. /-/- llii-l Ki 

\i ■ - : , \ lin.'h li. r l;,,.t .■/■ .\n-hr.l.„ii,;il 

r V.-- 

Zoquts. --Ill' al.-.v.'. /.Kr.iria ■•. in 
ZitttAV Family. " l». riv.itiun l-'rimi tin- 
I - - ir 1 1- nil Miiliyi, sai.l 1,1 Milan ■ Uli' p.. ipli' uf 
'il- I'.IU 11 lil> t'I'Ii rrill;: in llir ^lir/i-iill* nt /ufii 

'.vli - il-' i\ ■• \i- ..r 1-' -I ih- ir ii,iiU v. r\ h-ui 

1 --hni- ".I, \\ l'-.«i II. s, ...■/, A„ . .,' 
/-' . '. /.'-r-.i I .;■ /.v. '•/...,'//. /, IN - >-- 
I'll 111,-1-, aN--. .Vmiiii- \ l'i:i,iii-i-'ir,i 

>)Mi-.ii Am , A |i l^'l-i - N.iv i,\iiii i; |)i 
-iMiiii'. ami aflir -Statistics of >ii'-,iiiii: 

,\. Il l^lla -MvM, 


I Mil 11 M vri - HI- .\M : ,\ |l l-'l'il -O. iiiiiMt- 

^1 . ; - 111 ,\>l : .\ l> I-- 1.' 
.--iii-i\ ilMiiii Mmi,*): a, I>, l-.|ii 


AMHERST COLLEGE, The founding of. 

■^- . I I- - VI i-i\ ,Miiiii ii\ 

ICA ^-1 « \v Mn .,Ni \, FinN. I 1 A l> i:.. 

AMICITIiE. Sci- Crii.ii* .IK Ki..\miki(- 


AMIDA, Si«K'!* of. - I'lir umi. nt ritv .>f 


iH In irh. kr i-ii Ihi ri.'hl liitlk 


I ppi I li.-ti- vMi-* ihri..' tak. II In 111. l'ir»iiHi* 

frmii Ih-- ill 111. 

pill iif ' In tn. .1. thi' I 

I Iln |..ii;i war» 

V IV I'lll, il fi II .ifi. r a t.rrilili 

111 111.' tli-i lifia 



llllll I. li lit 111. I'l 

ill p.r~--ii. 

I.I «.!■ 
till' II..IIII 

L'lVill up 



Ih. I. 

:;. ,la 

v\ "iirMxin.: in 
Till I- 

1 mill 11 ( ni. Ill- 1| llllll 
hiliil.inu ilri.'i. i| II. I'l r-in 

> 111- II .ili,iii-|i.iii-l li\ till 

III. Il r. r>>, ri p. il liv till llnniiii^ ami n 


prii-p. rll\ anil *tr. ii'-'lh, milx In p.** tlii'mi.'li 

I \p. rii 111 

ill -Ml.' All 

. Ill ,1. ,- li li-r . I.'lil\ .la\.. Iiv Ih.' I'l 


K 111 ', . irri, -I l-\ -lunii iii.l iiin-l uf il . iiihililt 
11, l,.'i'.'liii n i| iir.ii I 111 .V . . iiiiirv l.iliT, 

,\ h Iln,-,. I h.i-iii. ~ II1--I. \iiii-li.. -ri. lull 

null I. -n \i-i|i 111 . , 'It lliwlii, . II, '■ Ih i:<;,il 

II:,, i,il v.,,,.,,,/,,/, .1, II, )U -I.,.! ;'l -Si-, iilwi, 
I'l ii-u \ II .'.'Il ii.'T 

AMIENS. OriKin of name, si lliniK 

A. U. 1507. Surprise by the Spaniards.— 
Recovery by Henry IV. Si 1 I'uxmk A I) 
IVi,! IV.I- 

A O 1870. Taken by the Germani. See 
rin\. I .\ II |-<Tii I'TI 

AMIENS, The Mist of. .Si- iUi-iikii. I'nu 

V l-|ii\- 111 

AMIENS, Treaty of 115471. -\i L-mi m .1 liy 

I inliiiil Uiil,. V, liiivvii . riiiiry \ III .-! lai^- 
liiniiiiiil rr-iiiii-. I 1-f Flan..-, .•■.i-ilili-hin:.' all 
ulli.iii..- a;.',iili.l 111.' l.iiipi I'lll', Cliarli'- V Till- 
ir-,iiy v\,i* *.'al'-l aiiil >v\..rii In ill ih.' 1 -iihi'ilral 
ihiir.'hai ,\inii I1-. .\iiir I". IV.'T -I, >• llrrwtr, 
/.'. . .///..--./ 17//, - ■.'. -'. -.'li -.„./•.•- 

AMIENS, Treaty of 18011. -S . 
,\ D '-III'.' 

AMIN AL, Caliph, A li -m •»i;l 

AMIR. ,\ii ,\r,ilii.iii mil , -i.-nilv nu' . hi.f .ir 
ml. r 

AMIRANTES. S.-, >U-( uii nk Is 


AMISUS, Siege of. -Tin -i, -1 --f Amicus by 
I, in llllll- w, I, -I}- III Ih- inip-.rl ilil --p. r,ili-iiis .if 
Ihr 'i'liinl Miihri,| nil' u;ii-, 'rii,- .nv \mi» 

nil li- 111,1-1 "t Iln I'.l „ !, ^1 I. liilWl'.'Il 

Iln rivir* liilv. ,iiii| I. Mil-, it i- rrpri'- 
-.'llllll ill -ih- Iiv tin- liiii-i-r-i l-iv\ii .-f S,'i?n 
-11--11 .\nii-ii-, whi. h vv,i- lii-ii^ii| in ;:1 II, t'. 

In 11 mil illilil till Inlliivv in,' VI ,11- Tv 1, in llic 

-r.iiiuiKiri 111 vv 1- .1111' iiii: Ilii' pri-nin r- laUi 11 and 

-1 III I'. K'-llli., Il l.-iIlL', l>,,'l, ,, ■■!' 1: , /,'.-/„, I/, 

/;,- , ' '■;.■'■ I -.'/;;, 

AMMANN. I'hi- i- Ih- liih' .-f Ih, Maynmr 
IV' -i'l' 111 .-1 ill-' S'-i^, r-iiiimiinal (1111111 il or 
(i. :ni iinl-ralii ,•*- r > vv I I /ll.l KM . ,\ 1 >, l-IH 

AMMON, The Temple and Oracle of. -The 

.\itiiii' ,1-1111 I'l' (ia-i> 1-1 ,\iniiiiiii, ill Ihi' l.iliyan 
ill -. i; v 111. Il vvi . V i-ii i| l.v ,\li \.iii.!i r ihi' (iri-'it. 
1 1. IS I- . M il-'iil 111- 1 vv 11 h 111.- na-is n-ivv kiinv\ n :i3 
iIh'II.i -111 >iv\,ili, 'Till (la-i- iif >iv\,ili was 
lir>t vi-ii-l ami ill'-. riU'.l li\ llrnwin' in 17112; 
iii-l il- I'll iiiiiv Willi iii,ii ni .\niiii-iii 1-illv i-iib- 
li-li'-l -y M ij-.r 11. iiiii'll ((il ML', i-f II. inilnius,' 
pp .".;:'. ".'.II -. . . Till- sill' 1-1 III.- 11 II lirati-ii 
ti'iupl- 111 I i-ra. 1.- nf .Viniiinii w a- Iir-1 .liM-ovi-n-d 
111 ^li li:i..i!i 'II ill l^."i:>, " "II- 1,11111111- nrai'li 

wa* Il ll\ \i-ili.l lt\ liri.U- frnlli ( 'vri'li.- 

:•- Iphi 

I 111 .illlrr pa 

111 Iln III- 
- pill iii'-n w iih ilii" 


I I 


i ] 



«fe I' 

•j i#i 

h , 



Hiiil l»0(liirm. "— F, II. Ilunlmry, Ihi't. of Annnil 
Hi'iti.. r/,. <*. mrr I. iimlili. IJ. vrY, 1. <lii't hole H 
—All i\|M.liii(in iif ."lO.iHMi mill stilt l>y ('iinilivMS 
loAiiiiuiin. I! r V.'.'i, i-~ s:iiil 1" li:ivc"i«Tisliiil in 
Ihi- .1. -rrl. lo Ilir la.-I iiiiin. Sir Kni'T: li C 
.Vj:i -:',.!■,'. ! 

AMMONITES, The.-Airi.nliiii: Ic Ihc imr ' 
r;iti\i- ill (i.•lll^ir■ \i\; ;lil-oll. liii' AlUlllOllills ' 
wnr ili-ini.liil from lirii Aniini. smi of's 
s, (Liiil ihiu-'liirr, MS til.. Moiiliilis <;iiiii> from 

\Il.;lli. lllr,,|MllL;llliTss,,ll Tlll'IW.lIlri.lili' 

iirr 11111. ii .i-^oiiai,-il in liililiiiil liisiory. "It is 
li;inl h' in.ii.l ihr cniiihi-i.iii thai. » liilf M":ili 
wiis llir srllldl aiiil rivili/i'il half of tlir nalioiiof 
[,oi til.' 11. iir Aiiinioii f..nii..i its pr. .lalor> ami 
Hi'.|,.iiiii s.. lion ■'— (i. Cniv,'. Ih.l. ../ Ih ISiU,.— 

S.i .ll Us; Till. K.Mil.Y IlKlllltW lIlslOKV; "Iso. 

Mo.ihi 1 1.- 
AMMONITI. >..• I'loius. r A D I-.'* 

I Nil I. M Ml s.,1. \M A II |sll:!,l)| . I Mill 1!. 

AMOOR, OR AMUR, The. S. . Sim i;n 
AMORIAN DYNASTY, The. Sir 15v7..\N. 

TIM. L\ll'll:l .\ I > s-,»ii-lil.i7 

AMORIAN WAR, The. Tli.' I'.yzaiiiiiic 
Ijiip.ior. riM..iiliiliis, ill w,ir uilli 111.' .Sala.clis. 
tool, aii.l .l.-itov. .1, "illi |'..iili:ir iiiiiiii..sily. the 
t,,\Mi .if /.ai>.tni or S,«o|iilr.i, in Syria, wliirli 

liapi"""! 1" '"■ ">'■ I'ir'lipl:"'' "'' "'<■ ri'iV""'.- 
, >li|.li Moia— 111. soiiof llar.Hiii Alras.liiil Tin' 
I ilipli had I ..11.1. .1 l.i ilil.lrr.l.' lor the |ila. .'. 

iii.l hi, ,1 \ , ...11.1.1. t was |ii rN,, iiisiili 

ill" to him. a^ ". 11 lis alto. i..u~lv ililiuillaiw. To 
avTim.' 111.- .11111 a' Asi.i .Minor, A. I». 
-:;-". ai ill.' ll. 1.1 .if nn i norm. .lis ariin. with tlli' 
spiiiil iiiirp..-.. .,1 ,1. siniyim: tin- l.inhpla. v of 
rii, ..| hiliis. I'll., ill. tortiiiiali' lowiiwhiili siif 
f, 1. .1 i!ri! .li-iin. lion WIS Ani.iriiini ill IMiryu'i.i, 
-uhiii. iili.oiiMiiniruaru.i^ialli.lili.' Anioriaii 

War, .Vil. iiii.tin;; lo .l.liii.l .\ riiiiii in tlir 

li. 1.1. th.' ISv/alilin.s v\.iv h.,|i.'lis-ly ali.l. 
aii.lilif .l....mi.l. in «as 1. fi 1.1 its fat.-. It nia.l.' 
an h, i-o;.' r. -i-l in.".- for titu liv.' .lays, iill.t ihr 
si, ".■ i- s,,i,l 1,, l.aM- I ..~I till' lalipli Tii.diwi m.n. 
l!,,i h, , ni. I. .1 111. pla.v at last wiih a in.rriliss 
.,»..• 1 a'lil |i 1 a I.. i|.of riiiiis for I hi' iii.'iiiiininl 
,if |,,~ 1. ..1. . 1., i;i'.l...ii. />..■/!/.' ."..' I''ill <'/ 

AMORITES, The. — ■■I ill- ITittitis iiml 

An. '-rii. s u.r.' , iiiiiii:li-.l t.i.irrtli.T in ilii' i of I'al. slim lik.' till' two la. . ^ wliii li 
i;iin..l..-l-l> I. II .1- U.I to foi:'! lii'' mo.l. m K'h \ 
111,; III. l._'>| in.iimm. t. ai h usiliai lli.y i 
\v. ri ol \. i\ .luV.T. Ill ..riL'iii an I . ii.irai I. 1. Thi' 
lliiiii., "I'r.- a p.. pi. \.iili ,\.ll.i" skins ami 
• M..1I .■ol..i.r f.itiir.'s, «li..s|. r...'.lini: fonhriufs. ■ 
ohli.p..-. w -, aa.l prolr.i.lm.-' lipp. r .jaw s, arrnp | 
rcs<iiii.l !is taithfiillv on ..\mi inoiiiimciits i 
as 111. V all- .ill tli..s.' of Kuypi. s.. ».• raiinot 
an..-.' till' l.jpMi.ill anisic of i ari. aturilii; tliiir 
111. mi. -. II liii", liav. iiiaili III.' Mil- 
tills iijU , 11 uas li...ailsi. ihiv \s.rr so ill ri .llily. 
Til.' .\ni'.ril. - ..11 111.' i-"\ , wrrr a l,ill anil 
liaii'l'oin. I'. ..pi.' Till V ail- il. pirii.l with 
whit. ~l>in- ,;.i.' . >i -. .111.1 r.'.l.lish hair, all tin- 
(hala.'I. ll~ll. - Ml i.i.l...f till' "hill- ran-. Mr. 
r, ll..' III, 11 1. s. nil. 1.111. 1 to Ihi' 
ilaiiiaiis ol A.-ia .Minor, nho lonii nil iiiliT- 
im.liaii' link liii»irii ili. «liili' skiiini.l triln s of 
lhi'<irii'k s. as ami tin fair i'..iiipli'.\ioiii'.l l.iliyaiis 
of Nortlnrii .\;ri.'a. 'V\n l.itii r iirr still l..iiii.l in 

lar;.-.' iiiiinli. r- in tin' in lainoil- n-irinns u hii h 

^tr. 1. 11 .asi vvar.l from :.i....... ai..i .ii.- ........i^i 

kiiinvn luiioni; the Krcncli uniliT llii' niiiiii' ol 
Kalnhs. riic triivillir who tirst iiiii'ls will. 
Ihiiii in Al>;i'ria ciiniiot fail l.i lir stnirk liy th.ii 
likcni-x, l.iiii'i'rlain part of Ilir pi.pulaliiiii in III. 
Uritish Isles. Tlnir i liar wliili' tni klfil skins 
their hill.' eves, their ii.ilihn nil hair anil tall 
stature, reini'ml him of the fair Kelts of iin lri-1 
villa;;!-. 1111.1 wh.'ii we Iiml that their skulls, wlii. i 
are of the soialleil ilolii hoeephalie or ' Ioiil' 
h.'aile.l ' type, are ti.e .same as the skulls iliseov 
ereil in tll'e prehislorie eroinli I lis of the eiilllilr'. 
Ihey still inhaliil. w.' inal ...i.elu.le llial ll..i 
represent 111.' ni.Klern il. s. , n.laiits of tluwhii' 
skinn.'.l l.iliyai.s of the KKyiHinu moiiiiimiit- 
In Palestine also we slill eonie inr.iss n preseni:. 
lives ..f a fair eoniplexioiieil liliie eMil rioe. in 
whom we may see ihe ile.s.'ellilailts of the anil. .|. 
Am. .riles, jiisi as we see ' i ihe Kahyl.'S the li. . 
I. iiiiaii's of the aneieiit l.iliyaii.s. We know th.ii 
III.' .\lllorile lypeeolllinui.l to exist ill.lllilall I. 111.' 
alt.'r 111.- Isr'aelilish eompiesl of Canaan, Tin' 
eaptives lak.'ii from the soiilhern cities of 
hv Shishak ill the time of Ueliolioam, ami il.' 
pieie.l hv liiiii upon the wallsof ihe ureal tempi.' 
of Karniik. ar.' p.'.'ple of Amorile (irit'lii, Tli. ir 
■reL'tilar iir.ilil.' ..f s.ili aipiiliii.' lasl.' as .Mr 
Toinkins il.'serilies il, their hiith eheek hones al.'l 
mania I .'Xpr.', ar.' tlie fealiiresof the Amu 
ill's, an. I 11. . I of llie .lews. TalliH'Ss iif st itiir 
lias always ii.eiia .listinitiiishimr i liarael.risti. "i 
111.' w hill' raee. II. nee it was that Ihe .\li.ikia. 
the Aiiiorii.' inlialiilants (if llehron, seemeil ;. 
th,' llelir.'W spi.'S to he as ^'iaiils, while ll..;, 
iheiiiselv.s hut 'as grasshoppers' hy il.' 
si.leof lii.'iii iNiuii. .\iii:*i). After the Isr.i.l 
iiish invasi.iii reinnaiils of the An.ikim were I. :i 
in (la/aan.l (lath ami Ashk.lon (.l..~li. \i;J.''. 
..'1.1 ill th lime of Diniil, (iolialhi.f H.ilh anil i.i- 
^ri^'alllie faniiiv were olij.. Is of ilnail lo tie :r 
ii.inlili.irs .',' Sam. .\\i; l-V'-'-J). Il is i liar, tin ii 
that 111.' Aniiiril.'s of Canaan lielinii', ■! to ll 
same while raee as 111. l.iliyaiis of Norlhern Ai 
ri. a. ami like llieiii pr. l.'rreil th.' inoiiiiiains ; . 
ihi' plains all. I valleys helow. The l.iliyn,-. 
iheiiisilves hi'loiiL'e.l 111 a nice whieh can I. 
irae.'il thr.iUL'h the |.eiiiiisul;( of Spain ami li-' 
wi-lern si.le .if Frame into the lirilish 1-1.- 
N.iw it isiurious iliat wli.'i'ever lliis partiiiiii: 
l.ran.'h of llie wliil.' ra. e has e.xtemleil it hash., i. 
a., 'nipanii.l hv a pariieiilar form of eroiiil. . i.. 
..r s. pill. Iiial. liamlierhnilt of lari.'e uncut sl..i.. - 
Ii has I.e. nn.'iessary Io enter at iliisl.iu;:. 
into what has Im.'U ilisi ..\ . r. .1 eoiieernili.:: 'J' 
Aiiioril. - l.v ;-. I'l'iu ri seal-ill. in ..r.ler lo -h 
li..\\ f'lllv iliev sli..iil.| ll.' ilislinmiisheil ii 
111.' Iliitiii s'wiih' ili.-,\ aflerwaiils imr 
iniiiL'ii.l Tli.y must liav.- tieeii in poss. s-i... 
I'al.-line loiiv' 111 lore llie lliiiili's .irriM .1 ih' ■ 
Th.'V iM. 11.1. .1 ov.r a liiu. h u i.l. r ar.'.i ' A i ' 
Savi'e, '/■/.. Ilitt.'l,.-- ■ ' I 


Aiii]iliii,u.iiiie. or.' . ..rn. ily. an Ainpl. 
lioni., l..»lv was ail a-si'iiilil> of ilie Irilies 
ilw.ll aroiin.l aiiv lam.. lis leiniile, i.'atlnr..l ' 
l:. ih. r lo iiiaiia'.;'i' the all'.iirs of that I. ii i 
I'll, r.' were olii.r .\lnpliikl,\ oliic .Vsselilhli. ■ 
lii'iii" !l.. ill.'- Ileil ..f Delphi], ainoiiL'st w! . ;. 
Ihat ..fllii- isle of Kalaiir.'ia. olf the I'l-i : 
Ar-oli-. was a ..f s..iiie clehrily. ! ' 
Amphiklyiinsof Delphi iilitaimil ^ri-aler iini -^ 
a e iliaiiaii.\ other Amphiktyoiis only 1... . 
t the L'ri.'u.r imp.irlaiice of the D. Ij 
:a;ilarv. a:a! o. . aa-e it iij. i.l. lit i!!y ;. ■ 



,„.]i,i| thill til' tirciilcT purl of tlif Ori'i-k 11:1 
lic.n luiil siMiii' kiiiil .if ri'prcsi'nt;iliiin miiioiiu' 
|.i,.,i, lint iliiit h(«ly (diilil iiiit lir liiokcil 
uiinTi us ;i prrlcil nprcsi'ntMlinn d' llir (ircck 
„:,ii"ii whic'li. In (.IhiT iihjiclii.fis In its 
, i.MMinitinii. fniinil n.i pl;i(i' for sn luriri' ;i fnir 
11,. 11 i.f till' lli'lli-ni<- ImmIv iis llic Arkiiiliiiris. 
Siiil til'- Ainliliiktyniis nf |)i Iplii iin.lnijlii. .|1> 
,:irii.' iiiiirrr lliaii i-'iy (.tlur i\i-liiii; lin,|y In tin- 
, li:i,:i(ii rnf :i j-'iniTiii ri'pri'sciilMi inii nf alKlniri- 
IM-ihiri' ■ "iisy In iiiidcrstMnil Imw tin' n li:; 

j, ,,, I :,, ' ;. Ii :i lindy iiii.L'lil inciili'iilully 

.,, , |.,.|i ;, ,■'icr.' . . . Oiii.' ni- 1\\ i. ■■ 

II, II! Mc I'lilU^.' n: ■■: 'illll Ili^lnlV. We • . 

III. {II,. .Viiij-liiki i-iiiii 'i.ilv inline' uilliT'il 

lli •, .. Ilir |i III .■ iniilcil (Iri'i rr. . . , 

'I'l ■/:., :.. 1;.: ■• IIH : Ill's nf lIlC ( is 

i_,iv. ■■ ,. 'ii ..,.111 ^li_i!, viiriiitiniis liy .lilTi Tint 
■iiillinrs ill! ii;;i. ■ '11 iniikiiiLr tin' I'.iiisiiliunl 
■iiiiiiliirs of till- iininii i.ilir.iin.l iml riiir,.. Till- 
r. iiri'Silitiilivcs nf tlic Inllir Mll.l D.U'io I'lU'i'S sal 
mil vnt.ilMs siiiL'li' niinilirrs. >iilo liy wiili 
III,' ri|,r.s.rit:iliv('s of pilty piojili's likr tin- 

MllU'lll'silUiS IIImI I'lLlhinlir Arliuiulls, Whl-ll till' 

r,,iiiiril w;is lii'st foniii'il, ll.iriiiiis im,| 1, minus 
AiT.' il.iulitli'ss niiTu li'ilirs of iinrlliirii (Jnici'. 
mil tlir pniiliiioiisilc'vclopinriil of tlio Dniii anil 
1 , llir nil's in after liin.s iiKuli- im ililTi'rciii'i' in 
r- iiiiisiiiiiiinii. . . , Til.' Anipliiklynnic ( luin 
. ll Hiis II, it exactly a iliplninatii' cniiLMi'ss. liut it 
uasiiiiiiii innrr like a iliplniiiat ic rniiL'i'i " lliali 
,' vMi^ like till' u'liviTllili'.' as>iinlilv nf an> cnni- 
i,"inM dill. kiiiL'.loin, or frderalion. Tin' i'.\la 
_','r,-i and Hi. r,,inni"lnnlii's were lint iNarlly 
,\iiil,i"iidnis. lull tiny xMi'i- iniicli iiinri' lik.' 
.\ tlian llii-.v mri' like nirinlirrs nf .'i 
liiiti-li rarliaini'iii nri'Vcii an Aimrican ( 'nn;:ii ss. 
Till''isi apprn'iiii to thr Anipliik- 
iviiiiii ( iiiiiiiil in niiHlirn tiinis wniild lir if tlic 
C'.li. _'. .if ( ai'dinals \M ll' to rnii-ist nf nii'inliirs 
. 'i.'H II li\ ihi- si-viral lininaii Caili.ili. nalLnis ..f 
ij.i,'!,,' liiid Aniirica."— K. A. l'"l'i'i man. Ili-'t ■•/ 
i'.,i. ■"■' t,..,-i . ,'. 1. .-h. :; 
AMPHILOCHIANS, The. S. . Akakna 

M \N^ 

AMPHIPOLIS. -Tiiis tnwn in Macnionia. 

,', 1 iipv iml: an iiiiportant siinationon tli,- ca-tfin 
t,:ii,k,,f till' liMi' Siryinoii. .jii^t In (nw a sniati 
Ilk' into w liii'h it w idi lis mar it^ ni.iilli. \\a^ 
,'ii,;n.ili\ 1 .illi'd "Tlir Niiir Way-. " and was thr 

-. I a liorrilili' lininaii saii'ilii'i' inaili' liy 

X.i\i- nil his niar<ii into (irci'cr. -Tiiirlwali, 
//'/ '.;(,',,,,',. ,'//. la.— It was siiliM'.|iii'nllv 
',:, n l.y the Athenians. 15, C, .1:17. an. I ina.lV 
. .ai'ii'd cil.\ In thi'in i>i'i' AiiiKNs. li. ('. 
nil !,;;[ doiniiiatini: the surround in l: .li-triit. it- 
1 III,' 111 ill!; I'lian;;!'.! to .\in|ilii|iolis. Diniiiic tlio 

l'ii.|i,'ii ianWaril!. ( . I'.Mi. 111.' alili' l.arcda' 

'.H'liitii ut rii'la!. ii.l a small arni.\ into 
Mil 1,1', ilia and siii. tidi'.l in raptiiriiiL: Ampin 
1' ''i-, u lli. ll I'aiisi'd L'r. .11 .lisiniiy an. I ilisioiiras.'!' 
' 'ii ll Alliins. 'I'lini vili.lrs. fh.' historian, was 
"■i> .'I till' ;.'i'nira|s 111 I'd i'i's|ioii>ilili' for the dis- 
:.''■ 1 a 11. 1 111' .\as drivfn as a corist'inifnii' into tin' 

i l' iiial. . > !l' whicll pr.idtK't'd till' rnrnpiisilinn 

' I'i' liist,,r\. Tun yi-al's lairr tlio Atlnnian 

■1' 11. iLi'i.'iii' liadi-r, Cli'iin, t,,nk (■nnimand nf an 

\\ liM 11 sint to ri rnver Ampliipnlis and 

' "1 ' 1" iiits in Mii'cdniiia and 'riiruci' It was 

di- '! ':i-lv li.ati' id Cli'oii was killi'.l, hill 

I'll I'las till likcwisr in thi' liallli', Whctliir 
\'li,!i> -iitfri'i'd more froni Inr dclVat than 
^!larla from lirr victory Is a 4111 stion, — Tiiucy- 

(lidcs, IliHtnrii. Ilk. 4, lurl. inM;ri, U ."1, !<ii-t. Ml. 
—Sec. also. ArilKNs: I!. C .iil'i-t.">4. and (illKl'a K; 
It (■ I'.'l-l'.'l - Amphipoli- »a^ lakun liy I'liillp 
of .Man, Ion. I!, r. o."!.-*. — See (illKlal. 11. •'. 
it.-iil :r.s 

AMPHISSA, Siege and Capture by Philip 
of Macedon (B. C. 339-3381. See (iiir.M k: 
li c. :'..■.: ::;;ii. 

was hardly a low 11 in the | ltiiman| 1 nipire wliieh 
had not in iiinpliiiheatre lar'.'c en.nmh lo eniitaiii 
\ast miiltitiides of spei'ialoi's. The sa\a::i' 1 .\ 
( iiemeiil of ^rladiatorial emnlials seem- to have 
lieen almost neei-sary lo tin Ifoinan le^'ionaries 
in thiirsliort intervals of inaetinii. an. I wa- the 

' llr-t r.'ei'eati.m tor which liny provided in tin,' 
plaei's where they were stationed. . . . IJladia- 
tni'ial eoinhats were held from larly limes in the 
I'oniin. and wild lieasi- hunted in Ihe Circus; 
hut until Curio Iniill Ins hraled dnuhle 

i theatri of wiiod, whii h could he niaile iiil,i an 
a!]i|i|ililiealre hy lurniiiL; tlie two semi lireiilar 
|i.irtinii- face to face, we ha ve no record nf any 
special hiiildin;; in the peculiar hirni «fterw'ard's 

: adnpled. ll may have lieeii, Iherefoie. that 
Curios niirhaiiical contrivance lirst -uL'src-ted 
the elliptical shape. . . . As -pecinens of ai'chi 
lecture, the ampiiii heati'es ar.' more remarkahle 
for the ine( hanieai skill and admirahle 
In Ih.'ir piirp..M' displayed in tin 111, than hir any 
heauiy of -hipe or dcotaii,.!! Tin hUL'.st 
of all. the Coiiseuni. was ill pi 'iportioln d and 
iinplia-iiii; in its lines .\iien 1 ntire. — 1!. liuni. 

/.',,„', '/„./ I',, r,i:„j,.>-ln,l. i:,l,n,l, 

AMPHORA.-MODIUS. -"Tin | Unman] 
unit 111 capacin «as Ilie .\mplnira or 1^1111- 
dranial. -A hich contained a enhic fool . . . eipial 
to .'i.itST imperial i^.illon-.. or .'► lmII"Iis. '2 ijuarls*, 
1 pint. -' irilK. marly. The .Vmpliora was the 
unit tor hoih li.piid iin.l .Iry niea-nr. -. hut the 
latter was iieinralli, referred to the M.idius, 
whii'h cnnlaine.l one iliird of an .Vmphora . 
Tin- Culeils was e.|Ual t.i ','11 Aniplmia ' -W. 
, Kam-av. )l.n,u,il nf l!;„„f „ Ai.ti'/. . '■:, PI. 

i AMRITSAR. See Siklls 

AMSTERDAM: The rise of the city.— 

"In l'.'ii'"i a |,iw and proiiil.'-s niar-h np.iji the 
.,.a-l of llollalnl. iml far frnhl 1 he c.uililns of 
I'lrechi. ha-l 111 ,11 partially drained hy a dam 
raised upnli llie hitlierln Mpiainlcrcd stream of 
the .\insti I Iliis dam a hw huts wero 
tenaiili'd hy p,"'r men wlii . arm .1 a scanty live- 
lihood hy "ti-lii.i- ill tin ZuMler Sia; hut so 
iiiiiin itini: seinn d harreii ati.l de-.ihite spot, 
that a century later .Vliislel dam wa- still all 
ohseure seafarin:,' town or rather liamlet. Us 
suh-ii(iiciit pi'oL't'c-s was niorerapi.l. The spirit 
of the 1 mil was -tirriii;.' within it. and cvi ry por- 
tion ,,f it iliiilliil with new cneriry anl life. 
Snini' of til, luuilivc ariizans frnni Flandi rs saw 
ill the tlirisiii-; \illaL'e sah'ly and peace, ami 
adili.l w.allh the\ had, and. what was 
hitler, their lit luufacturiiiir inielliL^'iice and 
skill. In the huinhle hamlet s stoic. .Vm-teldatn 
was e.irly adniittcil to the hllnw-hip of tliu 
11. in-. I.eauu..; anil, in hil'J. ha\inu .iuli;i'.>wn 
Ik primiry limit-, reipiircd to he enlarged. For 
•hi- an c\|ii n-ive process, that of driviii;; piles 
into the swampy plain, was in, . --ary ; and to 
this circumstance, no doulit, it is owim,' that the 
dale of each successive etilarnetni'lit has heell so 
; ac, uraii Iv recorded.'— \V, T. .McCulla.:h, liidu*- 
j trvil lliitiuni Kf 'I'I'n,' XitioiiK. r.,l. i. c/i. 9. 






AMT. AMTER. Sic S,\m>i\\vhn 
SiMi- i|>i NM m;k — Ii ir.wiii; A l> l><l!' 
1^'TI . iii.l ihr .;nii, ,N,,|;u \, , A |i ts|.||s|,-,. 

AMUR, Russian Acquisition of the basin 
of the. *>i . ^1 1,1 HI \ 

AMURATH I. and II , Conquests of. Sec 
Ti itK> A. I) i:ii;ii I :;-'.i .n i I mj | l,-,l . 

AMYCL/E, The Silence of.— Aniycljp wan 
the chill' city nf I.Mioinii wliilc ih^t lii^lrict c.f 

PclnJinllMcslj.; \\;|^ DCCtlpiMl liy tin- .\< ll.cilis, 

bi furc ihc D.iric ill^:l^il■ll .-inil In l.nv liir ri-r cf 

Sp;irl;t. It In:iitlT:liric<i it^ iinlcpcll.irllcf ULMill^t 

the I >nric Sp.irt.ui^ Inr ;i l<tiiL^ pcrind. hut sue 
niiiilicii ;it ItiiLMh iitiiirr ( ircuiu--t:iiu cs which 
L';i\'' ri-' ti' ;i ]irn\irln:il s.iyirii: ann'iii: the 
(ircclis ccinicriiiiu' the sjl, uee iif Aiuyche ' 

" 'I'lle |ir,iee r,| AlIlM 1 c. we .iIT teiil, h^il llcell 

SCI i.flili ■li-lurlied liy l:i\-r MJuriu-. nf the 
Cllelliy* ;ili]'r.i;ieli, th:it at I. IlL'th :i l;l'V was 

pa-sell tiiiliiililiiiL' such re|iiirts, iiml the silent 
cit\ \vas talieii li\- surprise.'— (', Thirlwall. 

ll/.~f .7' <.';■.,-■.. ,■','■; 

AMYTHAONIDiE The. .S e Ai;..i.s —All 


AN, The City of. See On 

" .^IiiIl•'tl r is ,1 t.iw n in W I -Ijihalia. the scat nf a 
lii-liipp, nalleil r.iuiiil, with a nnl)le cathcilral ami 
niaii\' churches; hut there is one peiailiarity 
ahiiut Miiii-ter that di-tiiiLruislies it trniii ail 
*ither iilii (lerinaii tiiwii^; it has nut one oiil 
chui'eli spire in it. (inceit iiaii a (.'ri'at many. 
lliiw i eiii' - if that it now lias nonc'^ In Mi'msier 
liviil a ilrapi r. Knip)H rilellini: hy name. *\ho 
was imieh I \i iieii i.\er till lioctriues of I.uther. 
tiui) iie LMihiTiil many piiipje in his house, anil 
spoke to tliem hitter wonls a^Minst the i'ope, the 
I)i-liop-. ami llie cleru'y 'I'he hishop at this 
time \\as Krancis of W'.alileck. a man much in 
cliiii 'I himself to I.uthi rauisin: imieeil, later, he 

pr, lio-eil to suppri — I ilholii i-m in the i lion se. 

lis he wanieil to s. i on it ami appropriate it as 
ii po-si-~ion to li, I itiiily, MovioMT. ill l.'dh 
he joineil the i'l'ii^tatit primes in a leaLoic 
!iL'ain--t the ( atholie- , hut heili.tnot want thiiiL^s 

to lllo\e too f.i-t. Ie~t hi -|„,uli| not lie ulili' to sC- 

1 are the weallh\ See as pe'-iinal properly, 
Kiiippi riloiliiiL' ::oi a \ouiiu' prii-l, nameil Kott 
maim, to preach in one of the cliunhi - a:;ain-l 
the errors of ( 'ailiolii i-m. anil he a man of 
sucli liery eliiipiiiiie that he-iiirtil up a mnli 
wliieli ru-heil throuuh the touii. wriikiii:: liie 

ihlirelles, Tlie Ilioll lieialUe ilaily more liarill.' 

anil threateniui.' They ilrove tin- priests out of 

the liiHIl, anil some of llie Wealthy cili/l Ils lllil, 

tut k:i"Win_' uouM follow' The hisliop 
wmil'l liaM- X ieiiiiil to , all the rcliLrioiis innova- 
tion- il llie rioter- hail not tlircalemij hi- tetn 
poral pii-iiion ami revenue. In l"i:i,'tlie pa-ior, 
Itoitniiini, 111 i:,iu to pri ach ai:aiii-t the hapti-iu 
of int ml ' l.uilii T w fiiie to him remon-tratiiiij. 
hut in \,ii!i 'I'll' !'i-hiip \va- lliiI in the town; 
he wa- ai .Mimli n, of which See he Ha- liishop as 
Well, fihiiidj lh;lt the to\viiw;l- in t he hjuiils 

<if Knippi T'lotlin.; anil Uoitiuanu. w ho \vcre con- 

ti-catini: the j i- of the churchi -. ami evcluil- 

inir those who woiiM not ;iL^rec wiih their opin- 
ions, the hi-liop aiUaticcil to the phice :lt liie 
heail of some soMii r- .Mi'msier < loseil its iratc^ 
iiilainst him. Ni L'oiiations were cutercil into; 
the I,:miiirrave of lie— e w .i- calleil in as paciliia 
lor. .ami articles of ai;ric iiiiail wire drawn up 
iimi sji.'::c-c!. Some of »!;',- churche.s went L'ivcn 

I to the Lutherans, hut the Cathrdrnl w.ts rcservnl 

for the I'atholii s, ami the l.ulherans were Im 

I liidili 11 to moll -I the fitter, and di-turh their r 

j liLTioii- service - The news of the cduvcrsinn i,i 

I the city of ,\lunstiT to the cospel spri'iicl. at; 1 

siruiL^crs calcic to it from all parts. .Xtnni, 

llie-e \v.ts;i tailor of l.eydi II. called .Tohn Uotki 

I son, Kottmann now threw up his I.ulher;iiii~i i 

I :inil procfiimeil hiiiise If oppose d ill m.aiiy of tl: ■ 

doctrines which hutlicT Still ict.iinee!. Anions ■: 

oMier thiiiL's he rejected wa- infant hapti-m 

This e rcatid a split aim ir the reforme d in .Milt,- 

tl r, :ind the cli-iildifs foke out afri-h. '11,1 

iiiiib now Ml on the cathedral ami drove tl,i 

i (';cthiilics from it. and wcaild not permit llieau I.- 

worslii|i in it. They also invaded the Lulherc 

churches, and tilled them with uproar, (In th 

c-\eiiiiii: of .hinuary "is. l,"i;il, the .Vtmhapti-' 

stretched c li;iins ;ie fuss the' slrec'is. a— enihled ) 

armed hands, elo-cd the iraies and placed se ir; 

He Is ill all dire e-lions, \Vlicn day dawned the i 

appeared sudeieniy twej men dre-scd like IVopii 

e-ts, with loni; rai^L'ed heards and llow ini^ tn:i:i 

tics. stalT ill h;itid. w ho paced lliroiigh the stni i- 

solemnly in the midst of the crowel, who huwi t 

hefore them and siiluted thean ets Knoch an I 

Klias, These men we-re .lohn Ilockc Isoii, th. 

tailor, and one .lohn Miiitheson. hc'eicl of the .\na- 

li.aptists of liolLind, Knipperclollin).' at ciiiee a- 

sociated hiiii-i If with them, and shortly th- 

pl:ii e- was a scene cif the wildest eestacies. .^Il ;, 

and wcimeii ran ahout the streets screaming' .ani 

li apiiiLT. and cryinir out that they saw visions ni 

aiii;els with swordselraw II uruiiiir tliein on to tlii' 

c-XtiTlniiiation of l.tltherans and Catholics aliki 

. . . .\ miinlier of citi/en- well' cirivea. ici' 

on il hittiT chiy. w lieai the l.ind w;is cii\ereal w il!i 

snow. Those- who laL'ired ware he, ale n; llio-i 

w ho wa-re sick witc carrie el to I'le market jilai e 

and re liapti/.ed hy Itoiiiuanu. . . . Thiswastio 

much to be home. The lii-hoi) an arinv 

eiiid m:ircheil a^rainst the city. Thus lieu'an ■ 

sicL'e \\ liicii w,i- to l;l-t sixteen nioiit Ils. dlirilij 

which a niultitiiile if imtrained fanatics, coia 

I maiidid by a Ihiti h t.aiior, held out ai;aiti-t .i 

j iiunicroiis and well ainieel I'lirif, Thcncefi.iMi 

! the city was ruled hy divine revehition-, ii 

j rather, hy the cr.i/.c- of the eli-ea-ed lirain- if 

I the piiip'hi 1- (tnc day they deel.ale'd that ii'l 

j the ollieei- ;nii| inaLM-Irati s w e I'e to he tui-ai 1 

i out of till ir oitii 1'-. .and mill noniiiiateel hy tin i. 

! -eU.s Were to take their phice-, another i! . 

.Mallhe-ou said it w;is revcided to him ti,, 

every I k in the town c\ci pt tin- liihle w,i- ■ . 

he de-iroyid; :iccoriliiiLdy all the archive- ,,: 
litir;irie- wiTc i-olleaaeii in the inarkil piJii e c . 
huriit The 11 il wus revealed to him that all i 
spires we-re- to he pulled clown; so the c-hu: 

tii\M IS were reclined tostnnips, from w llii li ' , 
enemy could he w. Itched ;ind Whence e al.n 
' could play oil the-lii. One- efiy In- dc-elalcil 
had heen ordered h\ lleaven to l'o forth, wi' i 

promise of \iitiil-y. ;tiraill-t lln- hesicijers 11 

. d.i-heel hirth:it the head of a lar;re hand, hut w 
'■ -urroumli el and he- and his hiiiid -lain. T' 
death of Mattiie-iiii struck cli-may into ; 
he-:irfs of the .Vii;ihapli-ts. hut .lohn Hocki 1 
took advantage of the niotnent to estahii-h f 
self as lie:nl. He clcclarcil that it was rcvi c ; 
111 him th.-it Matthi'son had hei-ii kille-d hecau-. : 
! had disiilieycd the- heavenly i innmand. wf 
j was to ;:o forth with few. 'ln-ti;iel of Ihat , 
had i-'eenti with tiianv. U'jckels!!!! said h-.t !; 



tMiM nnlrrcil in vWion tii marry M.iltlicsnn's 
willow Mii'l MsMiiiic lii-i |ila<('. It wiiM furtliiT rr- 
vi.ilr.l Ici liirii that .MCiii^tcr \va< In lie the 
hi :iM iilv Zinn. tln' capital of tin- rarih. air! h'- 
«:,> III hr liiiiir (Uiril. . . . Tlnn lir liail an- 
i.ihir nviilatiiiii tlial ivi ry man was in have as 
iii:iii\ wives as )m' lil\ril, ami lir L^■(\■r liiinsflf 

>i\jirii -Aivcs. Tliis was t titraL'<-i>iis tnr 

Millie iiieniliire. aiiil a jilut was tnnneil au'ainsi 
JiiiH ny a lilaelismiili ami aliciul ','ull,if the limre 
n-|ii 'lalile (ili/eiis, lull it was Ij u~i laieil ami 
li.l '. tlie sii',riiii' ipf llie ennspiralors anil the 
. \i I'litinii of a luiiiilier of ihein \t last, 

iiM IlliiUllMinier eve. 1."):i(i. after a sie^'e nf siMeell 

iTiiinllis. tile city was taki n. Se\eral of the 
eiti/ens. iiiialile lonirer to eiiilm-e the tyranny, 
eriit llv anil ahoininatioiis cmiiinilieil hy the killer. 
I„ l|ii il Ilie soldiers of tlie prince lpis||,i|i to i liinh 
the walls, open the L'iltes, ami surprise the city 
.\ desperate hand to hand liirlil eiisiinil: tiie 
streets ran with IiIcmmI. .lolin IJockelson, instead 
of leailin;; his people, hid himself, Init was 
(,ni::l.t. So w,as Knippt-rdolliiiL''. When the 
pill !■ was in his hands ihi' prince hishop en'eri'il. 
.liilia of l.eydeii and Knipiienhilliiif; were cruelly 
terlared, their tiesh pluckcil olT with red hot 
pincers, and then a dairiri'r was thrust into their 
hiarts. Finally, their lunli. s were huni; in iron 
cairi^ to the lowiTof a chiin h in .Miinsler. Thus 
< tilled liiis hideous d.aina, which produced an 
iii'Ii-eriliahle elTcct throll;;llout (fcrmany. Miins 
iir. alter Ihis. in spile of the desire of ihi' [irinci ■ 
lii^liiip to est.ililish l.utherani-m. re\erted to 
(■jilMiiicisin, and remains Catholic to this day. 
- S. l!iirinu;-()ould, /'At .^Imi/ •/ (iiniiiiny, r/i. 

.\iso IN ; r.. '• ■ Hankc. ///vr, ..ft!,, l!,f,rn„i- 

•:...,; i;.n^„,,. ■■ (I.,-/, ,:■.' —C. 'Heard, 

7',,„i;,.i, i/lilAif /. . , lss:;i 

ANAESTHETICS, The discovery of. 
Si I Ml nil w. Si I,: I'.iiii Crsii nv. 

ANAHUAC- -The word .\nahuac si;;nilles 
' III ar Ilii- walir.' Il was, proliahly, tirst applied 
III lie- inUMlry around the Ukt s in the ,Me\iean 
Valli-\. aiiil LTradually « \temlcd t<i the remoter 
rei:ii'iis ocinpied by the A/tci-s. and the other 
SI lai livilizid races. Or, piwsilily, the name 
nia\ have iieca intended, as Vi-ytia sui^iresis 
illi-i .\iitii(,, lib. 1, cap. Ic to deiioie the land 
111 : .\ !i the waters of the .\ilanlic and l*acili(," 
--\\, II, I'nscott, (■■in'i'iiKlni- .]t'.ri-o,i,;.. !,,■'(. 1, 
;e-. II -See .Mi-.xio.: A. I ). l:i'-'a-15()-,>. 

ANAKIM, The. Sec IIoihtks, and Amou 
111 • 

ANAKTORIUM. ;se,. K.iukvka. 

ANAPA: A D, 7828.— Siege and Capture. 
—Cession to Russia. .See 'I'cuks A 1). is.'ii 

ANARCHISTS.— •• The anarchists are . . , 

a -' ' 11 liui dell rmined hand VlihoUL'h 

till M iirnjramme may he found almost word for 
-■■"i in I'roud Lon. ihev |Uol'es>, to follow more 
' 1 - ly liakiiiimiie. the Uussian nihilisi. who sep- 
Il i I I hiiu-ilf from Mar.K and the Internationals, 
! ! 'I'lnieil secret societies in Spain, Sw it/erlaiid, 
I'liiiie, and elsewhere, and thus propa^'.Uid 
aliili^iie views; for anarihy and nihilism are 
'ii'iy lamh one and the same thing when 
.:! :.Ii-!ii is undcrstiNid in the older, stricter 
■lie, nliieh docs not include, as it does 
'a I lari;er and mon' miMlcrn sense, 

i - -vlio are .simply political uud coustituti"'iai 

! I ;'::;: rs [,-t,-;»; pviticr KfapolLille, i5aktn,,L,at; 


rimie of an old mid iiromiinnt Uiissian family; 
like him, he revolted av'aiiist the cruelties anil 
injustices he saw ahoiii hini; like liiin. he de- 
spaired ..f peace till n-l.irni, and 1 -m liidi-d thai no 
L'reat iiiipMvi nieni eould he cxpictid iiiiiil all 
our pri SI HI piiliiieal. I eiiiioniic, .ind soei.d iusii 
till ions were so thorouL'hly deinnli^lii-il ih.ii of the 
old striieliii-e mil one stone slmuld lie left on 
amilli(-r. 'tut of the ruins a n :;• iH-raled wnrM 
miiiht ari^e. We mu-' he |iii'-l;i d as hy lire, 
[.ike '11 auarchisis and true nihilists, he was u 
tliiiroui.'li pessimist, as far as our present manner 
of life \\as cniiccrnetl. [{caciiiiu a::aiiist eonser- 
vatisni carried him very far. lie wished to 
abolish private property, slate, and iiilji-riiaiicc 
Kipialitv is III be carried so tar that all miisi wear 
•he same kind of ilnihiiiL'. 110 diTeniue beinjr 
inadee\ci lii.-se.\. Ueliu'ion is an aberration of 
the brain, and shuuld be aboli-hi d. Fire, dyna- 
mile, and assa— inaliuii are approved of hy Ht 
least a lar^'c number of the party. They are 
brave men, and li!_'hi bir their failh with the 
devotion of martyrs. Imprisoiimcnt and death 
are counted but as rewards. . . . l-'uriy-sevcn 
- archisis siirned a decl.-iralion of principles, 
whii h was n-ad by one of their number at their 
trial at Lyons. . . . 'We wish liberty [they 
del l.ired] and we bi-iievc its cvisteiice im-om- 
palitile \vilh the existence cf anv power what- 
{ sii, \er. whatever its oriL'in and form — wliethtr 
il be sell eteil or imposi-il, im inaichii al or re|iiil)- 
lii au — wl-.tlii-r inspired I., divine ri;:ht or by 
popular riirht, by anoinlmcnl or uiii\crsd sulf- 
raLTc. . . . Tlie lie^t Lriivemmenls are the wuist. 
Tliesulisiiiiiiiiin. in a wmil. in human n-laiinMs. of 
free conir-ii t per|ietuallv revi~able and ilis-.iiluble, 
i^ our ideal,'-- I!, T i;iv. Fr, „■■/. ,/„./ ii,,„„i,i. 
S.ri.ii;,,,! il. M ■,!. n, 'l'i„.'... .-h. ■<, — ■■ in anarchism 
we have ihe , Airenie .-intiihc^ii of .soei.ilism and 
conuuuni-m. -soii.ilist de^iri-s so to e-\tend 

the spill re of tale lliat it sll.lll 1 lllbnice all 

Ihe iiiiiie impor ciinecrns of lib-. The com- 
muiiil. al lea-l of the older -i-honl. wmilil make 
till- sway nf aulhiility and Hie niulinc w lui h bil- 
lows I he re from uiii\i-rsal. Tin- a nan- hi ^i, on the 
other I'aliil. wiiiild banish all birinsnf aiilhinily 
and h.i\eon'' aNv>li-miif Ihe nin^t pi-i-fi ei, lib- 
eily Thi aiiarihi-I is an cMieiiie iiiiiividual- 
i>i, , . . iiarchi^iii. as a sii( iai ihi iiry. Was lirst 
I laliiirati ly tnrinulalcd liy I'rouilhon. In the 
liist part of his work. 'Uhat is rioperly '.'' he 
biiill\ siaiid the dm trine and i:a\e it the name 
'an.iii li\-.' atisenei- of a ni.i^ier or ^o\ereii'n. . . . 
.\biiul i,' years b, ii.i-i- I'rouilhon pulili-hed his 
view ^. .1 1 i>i,iii \\ ,11 iiu ri ached similar coiiclusii ins 
in .\ini-rii a, ' — 11, 1,, (KLTood, Sri\ ntttii: Aimrrfi- 
i.'ii, il''l. >.-,'. (h,n! . ,1/,/,.. Issi.ii, 1,^1 l_o_Si-e, 
also. Niiiii.i~M. and Sdi i.u. .Movi:\, 

ANARCHISTS, The Chicago. See Cm- 

I ,M.O; .\ 11, lssi;-|ss7. 

ANASTASIUS I., Roman Emperor lEast- 
ern.) A |l lIM "ils . Anastasius II., .V. I). 

ANASTASIUS III., Pope, A, D !in-!)13 
Anastasius IV., Pope., A D. 1 1 .1;!-! 1 .>4 

ANATOLIA. Se Asiv Minou, 

ANCALITES, The,— .\ iribi- of ancient 
Itr.liMis whii-e Inline was near the Thames. 

ANCASTER, Origin of. See vaimnv.k. 

tile and iieaecablc lowlands of Knirland . . . 
o He red bw spots sulliciently wihl and lonely for 
lac habiiaiioa ot a iicriiiii ; those, thcrcioru. 



■I it 

'^ if 



who wishi'd Id n tin from i1m> wcrM iiili> ii iiioru I 
strict and >ulitMrv life than lliat which the inoii- j 
artery allonlcil were in tlic haliit of iiiiiniiriiii; 
themselves, as aiielinrili's, i>r in olil Kni:li-h 
■.Viikers.' in little lells of sliine. Imilt usually 
against the u.dl I a church. There is nuthiiiu' 
new under thisuu and aiKhnriles niit'hl 
l.ave heen sei 11 in KL;>ut. .'iiiii .lars lii fore the 
tinw "I St. .\nl.iii\. iinniniid in cells iti the 
t. ni|.les ,>1 I-is III- >. raids. It is mdy recently 
ithat anti.|iiaries hav( discmcri-d hnw 
Ulns |iraeii, , in Kn^land. and liuw freiiueiitly 

llnetlac, s .if Ihes,- cells .iiv l.i hi f.ilind almnl <»IV 

[>iri-h (hutches, '--(■. Kin:.'sl,\. Tl,. Iln-iuiix. 
/. :i'.'ll --'I'lie leini am h. .lit.- is a|i|died. gener- 
.illv tn all rrliL,' asceiics who live. I in solitary 
.,||s -.1. IJiii-liani, .1 '•/■/. ■[I'IIk Clin^li.n, CI. . 
hi,- 7. ./. I. ,.,! I — The e^Miitial dilfi reiue 
li.tiWiii an anker ctr anciiori'e and a hertnit 
appc.iis to llavr heen tliat. whereas till Ion. ler 
|,a-. dhi- whole life -hut up in a ic 11. the latter, 
alth.'U.h I. .■idinir inileedasolitarv life, w.llldered 
..I.MUlal liherlv. --1! U. .s.hal|.e. /..', >■■ ■■(',il,i,- 

.>,ii-,.r u.''. i„ f!.,' r,,,i,t ,■/ ii'i<i(,ri. /...(,</"/.." 

•,*'.(' \ \i 

ANCIENT REGIME.— The i.olilhal atid 

sdci.d ~\-i.iii in i'i. that disiroNcd hy 

ihe lev .Inii t ITsti is icumnotdy lelerrnl to 

asti.e " aiieien reuiine Some writirs tran-l.iie 
this in tlie lit.ral r.iijlish form — "the iiin ic an 
n -iuM ; ' others render it tnon a|M'roiiriaIel> . 
lierh.ips, tlic ■ol.l r. iriine, ■ lis sjk . applit a 
lion is to thi- slate of things descrihed under 
fi^w. r .\, 1> ITsn, 

ANCIENTS, The Council of the. See 

I'liW. 1 .\ I>. lT!l."il.ll \K — M.fri MllKlll. 

ANCRUM, Battle of - .\ success ohtaind 
In iS> -Moi- .o,v all laii^li-h force making' an 
ilieiii-i' I. iiitotli. lionhTdl-lrielsollheircunlry 
.V Ii. loll .1 11 liurton. //,.,/. ../.s,„(,'./„,/. ,7,. 

ANDALUSIA: The name.- Ihe Vandals. 

. . . ihiiU.h llev |M--i d allo-ether out of 

>|iain. have leli their name to iliis day in its 
soiiiheiii pari, nil. ler th. form ..f .\iiddnsia. a 
nam.' wliiih, niid.r th.' >.ciai.ii . ■■ininerors. 

s|iria.l itself ovir the whole p. liill-ula. ' — K. .\. 

fr. . man. Ili.-l' (o •■•,'. ■■! /•'■■<■ ^ '.. -1. .«..7, :i. 

— >..■. llso; VvMMI.s. .V II. 1-.'^ - Itoii-hly 
»|i..ikini;. .\ii.lalu-ia r. pre-, iits ih.- ciuntry 
kn..wn to the anci. nts, hrsi. as I'ail.-.ssiis, ami. 
lalir. a- Tunielani i 

In on fill .\iioi:i..i\ M. iMnnii \m~, 

ANDASTES, The. Se. .\ .xn .\noiii 

OIM - 'SI ■.','1 1,11 \NN \s 

ANDECAVI.Th. ancient name .if the city 
• it ,\iij. r-. I'r.iiii.'. aii.l of the trilie wiiich oci n- 

|.i.d II1..I f jioll. See Vl.M 11 OK WlslKllN 

t; M I. 

ANDREDSWALD.-.\ ;;re.,i foi, si an- 
ci, iiil\ ->!i 1. hi i| .11 ros, Sune». Miss.A ami into 
Keiii i-o',; le .1^1. Ill I'.nulaiidi was 1 ailed .Vnih'riiia 
jsv l\ I li\ ilii lionnii- and .Vndr.dsw aid liy the 
Sa\"ii-,' li loin, i.lid nearly with the iract of 

conillll I. died In nioileni times the \Vi,dd <if 

Kent, to whiili it ^avi its name of the Wald or 
iViald On the soiithirn coast lior.lir of the 
.\nderida Sylv.i lie Ih.nialis cstalilished the ini- 
|iortatit lortri--aiid ^orl ol .\ndi rida, w lui h has 
heen iilelltilieil Willi modern reviTisi\ Here 

Ihe Koni.iiiodirnons n.adi an i.iistiiuiu* siaiid 



acaiust the Saxons, in the fifth leiitiir nil An 
(lerida wasonlj taken hy .Kile ilftlT 11 lo u sie^i 
Ii -rds lif the t'lir'oiiicle, 11h' Sa.\ons "sleu 

wi-rc therein, nor wiis there lienceforih 
loll lift.— .1. U. GriTn, Thf M.ikiim f 

,1: I 

.\i,sii i.s T. Wright. Ctlt. Homiiii, and Sir.'ii. 
,■!,. :, 

ANDERSON, Major Robert.— Defense of 
Fort Sumter. Si.' LMii t>SrATK»iiF Am , .\ 1) 
isiiii ,|)|..( KMiniii: isiil iMmkii— Ariiii.). 


I'l;i-o\s VMI I'lltsoN I'l NS, C.iNFKlltn.VTl;. 


The. S. r Vi sKTi of WKsriii.N (Jai I. 

ANDORRA.- A little s. mi n piihlic in ifi 
S]ianish I'j fences, F.njoying a 1 ertaiii self l'o. 
I riiini lit sin. a- 'he Kreii. h Hcv.ilniion. it is pr . 
tically a pari of Spain 'I'lie inhahitanis a: 
exempt. hi/wi\i r. from Spanish ions, lipi ion 

ANDRE, Major John. S. e IMii n Simi - 

OK .\M : .\. Il i;so I Al 1,1 -l—SlI'lKMllKI; . 

ANDREW I., II,, and III,, Kings of Hun- 
gary, -V I). l"li;-liiiio. l-.'"l l-,':ri, l'J!)M--i:liii 

ANDRONICUS I., Emperor in the Ea t 
iByzantine or Greeki. .\. D 11^:1 lis"). 
Andronicus II. iPalaeoloeusi, Greek Emperor 
of Constantinople, A li I'.'sj l;;,'s An- 
dronicus III. iPalffiologus), A. I) l:l> 1:111 

ANDROS, Governor, New England and 
New York under. S. . Ni;w Km.i aso. A 1' 
lilsii; MvssA. iiisKris: A. I). IhTl Hi-ii; n. I 
liisti KiMI; Ni:w VoiiK: .\. I). W^X: and ( os 
NKi rn 1 r; A, I). lll-«"i Iti'-r. 

ANDROS, Battle of (B. C. 4071. S, 
Ciiiiai.: li C. Ill HIT 

ANGELIQUE, La Mtre. See I'oin ISovm 

AMI Till, .Ussl.MsIs, A. I). li;il-J-lliliO. 

ANGERS, Origin of. See \ KsiriiiK W 1 -i 

PIRE. Se. Km, UNI); A. I>, Ih^il-UMI. 
ANGHIARI, Battle of 114251. See Ir\n 

A. n inj-iiiT. 


tioll of the .\n:;les hy Tai II lis is in the follow i:.. 
pass;i^'e: •■Ni\i |to the !.anu.iharili| <oiiiei':' 
Ueudi.L'lli. the .Vviones. the .\ni;lii, the Valilii, 
the Kiiiloses. till' Snardoii. s. an.l .Nuithoiics, w iio 
are fen. -.-.l in hy ri\ersor forests. Noneof t!i>- 
trihes Iiave any noi.-w.irthy f.-alnrc, cvcept ihu 
coiiiinoii worship (,t i;rtha, or mother Karih. n . 
till ir helief that she inierposes in human all m- 
and ■. isiis the 11. (lion- in her car. In an isl.ii, i 
theoci;iii there is a sacred grove, and within 
a .onsccratcd chariot, covered over with a .' 
mint. (Inly one priest is pirmitted to toin h .' 

lie call perceive the presence of tin goildcs- I 

this saci'il recess, and walks hy hi r sidi \v •, 
' the utmost rcverenc as sin- is .Irawnalon^ 1- 
il. ilers. It is a season of r.'j.iieing, and 1. si n ■'. 
r. i;;ns wheri-versli.' .hignsto go and he n c. i\ : 
Tliev do not go ill hattle or wear anus. I. 
weapon is imiiir loik;]ieace and i|niet an ■ . 
coined only at these tiim -. till the L'oddess. u. 
ol liumiin int.-nours.-. is al length .! 
Ihc .s.imi- priest to her 11 liiple. .Vfl.Twaid 
. car. the vcstnieiits. and, if \ 011 like to hi In v 
the ili\ iiiily liersi If. are puiilied in a si en 1 1 
Slaves perforin Ihe rite, who an' instantly - 
lowed up h\ its watirs, lleliec ari.Hcs a \n\ ' 1 
iiius terror and a pious iu'norance coiieeriui 
iialuic o! that w hi. h is .si c !i ..niv iiy mc:i dc :: 




ti.ilii' Tlii^lininchimkcdnf tlir Stipvi stn-trlics 

iiitc, ilicn'Mintcr rcx'iDMSdf (JiTinaiiy."— Tiuiliis, 
i;,:-'iniiiii: Iniim. Ill/ Vhiirrh ninl lirmliiltli, ch. II). 
- •■ In (liw nei.irlil)imrlii)<)il witli llic Siixcuis in 
t!„- iniilillfiif tlir fourth (fiitiiry wire tlir Aiii,'li, 
;i trilii' wluisi' (irisrin is iiiori' niinrl.iin and tlic 
HP|ilii:iti"n (if wliDSi' iiiinir is slill nmrf ii nmtliT 
111' ciur^iion. irtlic riiinw ImLiiihs. in till- piiiius 
iif 111.' sivi'ral !;c"!.'r:i|ilirrs, tn the Ninic nation. 

II \v;i« -itiiali'il in till' time of Tai iliiscast of tlir 
i;ii.i.; ill till' time of I'tolriiiy it was fouiul on 
ilii' iiiiiMlL' i-'JIir, liclwi'.'n till' 'riiiirinL'ians tn llic 
..iiitli mill till' Varini to tlir imrtli; ami at a later 
|,,'rii»l it was f.irnil. pirliaps liy tlir ixlovvtli of 
llir 'riiiiriii^'iaii jiowcr. into ilji- neck of the I'iin- 
liiie i.eiiin^iila. It may, however, lie re,i>.;nalily 
,|nii! wliilhcr this liy|iotlii'-is i^ si.iin.l, anil 
ii i, li'. no niean^ elear whether, if it he so. the 

.\;;_'!i were n •! colllleeleil mole (losely with the 

Tliiiriiii:i:iii>tliaii with the .Saxons. To the north 
,if ilie .\iiiili, after they hail ii'ai hcil their Sehles- 
«i.- h.iiiie. were the jutes, of wIiom' early liis- 
t.irv ue know uoihin.!.', cxrept their i iaims to he 
riLirili'la^ kinMui'U of the (iotlis and the elo.-.i' 

^iniiiilily l»et\\eeU their lle^eellilallts and the 

aii^lilioiir l-'ri-ians."— \V. Stuhhs, i'u^yi. Hist 
../ A'..'.' , i\ 1. i-fi. A — " Important a^ ari' thi' An 
_■!,,. ii K iioi too niueh to say that they arc only 
i.ii.'un ihi'iiiL'h their relations to ns of K.n','land. 
Ill' ir ill -I em lain ^; indeed, w it hi 'lit thi- paramount 
Int. tliey wiiuld he lialile to he eolifuMil with 
III' Fri>i:iii~. w illi the ( )lil S:i-\ons. and w iili even 
>' n 'iiiiii.'., 'I'lii^ is ehietly lii'i aiise lliere is no 
v.ii-l.iiinrv trail' or fra^'iniiit of the Aii'.;li's of 
le niiiiiv within tierinany ; u liilst the noiiee^ nt 
ii. .iiliei- writer- of antiii'uity tell u-a- little i,- 
'h. mie \vi liml ill Taiitiis. .\nd thi- notiei' is 
1. 't milv hri. f hut iMiupliiated. . . . 1 still think 
Illi 111" .\ll-'li of ■I'aeilus Were— I: The .Vimles 
iif I'.iiuiiiiii . ■-': Oeeiipant^ of the northern parts 

III llniivir. :i. At least iii the time of Tai itus; 
t, \iii| ihat to the iM'lu-iiin of any territory in 
ll'ii-iiiii, whiih was l-ri-iau to IJie west, and 
■-iiviiiiii to the east. Still the uni -tion is one of 
.ri i! niiLMiitude and numeroiis complications. '' 

-II, Ii. Latham. yVii 11, nmiiiii nl' 'I'lii'idix; Kinl- 
. "... .<. ,-"V. 411. 
.\i -.1 IN .1, -M. t.appenhcri;, ///1^ ";' A.'//'/. «'"'"' 

■. .1,. '. s,.',.., AVi.y... '■. 1, yjK Sll-'.I.V— See. 
il-i .\\loM.-.. and SwoNs — Theconipie-t.- and 
-. Itli nil III- n| Ihe .lutes ulid the .Vliules in Hril 

'11 in iie-iiil.ed under Km.umi: A. I), -liy- 

;: ; ii.ii i;:t:t. 
ANGLESEA, Ancient. See Mos \. .Monmma, 

; N"l; I\Ns sin 1)111 Ci-.M 1 illi.s. 
ANGLO SAXON.— A term v.hicli may he 

I iii-iiii I' d as a compound of -\nL''Ie and S,i\nn. 
til. II. mil - of the two principal 'reuloiiie Iriln- 
i.vdii li i.iiik pi.--|is-.ii.n of llril lilt and formed liu-!i aa'ii'ii liy iheir ultima I e uninii. \> tlia- 

li-ii!id and u'-ed to de-i'/n:ile tile T'lee. Ilie 

i iii-"i.ij' a 11' I the ill-tit II lion- w hiili re-u lied friiiu 

'ill' ll'ij 111. il i- Only ol»)ie!iiia.lti!e. pilh.ip'. ,is 

i'' iiii; -i;;i' rlluiiii-, hceaiise r.ii;:ii-li i- the ar- 

"|''|'l iiinie of the people of Kii-'lalid and all 

I'l r' liiiiiii: lo liii'ui. liiit the term .\ii.:Io Savon 

ill- li-i. heeii more particularlv eTii|ili'\ed i.i 

i!-i'iiiii !lie Iviily l';n:.'li-li piopleaii'd tlnir 

'il It. . Ill fi lie the .Norm. in lompn-l. as 

i-iiil.iv v'.iri' .\iii.'Io Sasmi at period 

I me i:ii'_-li-li alierward-. Modern hi- 

iii-.ile lirote-tiiij- stronelv lorainst this u> 


n rill. .Mr. Krecman (A")'h(./)i f'/Jo/'C'.r, c. | rii 


1, nn^' .1). says: "Thi" namo hy which our 
fonfiithcrs rially knew themselves and liy which 
tliev weri' known to other nations was Kn^'lish 
iinii no other. '.Viiirli.' 'Kn«le,' '.Vnadcyn,' 
' Kni;lisc, ■ arc the true natnes hy wliicli the Ten- 
toiisof liritain knew Ihcmselvcs and Ihiir laii- 

j;ua!:e \s a chionolo!.'ii'al term. .V'l^lo- 

.Sa.von is ripially ohjectionahle with Sa.xou. The 
■.\ni:lo-Saxon pcriml.' as far as there ever was 
one. is iroini; on slill. I speak therefore of our 
hirefathcr.-, iioi a- •Saxon-,' or even as ' AtiL'li) 
Saxons,' hill as they spoke of them-clves. 
as KiiLdi-hmeu — '.VuLdi.' 'Kii^de.' — ' .\iu;el- 
evn."'-Si'e. al-o. S.\\oN>, and .Vsoi.i.s .\.si) 
.It r: -. 

ANGLON, Battle of.- Koiil-Iii in .Vrmenia. 
\. 1> ."it:', hi twei II ih, l!oman> and Hie I'er-iaiis. 

ANGOLA. The naine now iiiveii to the ter 
ritory whiili ilie I'orliu'iiese have on u pied on 
the western 1 oa-t of South .\fiiia since the Ulih 
century, extendi. il; froiii t!ie (' iii:;o Free Mate, 
on the north, to Itamaialaii.l. i.ii the south, with 
an interior lioiindiry that i- -oi.i. w hat iii.l. linite. 
[i i- divi.i.'d ill*" tiiiir di-tri. I-. r.iiiL'o. I.oaiido, 
III iiL:u.'!a an. I .N|"-saiuedi - 

ANGORA, Battle of (1402). S. e Timoi 11; 
i.'iso. Tt uKs: A. I>. l:isti 1 In-. 

Battle of. Si. '.Mix A I). ls|i; isi;, 

ANGRIVARII, The. -The An;;rivarii wire 
.111.' .if III.' nih.'-.if am lent (J. rniaiiy. Tli.'ir >. I 

III III. lit- were to the west ot the Wc-i 1'. See 

!!i',i . Ti':iii 

ANL -Storming of the Turks. (1064). S'.'b 
Ti UK-. .\. 1'. |iiii.,^lo;:i. 

ANILLEROS, The. See SruN: A. 1>. 

ANJOU: Creation of the County.— Origin 
of the Plantagenets. — " li the p..liiy of 
this unfairly depr.iiati'd sov.'reiL'n [I liarl.'^ the i;ranil-on of ('harleinai;iie, who reiiived 
in thedi-meinherineut ol ili.'l'arl.'Viniriau lOmpire 
111.' .N'ciisirian part. out ot -.v hich wasdevi lo|ie.l the 
m.nli'rn kinplom of France. and w h.i r. iiiind fr.nn 
.sliitosTT]. to ri'iTuit the failini; ranks of 111.' false 
aii.l deirein'rate Fr,inki-h ari-im racy, hy callini; 
up to his pcer:ii;c tlic wi-e. lie ahie, the hon.'st 
and Ih.' ..f i^Miohl,' liirlh. . , . He >.iii:;ht 
to surrouii.l hiniM'lf with new im a, the men 
without anci-iry; ami Ihe earli.'-i of 
III.' lliii;-.' of .\'iijiiu iioili d.'-.rili.'s Illi- sy.-tem 
and alloi'ds Ih.' iii'-t spl.n.iid cx,impli' of the 
ihiory ail'ijiii'! h.i lln- kiii-i. I'rc-emincnt 
amoiii:-! till-.' ]iar\.im- w .1- Toniuatus or Tor- 
luifiis. an .\riiiorii'an i.ea-.iiit. a very ru-tic. a 
lia. i;woiii|-m.iii. wholive.ihy hantinu' an. I -u.h 
lik.' ociiip.ili'.i;-. aliiiii-' in s.ililudc, culliviiiini; 
hi- '.piilli I-.' hi- '1 ill iilrii.--.' 'if l.iiid, and driv- 
iinr ill- "M 11 i'\' a liani.— I'l 1" his pl.niudi. Tor 
.|.i,i;i, I i'l I'l I or w,i- ia. ili'.l iiilo llie -erv ice of 
( lia:;.'- |i I'll lUM'. and 1'".' hi::!' in hi- -1 o . r 

. i_'ir- . iiali'li iH'e; a I IMC il lit. a hi lid. and a ;; I 

111, III. 1 hirii- apii'iiiUi d him l''.,i'.'-lir of Ihe 
for. -I .all. I ' Ih.' lilackhir.r- N. -I.' tin' ' in. I .In 
nil ill'.' a |i|. ,1-anl name, lint ill.' l.-s |ili a-.ini i,.r 
jl- tail, ili, nil \ , This happcneii .iuriii:: ilu' .nn 
ili.i- wiih liie Norlhiiie.i. T.'iiiu.iin- -. 1 wd 
I Illi!.'- sir, iiu.iu-ly in the war-, .iiil .liuairn-.l 
':i'.i! aiiihoriiy. Terlullus. son nt' T"r.iii,i!u-, 

illh. ril. d his f, idler s clleril'i.'S. .pli. k a, 1-1 II III.'. 

paiitiii .'[ taiijne. amliitious and aspiiiiiL:; he 
lie. am.' 111.' lii'ireman of Charles; an.i hi- inar- 
iilli I'etrotiilla Ilie Ixiiiu' s cousui. (, ouul 

: \, 


S 't!-^ 

!i i' 



Iliiiih the Atilxil's ilaiiL'lili r. iiitriKluccil liim 

illtl> thr 

very (in .(■ 

i>f IIh 

Laiiil'in :iiiil oihi I' linirlh 

1 faniiiy. Clui- | King John. _S( 

ill the (iJlstilHiiH 



>l liy liiiii. |Ki-.>ilily !h llii' liiily's cover the county 

I IimI alMi WHS 'rirtullus iif tlir 

;iiii|ili' (ia-iinoi-. IrrriloM. 


of 'rcniillii- iiiul I'rtruiiilla. api'iai- a', ilir lirsl 

hiTiililary ('(iiiiil of Amjiiii omrr Maiiu', — Mar- ' whiili proiiui 

A. D. 1304. — Wrested 

' ihn. Sec KiiAM 1;: A. l>. uwi 
1206-1442. — English attem 
— The Third am 
HousesofAnjou.— Creation of the Duked< 

— Kill:; .Inhn, 111' Knu'laml, iliil nut yoliinla 
Miliiiiit ti> tliu Sfiilciiii' 111' tlir priTs of Kra 

the English 


•d hii f..rf, itii 

iif till' tl( 1^ 

quis. Consul itr Couiif nf .Viijoii. — tnr 

all till 


I In hi 

Aiijoii ami .Maim 

'since 111- iiiyailcil iiml ii li 

i.m.l as ll 

TiMi|ualiis niiisl lir 

t'laiii.iiri ml ■ lln- nisii. rimiuatiis fimm 

Vil 111!' |>li>ii!.'liiiiaii i ]iiiss(>~i,>n I 

if .ViiL'iTs aLraiii in I'.'mi. whin, (I 

If pnniaiy 

iiliv. Iircli'incilishi'il ilsani iriil walls, lie lusi ii j 

li.l Ihat llii' In 

•.ir, ail' 

in.ailr no fiinli' 


ml t'aini 

K. "— Sir K. I'ai^r.iyi 

J/i.-l. -f .Vj 

,<l /:„;li„.l. !.k. 1. 

ulti'iiipi upon 11 

mil IJKi. Ill llial year, lia 

Also IN K. Noriratc, Ku-jhiml undif 
I. (■/,. - 

Ml .1/1 

It'll a powcrliil arms , In* lamlcil at Itm'lirlli 
ami ailiially iici.'Upiiil .Vii:;rrs, \yillioiit stril 

a Mow. ISiil 

liii' year VXU lululil hi 

A D. 987-1129.— The greatest of the old 

Counts. — " l-'iilc Ni'rra. Fiilc Iln' lllai k [A. D. 
9M7-|ii|ii| is Uii- irriali si ol lin' .Viil'iv ins. the 
lirsl in whom wr ran iiaii' llial marknl lypr of 
I'liar.iiUT which lluir lioiisr was to pri'siTyf 
Willi a fala! ■oiisiaiiiy lliriMH.'h two liiimlnil 
vcars, lie was wilhoiit naliiral alTi'ilioii. Ill 
Ills yoiilh 111' Imrm ll a wili- al the stake, ami 
li'ijciiil lolil how he liil liiT to 111 r (loom dnki il 
owl ill liis :.'.iyist altin In his \Ad a:,'c he 
waiiiil his bitli rest war iiL'aiiist his son. ami 
t'xacli'ii from liiiii when yainniishcil a humilia- 
tion wliiili 111.11 ri'sirycil for ihc (Icailliisi, of 
tlii'ir fois, ' Von arc compicrcil. you arc coii- 
qiiiTcil: shonliil il;c olil 111.111 ill iicrcc exulta- 
tion, as (icolTry. hri.lli ll :iml snlilliil like ll I'casl 
cif iMinliii. (lawlrd for iianlon lo his father's 
feet. . , . Illll llcillli-r the wralli of Heaycii nor 
the 1 iirses of iiieii hroke lyilli a siii^'lc mishap 
the lil:y yeirsof his success. .\t his accession 
Anjoii "was tlic ll a»i iiiiporlanl of the irrcater 

lirovinci- of rraiiic. At his il.alh il si I. if 

r.ol ill ( Nteiil. at least in real power, first a wf 

them all. . . . His overllirow of ISrillany on the 
field of CoMiiiiereiix was followed liy the ;; 
alisorpiion ol Souihern 'roiiraiiic. . . . His threat 
victory at I'milN vni ( rnslud the rival house of 
Blois;' the sei/iire of S.iiiinur cMiiipIi led his con- 
(liiesi^ in the .Soiilh. while Nortlierii Toiirainc 
was won bit liy bit till o-ily Tours resisted the 
.Xii'-'cvin. Til" ireacherons si i/urc of its Coiint. 
llerlnri Waki iloL'. lilt Maine al his mercy ere 
the iilil man luoui alle d his umiiiished work to 
his ~..!i. ,\~ a warrior, liinlfry .M.irlel was 
hardly inli rior to his f.ither. .Vdeci-iM over- 
tlir.iH w rolcd 'I'liurs from the Coniil of lllois; a 
SCI 'lid left I'oiiou at his mercy; and the seizure 
ol I.- Malls hrnuL'lil him loihe Norman border. 
11,1. , . . his adv.ime Was cheeked by the 
L'ei.i'i- of William the ('Miniiier..r. and with his 

de:i:h ll;e :;|e.tlni v> of" .\l|joll seelMid for lliC 

tine 1'. Iiiv.- clue III an end. Mrippi d of .Maine 
by till- N.iriii.ia-. and wcakeiiid \<\ internal ilis- 
s("n-i..ii-. ilie wc:ik and prolli-'atc adiiiini-iralioii 
of l-'nle III I bin 1, II AnJMU p.iHcile-, ajailist ils 

riv:iN al.rii- Ihe >i inc. ll Woke lo fl'e-h cller^ry 
Willi the ,e e, --i.ia ol liis s.iii, Kule of .lerusalem, 

. . . I'lil, v..i~ ilie liui- I iieiiiy wleiiii lliiiry the 
Kirsi really li iri d ll w.i^ t.i disuiii ' is restl,-^ 

hosliliU lii.i! lie- Kin- I leldrd lo liis s. .11, (o-iif- 

frv lie- ll.iMiK'.ni. . lie- band of bis d.inu-hii r 
Matilda.' ~. I I!, tip rii. .1 .s7,..rt l/;,t',n/ ,f I'l, 
&-/'/.-/' /'- v''. ■■'■. '.'. -■•■' T 

.-\ IS K. N..r;;aie. /:„'/l„„'l n i,'l< r tl„ Ai,'/, - 
Hi, A'/.e.,«. .-, 1, ,-/, ',> -I 

A. D. 1154. The Counts become Kings of 
England. Si i Km.i.ami A. I> I l.-.l-l !>:!). 

once more in retreat from Aiijoii. iicycr ti> rcip- 
pi'ar there, since he died on llie lUth of Octolnr, 
rjlt'i. Ill the person of King .lolii' emicil whai i-, 
called the ' .S coiiil Iloiis(> 7>f Aiijmi.' In PJul. 
after the eonliscations of Jolin'.s Frearli (los,. s 
sioiis, I'liilip Anitiistus osiablislied hcredii.iiy 
seneschals in that part of Krancc, the lirsl .if 
whom was the tutor of tin* iinfortiinatc Youn.' 
.\rtliiir (of Hritt.-iny), named William iles 1!ik la -, 
who was in fad. Count in all cxeept the iiaiui , 
over Aiijoii, .Maine, and Tonrr.iine, owing alle- 
giance only to the crow n of !■' ranee. The .S :i. 
sdial, William (lis Koehes, died in l'."J'J. lli- 
sonin-law, .Vmiiiiry ile Crami, sncceodcd him. ' 
but was soon aflerwariLs taken prisoner dnriiij a 
war in Hrillany and incan crated. Henry 111 
of KiiLdiiii'l still claimed flic title of ConnI .,1 
.\iijoii, ami ill I'-^iO he "diseniliarked a (oioid 
erabic army it .St. Malo. in tin. yiciv of re i .11 
i|Ueriiig.\iijou. iiml the other forfeited possessi. a-, 
of lii.scrowii. l.ouis IX., then only tiifecu years 
old . . . adyanecil tothe attackof theallii s; but 
in the following year a peace w'a.s ('oiicliided. tho 
proyinee of (iuicniie li.iyiiig been ceded to Ih.' 
KiiL'lish crown. In I'.'ll, Louis gave the coiiiiia < 
of I'oiloii aml.\uveri.'m,' to his brother Alphon^", 
ami, ill the year I'-'Hi, lie inycsteil liis bioilur 
Charles, Coirnt of I'royciicc. with the I'ouniii ^ .f 
.\njoii and .M.iiiie, tlicrcby annulling 'he ri' ;; 
anil title of Si-nesdial. amriii.stitiiling the 'lli.:! 
House of .Vnjoii. ( harlca I., the foumlerof 1:.- 
proUil fortunes of this Third House, was i 
liousiii character, an.i evinis long fayoiin.l hi- 
ambili..n. Count of I'rov. lai . thnuiirli th. i; 
hiritance of his consort, had not long b. . ;; 
invi st.d with Aiijiui ami Maine, ere he \va^ i.- 
yited to Ihc compieSt of Sicily [see li\;v 
iSorriiKiiM: A. 1). r,'.">n- 1 '.>(•■> |.' Tin' Tl.:' ; 
Hoiisi of .\nj.iii eiiili ll in thi' person of ,1 r. 
who iiccamc King of I'Vaiin' in lo.'iii. In i i." 
lie iiiM-slcd his son Louis w iih .\ii i"U .'iiid .M lir.- . 
ami in blllO till' laiti r was 1 rcalcd the lirsl M ;;.. 
of .Xiijoii. The l-'ourth House of Anjou, wM li 
lii-v'all Willi tliis first l>uke, eami' to all cud ' o 
ircmratioiis later wiih I!, ne, or Ue.Mjier, - ■' ■ 
■■^' KiiiL' Kcm'. 'of hist. iry and sloiy. ". - 
IviuL^.i.'lll was for the most part a name, .-nul In' 
is 111 -1 kno'.vn lo lai^'li-li rc.elers, pcrliap-, ai 
ihc I'alln r of .Mar:.'ari 1 of Anj..ii. the s' a' 
ll. .,rt, I .pain .d' ll.nry \l. I In tl.j ilea.!; f 
lii^falhi-r, l.ouis, till- seeoliil duke, Ueuij be. . 'm' 
by hi^ falhcr's will Colinl of (illise, his , ; '. r 
tirolher. l.ouis, iiihcrilin;; the dukciloiii. I't 
1 1:14 the br.ilher died without issue and i: ■ ' 
succiedcd him in Anion. Maine and l* a- 
He iiati already become I>uke ut liai, .. - *'■'- 
adopted heir of his greal-unclf, the cai.haal- 




riukr. .iiiil Diikr "f Lorraine lUnili, liy doidnii- 
li.iiidf Ihi' l:i:i' IMikc, wliiisi' (laii<:litiT hr IiikI 
iiiiirriiil III 1 1'l"' 111' rrciivid fri>iii l^nccii 
.Iniiiiii.i .if Naples tile cliiiiliiriil leL'aev «! thai 
ili>traete(l killL^clnlil. wliiell sJli' lia'l previiinsly 
111 .(ueailieil lir'-l, lip Alpliiiii-M cif Arasi'ii. ami 
■ ifiiTwariis — reviikinir'liat te>iaint'nt — (i> Kem'-'s 

hpilller. I.iillil "f AllJiMl. Kin^' ItiMle elljuyeil 

ilir liile iliiriMi; liislilV-tinie. ami llii' actual kiiii;- 
(iiiMi Icr a liiief periixl: Imt in I I p.; lie was ex- 
niliiil frnrii Naples liv liis eonipeiilur Ai|ilioii>M 
(V,. iTAi.v: A. I). I'll'J-lllTi — M. A. Ili»>k 

liaiii, l.ifi iiii'l 'r/iiK.t "/ Miin/iint nf Aiijo'i. 
iiitn'if. iiitit '-h. 1--, 

ANJOU, The English House of. See Knu 

I.AM . .\ I). l|.V-,-l|x!l. 

ANJOU, The Neapolitan Home of: A. D. 
1266. -Conquest of the Kingdom of the Two 
Sicilies. Seell.M.V: A. I>. IJ.",ll-l-'(!H. 

A. D. 12S2. Loss of Sicily.— Retention of 
Naples. See Itm.y: A. I). r>-,' i;li«l. 

A. D. 1310-1382.— Possession of the Hun- 
garian throne. See ill MiMli: \. 1). l:illl-1 44-' 

A. D. 1370-1384.— Acquisition and !oss of 
the crown of Poland. See r(>i,.xM): .\ I) 
l:;:i;i l.-iT','. 

A. D. 1381-1384.— Claims of Louis of Anjou. 
—His expedition to Italy and his death. See 
Itm.v: \. I). i;!i:!-i;!si,» 

A. D. 1386-1399.— Renewed contest for 
Naples.— Defeat of Louis 11. by Ladislas. 
S.r Im.v: A. I), i:!sc.-lllt. 

A. D. 1423-1442.— Renewed contest for the 
crown of Naples.— Defeat by Alfonso of Ara- 
gon and Sicily. See Italy: A. I). l4rj-14tT 



ANKERS. See Anciioiutf.s. 

ANNA, Czarina of Russia, A. I>. 1730- 

ANNAM: A. D. 1882-1885. -War with 
France.— French protectorate accepted. See 
]"i;\N I .\ l>, IHT.viss!). „nil 

TioN \l..iini\ : .\mkiiic \ : .\. |). ls|.-, 


I \ .. .\ I). iro-'-iTn». 


pra' liee Ii;h] existed s<inie hiiailreils iif years, 
ia;illilie iliurehes iif Kiirupe. tliat l)i>li.ips ami 
;iri hliMiops. nil presentation to ♦! ir s.,..; ...IkiiiIiI 
tri!i-iaii to ilic- pope, on reeti.i'. . tlieir Imlls ol 
inv. -till, III. one year's ineonie from their new 
pn 1. 1, Hints, l! was called llie payim nt of An 
nii.v, ,,r first frnils. and liad ori.'inatid in the 
linn- nt the eni>aiies. as !i inean> of providini.' a 
1 mil liir ihe lioly wars. Once c ..talili^liid it had 
-tiiiil iiiiii custom, and was cnii cif thc' chief 
ri-Huiiiviif t lie papal revenuci ,■— ,1. \ Kn.nde, 
//•• :i ■■/ A';,.//./,-,./. ,■/,. 4. — "■riiciclaiin |hv tlic- 
|~i" i ti. ilir lirM fruits of hishoprics and ollji 1 
I I Miiiiiinii^Masapparentlv lir^t made in Knulaini 
111 \i' \ r l\'. in I'.'.Vii. for live vi-ars; it wa^ 
iiaivMil liy (lenient V, in i:Jiiii, lo'jast for two 
. ' I- '!ii| it was in a nieasiire successful. I'.v 
■'"liii XXIl. it was claiiiied tliroiiL'lioul Christen- 
0.111 1. r three years, ami met with universal 
Jp'~''""' ■ • Stonily contested as it was in 
■a. I ...ill. il iif Constance, and frei|iienilv made' 
Jill s'.:! ji.i ,,f ilchate iu par1i:>inc-iil and council 
■::• ■.;-^:^;;:;a M.iiot haVf U:i.ii rL'^juiai'ly tomplied 


with,"— \V, Stuhhs. t'.iiiKl. Ili'l. if KniL.rh. 19. 
Hirt. 7|H,— See. alvi. (Jiii \ .\nnk's Hut xtv, 

ANNE, Queen of England, .\ I) 17ii'.'-17I4. 

ANNE OF AUSTRIA. Queen-regent of 
France. .Sci. Khanck: A. I), 1114',' 1(14:1. to Ki.-il- 

ANNE BOLEYN, Marriage, trial and 
execution of. Sec> K.ncii.a.M): A. 1) 1 -)'i7 - 1 "iW, 
and l.-..l(i l.-,4:l 

ANSAR, The. See M.\iiomkt.\n Co.ncji kst : 
A. I) (;iiii-(>:i'.i. 

ANSELM. Sec KNcii.ANI): A. D 1in7 li:!.") 

ANSPACH, Creation of th<? Margravate. 
See Ckhmwv: l:i til ( kn TI i;v Separation 
from the Electorate of Brandenburg. Sec 
l!il\M>l Mil I, .; \ 1) 1117-1(1111. 

ANTALCIDAS, Peace of iB. C. 387). Mfc 
<ini;Kc I,: I!. C, :i!(!)-;),s7 

ANTES, The. .See Slavonic I' 

ANTESIGNANI, The -" In 1 ac h c diort fi)f 
the iioiiiaii Ic-'.'ion. in Ca'sir's tinic| a certain 
nunilier of the lu-st men, pi'ohahly aiiout onc- 
fcmrtli of the whole deiaehmint. was assiiriied as 
11 iruard to tlii> standard, from wliciiei- they 
derived their name of .\nti si^'naiii, ' — (' .Men 
vale. //.-,' ,.flt„ I!.,,,,,,,,.., ,■/,, 1.-,. 

ANTHEMIUS, Roman Emperort Western), 
A. 1) 4li7-)7',' 

ANTHESTERIA, The. Sec Dionvsia at 

IFK l.leelsLMION {Knolandi .\ |) 1 S.'K) 1 s:!H, 
and ls4.->-lH,|(;. 

.Stvtks cii.- Am, : A, D. t7s|i 17il'.' 

N'i;w YciiiK: .\, 1>, IM'.'ins:',-,'. 

.Mkxico: .\. |) IS'.'.J-IS-.W. 


See LiviNcisreiN Mvnoil 

.Iews : Khii Ckntikv 

Sl.AVKItv. Nl:e;t;ci, 

ANTIETAM, Battle of. S,.. IMtfi. 

STVII;s OK .\M. : .\. 1). IXC.',' (Sl,l-T MvllVlXMU 

ANTIGONID KINGS, The. s, e Chk.kc K 
15, C. :!ii7 l!iT 

ANTIGONUS. and the wars of the Dia- 
dochi. See MvciiiciMA: li (' :i'.':i :i|(i, :ii.->- 
:!lil; :i|ii :liil, 


See M\e 1 |.e.M\: 1!. C, ','7: '.'11, 

ANTILLES.- ANTILIA.- h'aniiliar as is 
tile liaim' of the- .\nlillrs, fr'.v are aware of the 
aniiiinity of the word; while its pn rise siunili 
c-ance sels e lytnolo.y al diliancc'. Coninion con 
sent idenlilied Ihe .\iiiilia of !"L''iid with the 
NIee.f the Seven Ciiies, 111 the year 7:!f. s.iys 
lhestor\. the ,\ra!is havini.' c oiii|i'irri d nm-t of 
the Spanish p. niiisul.i. a nunihir o| chri-iiaii 
emiu'raiit'., uii.iiT the din-i-f Imi of >e\t*i hnlv 

hi^llops. alllnllLl* the 111 the .ire hlii,..hop of ( Iporlei. 

saileii we..iwari| wiih all that they h.; 1. and 
r. allied ail i-!aiiil where iluy founded m ven 

t..\\n-. .villi l;i ..irraphel's speak of an .\ll.uitie- 

island called in .Vriliii- Kl tiniiyn. or .\l tin il,-le 
of >erpeiitsi. a name whii li may pewsiMy have- 
liecome hy eorruptioii .\ntilia, , . , 'I'lle' seven 
lii^liops Were lic'lievcd in the Kith century to he- 
still rei)resc.nli-d liv their successor., andtn pre- 
side over a nuiuctuus ami weultliy jieople, .Most 

; IK" 

i 1 



lAi-hi I AiililiM ll .v.i^ ii|iii :i- 

w, -1 ,.| 111, A/..:-.- A^ -."Ml ii- ii 

A. D. 1099-1144. Principality. Sir .h 11 

MI.M A I I lll'.l!! nil 

A. D. libS. Extinction of the L«tin Ptui- 

kiM«nii.'i;iirM'|',','il,:,i ('..l.Mnl.u-hM.l.ii-..n.i-..l cipality. Total de.triiction of the city \ 

. , ' - ,.l 'i;s-r...H »,,- M i.l.i.-ili.'l ti,.,l, 1.11. l»l..r.. .1,,. Mn„-..l (,h,„s. ,l„.>„,. 

III ihi' rLiiiiii' 111- I >'i 

U.rallv !■■ till' Wi-I IliiliMIl 

I Kl'I'vI mill S\ nil mill tin I.iiiin |iriiiri|.. 
«:is lil.H«lih .■\iiii-iii>liiil, in I'-'tW ■■'I'lir 11 

uiili Aiitili 

-ill! I !ii I 11 tinplii '1 uii 111 rain i" iin' " ' - "■' ■ ;■■.• ■••-■■ - 

III 1' I I'm,, //,,/ ,,//,, \,.f 11".,'/./ -iMl Ml iIm' nni-Uiin iimiii- \v:i> iIi-im npl 

,„;,.,,, 1 ,,,',,, . I, ,, IIS Sr. 111-.. Wi-i till' -liiii:.;iiii !■ "I anil ilii; i;! 


HAiiii -111- A 1> li;:iil Hi:!- 

ANTIOCH: Founding of the City. Siv 

Sl.l 1 I I 111.1 . mill M M l.lii'MV. >V' : 1' <■ .it" 

A D. 36-400. The Christian Church. Sn 

■,iii'i-ii vMu A :> ::;: H"' 
A. D. 115. -Great Earthquake.— ■ Kiirlv in 

(111. ll"i. Ill iiinliiiL.' I" 111'' niii-I i-\:ii I 1 liniii 
iiloi^v. , . . ihi' »|ili'niliil r.i|.it:il i.f S\ria «.i- 
\i-iiii| liV mi riir1lii|iiMki'. .'Ill lif llir in.i-t .li-ii- 
Ir.iiH ii|i|imintlv nf all lli'' similar inlli. lii.ii- whiili lliai Im kli— • rity lia~ lurimli. all\ 
MIlVil'il . . Till' ral.iniily was 1 lihamiil In 
till' (in -iiii'i' i.l'nnii-iial i i.amI- Ironi all lln 1 iiii - 
111' Ilii- la.-l. a--i'lnl'!i.| U< pay li'iniairi' lu 111.' 
Kiiij.. r.'r I Trajanl. ..r I.i laki- I'lirl in hi- i-\|i.'- 
iliii.'ii |.'l' i.'m.iiirsl in till- laM] Ani.Mii; 
till' viiiiins win- iiianv liiirnans .if ilistinitii.n. 
Traian, liiin-ill. .inly i'-ra|'i'il I'y irci'i'ini,' 
lliri'ii'li a wimliiw. ■— (■ Mi rivalc, Jli-I. .;//.'" 
/.'..„',,.,,'■,', liV 

A. D. 260. -Surprise, massacre and pillaee 
by Sapor, King of Persia, s,.. I'kiish: A T> 
■j-j(i r,.'7 

A. D. 526.— Destruction by Earthquake.- 
DiiriiiiT till' n iL'ii nl .lii-tinian i.\. 1>. ."iIx-.Vmi iIk 

lit 1 ii'ln ll li..ll-alMl III' III T inlialiilaa 
Tlii- lai. I.i'li 11 A ii..i ll iialy tvMiiiy thru i n- 
lii'l.iri' till' la-i \i-iii;'' ill till' L'tniiii'-ls "i 'i' 
rrn-iiilirs «a- nl.liii ratiil at Arri- K. (iil.l' ■' 

/*.,■/,,,, ,l„:l JUI' ■■! l/i- l!"'f't" /'.V/././l', '■/'. Vi 

■Till -iiltmi h.illiil fur -i'M ml v\ii'ks in 1,' 
plain, anil pirniilli'il liis -nliliir- t.. Iii.lil a I n 
niarkil, ..r lair. I..r llir -al.- nl tlii-ir liouty. 1 1. - 
inarki'I was attimlnl li\ .li »- iiiil pi'illiirs Iv' ' . 
all parisiif till' K.i-I . ■ It >Mis,' saysthi'l : li 

Miiliii'.l.lin. ■alVarlill ami In art riliilini; si_i,' 
r.irii till' liaril sii.nis w.rr suliiinii with >:<■■■. 
Ill' tills Ms ilialllii- lapliM s wiTr so iiniii.i. 
that a lini' hiartv Imv inii'lit It piiriliasiil ' ' 
t«ilvi. pii'i'i s i.f -IIvit'. anil a litlli- «irl fur l.> 

Wliiri till' w.irk nf pilla:;i' hail hrrll r pi.'' 

\\ III 11 all till' iirnaini'Mls ami iliiiiratiiilis hail i" ' 
1 arrii'.l auav Irinn tin- rlunilirs, miil tin' !■ . ; 
i..rn fr.'iu llii' r.nil's. Aiilii'ili "as tirril in 'ii: 
I. r. Ill plans, mniil tli|. l.niil tlirilliiii; ■ 
■ Allah Ailiar.' ' (ii..l i- Vii toriuiis.' Tin' un r 
ihiirrhis nf St. Paul ami St. Petur burnt « •!; 
tirrilii- furv for iiiaiu' liays." — C. O. Aiiil'- 

n. h,.,:,/,t^ r. 

,ii. (I. 

Ml. Ill, UN 111 miiMs: A !• |Mi| f'.il 

CHUS THE GREAT. Sir (iii.K, 1 111 

liti.'s of till' K.inian lanpiri. •• Win- iiviTwhi Inii'.l li. C ■-"-1 .'-.'I, miir."-l I-*.. 

liv .irlli.niak.s Mi..ri. fri'.pnnt than at am .'Ilnr : ANTIPATER, and the wars of the Dia' 

iMri«"l"f hi-i'.rv Aiiti... li. tlii' 1111 tri.i...lis of ! dochi. S,, M \i kihim.v; ii. (.'. :l-,';!-:tl|i. 

\-i'i WIS inliri'lv il.-lr.iv.'il, ,m tin- -'ntli ..f 1 ANTIUM. - ■' Anliiiin, i.nii. a ll.mrlslii - 

.Mav. .VJii, at tin' mtv tiin.' « Inn tin' inlialiilinl- 
of llinailiairiil roiintry wirr a—'.l 1.1 r. 1.' 
Iiratr till- l.stival ..f 'ilir Asii'ii-ioii; ami it is 
allirim.l that ■,'."i0.iii»i p. wi ri' rrii-li.-.l liy 

Ihi' fall of its sliniptuolls r.litiii s, '— .1. (', 1., ill' 

Sisimimli, r.tll .■ftl„ ll,„i,.,„ r.,„i,:r,. .■/,. III. 

\i-.i i\ K (iilllion, Ihrlin, ,l„:l F.iU ■■!' tl„ 

/,■„.„.,., !■:,:, !■<'■■. .'/', ■);! 

A. D. 540. -Stormed, pillaged and burned 
by Chosroes, the Persian King. S' i I'lii-ix 
A 1> 'J'.'i'i I'.'JT 

A. D. 63S. Surrender to the Arabs. S. i. 

\I Mi.iMii w C.iN.;! I -I : .\ l> I'M <l:i'.i 
A. D. 969. -Recapture by the Byzantines. - 

Alv r lia\ ill- r.'lii.iiiii 1 :;','■< yi ar- in tin- pn— i—ioii 
of l!ii'>ara. . lis. .\lilii'rh wa-M I a km inlilr uintir 
of .\. 1), '."i'.i In ill'- li\ /aiilini' Knipi ror, Niii'pho- 
r'l- I'lioki-. ' ami Imann- a-iiii a Clirislimi 
ciiv riiv. .' yiarslat.r til.' M.-lrnis tniiili' a 
fir. ,ii . iImii lo i'l T iMT Ihi' I'ity. lull wrri'ili-l.-ati'il 
'I'll, r.y/iiiiiii" alius wir.'al this linii' liiL'lily 
Miri'i — fill in till' iH'Vir iniliiii; Saraiiii war. ami 

of tin- \ol-ri. anil aftirwariU nf thi' I{..ii;ih- 
thrir ri'n.|iii'riirs. is at pri-si'iit rriliiiiil to a -ii' 1 1 
niiinliirof iiihaliitanls. Oriu'inally it was wi'i. 
out a pnrt;thi' liariiour of tlir .Viitiatc.s li.niii. 
Iii'i'iillir iii'iL'liliouriii,!.' inilnilatioii in thi'ii'i-i i 
Ci'iio. now Ni'liuno, ilistaiit iiiori' limn it mil' ' 
till' I'astwanl, . . . Tin' pirarii-s of Ihi' an.!".: 
.Viitiati'sall .ir.irii'ilril from ( 'rtio. ortVrio. "i. ' 

llii'V hail ■-•i." loii^ ships. Thi-si- Nuniiiiii- ' 

. . ". soiui. will' takrii to Hoiui' anil tliiir r -'' 
Mispi'ihli-il in triiiinph in tlii' Koniiii. 
lAiitiiinil was ri'i'koni'ii ■JHO staiiia, or iili. . 
mills, from O-tia ' — Sir W (ii'll. Ti'/Ky. .;/ /. 
'■. I. 

ANTIUM, Naval Battle of (i378' ^ 
Vistn. A. I), i:iT---i:i:il, 

ANTIVESTiCUM. Sir ItnnAi.s, Iiimi- 


varre, .\ 1> I'lVi I.ViT. 

ANTONINES, The. Sii' Uomi;: A. H > 


ANTONINUS, Marcus Aurelius, Roman 

.loliii /.imi-k.s. siiri'i's-or .if Niii'plioriis I'lmkas 

inmilii.l triiiiiiphanilv In ihi' Ti^iris ami thn-at Emperor, A l> UU ixn. 

rm.l I vin l!a;:.l'i.l lint nio-t ..f til.- i'..n,pn'sts ANTONINUS PIUS, Roman Eiu|'.;roi 

thus mail. iiiSMia aii.l Mi'sop.itaiiiia win- not A. I> Kt-i Mil. . . „ _, .^ 

l.isiin" -i; V'mV.w. ni't.of tiK UvT'Kitin, Km- ANTONY, Mark, and the Second Tn.irav 

i.ii: ~1 1> THi-l'iiiT './! -' rh '2,— Sit Byz.V-N- I rate. SiiltoMi:: B, ('. 14 to .,1, 

■nsi' KMi'ini. A 1), i";;M'ir.. j ANTRUSTIONES.- In tin Salii- 1 ; 

A D 1097-1008. Siege and capture by the ! H"' Krank.-. tlii'iT is no tnicf of iinv ri.-- 

Crusaders. .-si.'f'tKL=.uiLt; A. D. lU'Jt>-lUU9. j urUcr ot uobilil)-, "\\c mtt., Uuv.i'v., 








wvPHtl titles ilriintifur irin|n'riir\ milk, ilcrivcd 
Ir.iiii .■llili-^ licliliral :lllM )l|i|iri:ll, iir IVdiii :i 
iMi'iliult ;ilH>ut till' imThdii lit rill' killLV Vllliitl;: 
il,(-[ till' Anlru^lii'iir^. «liii wcri' in riiii-it:int 
ilii'Mdiinn' iijii'ii till' kiiijr. pluviil ii nin^iiiiii.Mis 
Atilruf*tiiiiii's 1111(1 <\.ivivii' 


i \ .ivivii' Kt^ns 
,; wild lirlil tin- wiiiii' |Hi»itinn| arc llir 
j.ri ill ii'SMiisiif till- Viissi Diiiiiinii i nf later tiiiie-. 

:il|il like llll'-e were IhHUIiI to tile klllL' liy nil l'~ 

|.t,i:il iniili ipf |M'rMinul iiml |ier|K'tiial serviie, 
lliei Inrriieil part, as it were, nf tlie kinu ^ 

' iiHiU . ami were e\l»'i'tei| In re-iile ill tile [lalai e. 
(hire till", Mipi riiiteiiileil till' \ariniis depart 

ii,iii-i't liie riival lumMliiild. ' - W ('. I'errv, 

/■'„ /■•„,./...•/, HI. 

ANTWERP: The name of the City.-- Us 
commercial greatness in the i6th century. - 

Tllr'il\ \\:is ^'1 am iellt t ll It it>< irelleaii "I'i^t^. 

«iili ridii'iiliiiis L'raviiy, a-i rmli'd tn a pi'ri"i| 
TWM I I'liliiries before liie Trojan war, and lii-^ 
invi led a fliant. rejoieiiij^ in tlie elaisie name of 
Anli.'oim-, e.-talilislied on tlie Silleld. Tills 
jiiiiiaiiii exacted one half tile Tnerclianili>e of all 
ii:i\ i:.Mtor'^ who paHM-d Ids castle, and was ac 
i ii^i"inid to aiii|iutate and cast into the river Ilic 
riL'lii hands of those who infriii^'ed this simple 
tarilT. Thus ■ Hand werpcn.' hand ihrowimr. he- 
laiiie .\nlwcrp, and hence, two hand-, in the 
I ~( iitelieon of the city, were ever held up in 
111 nildii attestation of the truth. The L'iant was, 
ill liisliim. llirinvn into the Seheld liy a hero, 
iiaiiieil liralio. from whose exploits liraliant de 
riMil its name. . . . lint for llicse antii|iiariaii 
r. -I ir* his, a simpler derivation of the naiiie 
iv'iul.i si'i'in 'ant' werf.' 'on the wharf.' It had 
imw |iii tlie first half of the llilh ceiitiiry] he 
ii'iiie the principal i-ntrepot and exchange of 
Kiirope . , . the cninmereial capital of the world. 
. . , Vcicc, Niireinliiirf;, Aiissliiiri^, I!riii.'es, 
Win -inking;, tint Antwerp, with its deep and 
i.iiniiiient river, stretclieil its arm to the ocean 
;iinl laii^rht the jioldcn prize, as it fell from its 
>i-!i r I itii's' irra,sp. . . . No city, except Paris. 
Mirpasseil it in population, none approached it 
in loniiiicreial splendor." — .1. L. .Motley. 7*/" 
/,'.,.. .>fr/„' Lhilrh lt,i"iMir. Ili.-I li,lr.„l /n.-t. \X 

A. D. 1313.— Made the Staple for English 
trade. See Stm'I.k. 

A. D. 1566,— Riot of the Image-breakers in 
the Churches. See Nktiikhi.vxus; A. I). IMH- 

A. D. 1576,— The Spanish Fury. Sec Nktii 
n;; \Mi-: .\. I), l.")T.5-l."i7T. 

A. D. 1577.— Deliverance of the city from 
it!i Spanish garrison,— Demolition of the Cita- 
del, Si e NkT1IKU1..\NI1s: .\. I). I ."iT 7 - 1 -"iS 1 , 

A. D. 1583,— Treacherous attempt of the 
Duke of Anjou,— The French Fury. See Nktu 
1 Ki \Mi-: .V 1). l.-)Hl-l.''iH4. 

A. D. 1584-1585.— Siege and reduction_by 
Alexander Farnese, OuKe of Parma. 

downfall of prosperity. Sec Nktiii;ui. vxiis: 

A I) |."|Sl-l.%H.'). 

A. D. 1648.— Sacrificed to Amsterdam in 
the Treaty of Munster.— Closing of the 

Scheldt. See X|.;tiikhi.\ni>s: A. I>. Hi-ldlHIs 
A. D. 1706.— Surrendered to Marlborough 

and the Allies. See Xktiikiu..\niis: A. 1). 17i"i 

A. D. 1746-1748.— Taken by the French and 

restored to Austria. .Se N'KrUKKi.vMis: A.I). 

■ -''■!7i7. :ind Aix LA'Li.i.i. ; Tin; Cux 

A. D. 1832. Siege of the Citadel by the 
French. Expulsion of the Dutch garritoa. 
Sec Nf.rili.lil.vMi-: A l> l-<^lii 1^;.:. 

APACHES, The. See Ami tin an .Xnonic. 

INK- .\l'vi ill tiiioi !■ and .\ ni vivvsi vN Kvmii.v 

APALACHES, The. s.e Amkhh an Anmi 

li.lNl.s Ai'M \( 111 s 

APAMEA. -Apaniea. a 1 iiy foiirided hy 

Si'li'lli lis Niiator oil Ihe l-jlphlates. llie -ile of 

which Is oiiii|iii'i| In the nioilirii town of liir, 
had ticeome. ill Stralio's time iiiear the lieiriimini^' 
of the t'hrisiiaii Krai one of the prineipal centers 
of .\si.iiii' trade, second only to r.phe-iis. 'I'liap 
s.ieiis. the former eiistomary i ro-sinirplaee of 

the I'jlphrate-, had ceased to lie .so. ami llle p.'is- 
saLTe was made ,'it .Vpameii ,V pl.ii e on the 
ii|i|io-ile hank •■( the ri\er called /.eiii.'iiia, or 
"the iirid^'i " llir'i- still tlie iisiml phn e ai 
wliieh travellers proeei'ditiL; from .\ntioili or 
.\le|i|iii towards HaL'dad iro-s the Kiiphrati s, " 
K, II Itiiiiliiirv, II, Mt ..f A^.ri, lit ii, ■•:/., ,-h •-'■,', 
i„,-i. 1 I'- ■-', /•/'.'■-'tis .(,../ ;I17k 


APATURIA, The.— An imiiiial family fcsii 

1 val of tile .\tlii'iiiaiis, I'i'leliratiil for tiiree days 

1 in the c.irly part of the nir.nili of (leioli'ir 

(I'yaiiepsioip 'This was the characliTistie 

I festival of the Ionic race, handed down from u 

' pcriml anterior to the const it ut inn I. f Kleistlieiiis. 

and to the 1 1 11 new Irilies each lonlaiiiini: so many 

denies, and liriiiLOni^ toLoilnr llie lili/eiis in 

their |iriiiiilive iiiiions of family, ireiis, phralry. 

etc . the iii:>fri'irate of which had oi'i'_'iiialI\ con 

sfiiiited the lour Ionic trilics, now sii|ier.iimiiaied. 

.\t the .\p;tliiria. tlie family ureiieinies \vi re 

^oiie throiiLrh ; marriai'is were enrolled, acts of 

ado|iiiiin were promiili:ated and uriiliid. the 

! names of yoiilhfnl ciii/.eiis lirsi entered on the 

I gentile ami phratric roll ; saeriliies wire jointly 

I cclchratcd Iiy these famil\ assemlilaL'es to /ens 

! IMiratriiis. Ailn^iie. and other deilies, ai'eoin|>aiiied 

I with niiii'h feslivilv and eniovinent."— (i. (Jrote, 

}lhl, „ftli;,,;. i.t'i, cli. «■! ir 7i, 
, APELLA, The See Spaiita: Tiih. Cos 

I sTiri HON. iiV. 

APELOUSAS, The. See Tf;x \s: Tiik Aim 
i moiN M. Inii viiu ants 

APHEK, Battle of.— .\ f-'nat victory won hy 
.\hali. kiiiL' of Israel over lienhadad. kinir of 
namaseiis — II Kwald. ni„t .■<■ hi.ul. hk. 4. 
I,,-) 1. 

APODECT.1C, The. - ■■ W III n Aristotle 
s|ii'aks 1.1 the nitieers uf irovenmieiit to whom 

the pillilie I't vt'lilies were delivered, who kept 

them and distriimled them to the several admin- 
istrati\e di partnu iits, tliese are called, he adds, 
apodeita' .ind treasurers. In .Minus the 
apiMleeta' were ten in tiiiinlier. in aeeordaiii e w iili 
the n.iinlier of the tribes. They were ai>pointed 
by lot. . . . They liad in their possissioii the 
lists of the delil.'irs of the stale, received the 
money wliieh was paid in, rciiislered an aeeotint 
of it and noted the amount in arrear. and in the 
council house in the presence of the eoiineil. 
erasi-d the laims of the debtors who had paid 
the deni.'iiids acainsi them from the list, and 
deposited this araiii in the ai'ihives. rinally, 
they, toi^elher with the council, apportioned the 
siinis received." — .\. Hoeckli, I^'if'li'- K',,i,"iii,i "t 
Mhfii^ar. hi, I.n,i,l.\. hk. l. .'/,. I 
I ing of. btc KuuJivu.x. 







Title. S., Ill s,.Mn A |) '.i;j III! 

APPANAGE. rii.i(rrM;i|.|.:iiiiiL'.' .hri.itrH 
till prci\i-iMii niiili' fiT thr yciiiiii:rr i liililn ri ■■!' 
:l kirii; "I Kr.iiK.v Tlii^ -ilHiiv-i (■■■ii-i-li ,| ..f 
laiiil* .rMl fi ml il ~upi ri..iiii' ^ In M ..f iln- 1 r..»ri 
liy Ihr li riiiri' I'l pi. ri -c l> i^ ■ > iiii iil lli:il lliin 

ll*:tL'<-, :l^ tl prmliltid a THW rl is> III Imwitllll 


Ililllli' .if IIIhhIc NIaiiil .Sr ItlliillK. l»l,\sn 
A I) lii:lH itilii 
AQUILA, Battle of (14241. Sf Iim, 

A i> 111.' iiir 

AQUILEIA. A.jiiil.ia, lit till- liinc nf r„ 

ili^tniitl f lli;il lily liy tlii' lliiiis. .\ M !>.' 'hitth MS ii f.'rlMs-* ami a ronitiii n : il 
i'iii|>iiriiiin. »<<Miiil lo MMiii' ill .Niiriliirii ilalj |i 
riililalatir- w I, lii.^iil. 1.. llir inli 1. -,t^ il'iil |M.|iiy «aM ^ilniiti'il at tin' nortlirniliinvt puilil ..( Hi. 
iif thi' -ou n i,'ii, a II. I r. taiili 4 tin- Mili|iiLrati.i'ii L'lilf nf llailria. uluait Iwiiity iiiilis iic.rllUM -11 
I if till- am ii 111 ali^l.ii I 1. \ I ill I all li- il'i' (nival • 'I'lii^li'. and llif |ilac r u In rr it mii r -IihhI U li 

with III.' 1 an liv H 1^ mit t.i lir alip'LMliil. ami in llii' .\ii»tri 111 ilniiiiniuiH. just im r tin- Im.i.; : 

till' s, .,ri ii\ .if iiinm V n ii.lrf. il ii iiii|..i—' t.. !..|.ataliH lliiiii frnm tin- 1 
pri. villi- t.i'r ill.' viiii'iii;. r Inaiiiln^ ..I tlu' r.iyal Italy. In tlm yiar |M1 II (■ 11 li.iiiiuii 1..I, n. 
faiiiilv liy iiiv iilii.r im 111- It ni^ r.^iraii'inl ; lia.l Im'I'II wiit In tliin far rnrtiir nf Italy IhmH' 
hnwiv.ra- tar a- r. iiiii-i 1111 . -. uniil.l p.iaiiii." i iis 1111 itiitp.i-1 iiiraiii-t sniiii' iiitriisivc trii"«. . il'"l 
— 11 llilliiii. /'/., l/i. '■'''. .1'.-. ./.. 1. /.'. '.',— ■ liy llir vau'ii.' iiaiiir .if (iaiiK. . . I'.iws^inj 1 
'■ Fr. nil 111. M.inl-. a.l ami ' paiii-..' iin aiiiiii; iliat p.. n| liarliinir. witli « liirli it was ■•.iiiii.iti'.l 'i i 
It waHtii pf.iv ill.- Iir.a.l f..r thr p. iM.ii w li.i h.l.l it. ; iiavinaliii' ri vit. .\i|tiili ia irriiilimlly I'li'iim.' I.. 
.\ p.irii.iii nf appaiiaL'.' wa^ m'« LriM 11 t.i la. h i.f ! clii.f iiitrcpnl tlii' rniiini.fn' iiit«i.ii |i lU 
till- kiiiL'-. vniiML'.r ^nii-. H .1.^1 .11.1. . I 1.1 Ills ami wliat iirc iinw till- lllyriaii 
.lirr. 1 111 il-. lull ill .1. fault nf tin in r.'Vrrtr.l tnlli.' 
ir.iHir I' Wri-hi. ///•'. ';/' h'rn,,; , r. 1. y,. 
;iiH /,■■'. 

APPIAN WAY. The. Appiiis ( lainlius. 
(allnl tin- lilinil. "li'i "a« ..iisi.r at limm- 
frniii :il'.' in:iiw 11 I' |s.-.- I(..\ii.: II (' :!PJ|,inii 

>lrili 1. 1| .lurillir that tilin- "tin- .\p|.iall mail, tin- 

.pi. -.11 iA rnail> t..-. au^i- 111.- Latin .na.l. pa-^-iIll: 

liv 'I'll-, iiliini ami ilirniiLrli Iln- .mintry nf tln- 

l!.-rni. all-. wa> -'. lull, li . nilaiii:. ami l.a.l 

n-it \.i lii.n ipiiii- r.-..i\rr..l I>y tin- 

ill.- .\p\.ian mail, pa — iiiir l>v 'i'rrrariiia. Kiunli , . , 

ill.l Mila. InCapiia. was iiit.-ml..l I,. Ik- a slmrli-r ' CrasslH, wlin lir.illLrlit tin- pi-nplf lailnl 

anil -al.r ..n.- , , 'I'll.- Appiaii mnl. i-v. 11 if : tin- ^..tiatis tn Miliinis-inii ami tin-ii il.-l. ii-il 

Appiu- liiil . irrv it as far as Ci].!!.!, was mil j ...niliitii-il n.-i^'lilinis in 11 iniinlrrniis l.aiiN . 

i-\..iiii.| liv liiiii w iili that spl.-mlniir fnr j wln-ri- tlir.-..- fniirllis nT tli. in an- saiil In li m- 

wi-siiil aihiiir. ii ill lli.isi- parts wlii.h liavi- tint { li.i-ii slain. Tin- trilM-s tli.-n Milani'-.l 

li.-iii .l.-irii\.-.l ini.nliniiallv; Iln- {nim.l I -w.-n' tin- Tarhi Hi. l!iL'.rrl..ii.'s, I'r. .iaiii. \.. 

pnKirniis nf lia»ali, uhiih' llii.' .■-f'y.-ais ' lat.s. Tariisatis. Kliisal.-K, Carili-s, Aiisi-i. tin 

liaM- m-t 1.. . 11 all!.- t.i .li-pl.i.., an- i-f a sunn- 1 iiniiii. Silni/ati-s ami ('...-nsiiti-s. Tin' Tar'- ill 

what lat. T nri^'iii Appius ..-iiinn II. i-.l till- rnii.l | w.-n' in Iln- Inw.r hasin nf tin- A.lniir. 'I In ir 

li. .-alls.- 111. n- wa- a. Ill il m ' il P-r ii . in tin- v.-ar 1 <-hi.f plai-.- w.-s nii tin- silt- ..f tin- lint .sprin.- - f 

A r riT|l! (■ ■.'1I7| p. p. riiin. ami snim- wars ; Da.v. Tin' Itii;. rri s app.-ar in tin- ii iiin 

lai. r lus.ili i-ili \i WIS lir-l n-nl fur pavin:: : Ili-nrn-. Tin- ilii.-f plan' .if the Kliisat. s .' ,s 

r.ia.N. a 11.1, :ii Iln- li. :.'iiiiiin-.-, milv nil tin- simill \ Kliis.-i. Kaiisi-- ami tin- I..wiinf .m tin- r - r 

ili-lam-.- fi'iiii Un- I'.aia fapi 111 1.1 Iln- t. inpli- .if ( pn s.-rv.'s iln- ii.-tim- nf tin- Aiisri. p 

>Iar-. as u. an- .lisiimily t.iM li> l.i\y. linnU ' naiin s (iariti-s. if 111.- nam.- is L'.'tiiiinr, ami i: .1 

.-nnstru. 1. li a.-, nr.liii:,' tn arti-tii- prim ipl.-s ■ iiiiini (niitain tin' saiiif .1. in. .it, (!ar, a- ''' 

pn-vi-.u-h i\ 1! (' Nii-liulir. /..i/» .-), riv.-r <!ariinina ^damnm-] ami tin- ll.-rs \: . 

.''-. Il"i '.'I' i:"' . !'■■' fi. 1 hv W.ilck.-na.r that tin- inliahitaiiis ni -,- 

Ai-n i\ >:r W 11.11. y'v"'-' '■ /.'■'■. '■ 1 ■ s-iiillnrri part nf l..-s l..-iml.-s an- slill . : 1 

11 1; l.hi-lili //, ■ ■■!' 1: .■ I ,.. J.'il Ciii-ints Cni-iisa, raiiss,'-,|ii.-, is l«.-ii:\ ■ .r 

an- tinw- tti.- llhriaii prnvitn . -. i 
Aii-iria.'-r. ll.«li:klii, H.,l',,„n.l Ihr l„<:i.i,. 
hi. -J. .-/. 4 

A. D. 238.— Siege by Maximin. Si-i- 1!.imi 
A. I) -':IH 

A. D. 388.— Overthrow of Maximus by Th?- 
odosiua. s.-.' li.'Mi.: .\ I> :t7',» -I'..'"!. 

A. D. 452.— Destruction by the Huns. ~-' 
111 \- A l> V,:. al-.i. ViNi.i. A !> l.V,' 

AQUITAINE: The ancient tribei.— 1 1.. 
lintiian I'.ili.pu-st .if .Xiplitaliia wasiii lilrv t-.l, IV I ' 


Surrender at >. ■ I mm 11 Si mi- .a Am 
.\ I I l-.'i.". - \l'l:ll . \ll|i-lM \i 
APULEIAN LAW. .s, Mv.n-iv- 
APULIA: A. D. 1042-1127. Norman con- 
quest .and Dulttdoiti. Union with Sicily. 
>..- 1 I M V '~ii' I'll l;\- \ I' Inn.l 111:111, a:rl 
li.-I i;:i| 
APULIANS, The. s, , >m;im.-; al-n, S\m- 

Ml I - 

AQU>E SEXTI^E. Si.Smvis 

iiiili'i fmin l>.i\ nil tin- mail fnnii llav i-- i; 
iliaiix. -li. l.nii-', l>,,li,„ .r 11,1 /,',.,-. ' 
1 ,-,-;'.//.-, r. -I. .-/<,•), — ■■ I!ifn.-r tin- arrival 1-1 ■ 
' hr,nlivi-. phali.- I.iL'iirian ra. i-. Iln- P ■ 
iiiiL'. li iiv.-r till- L'nai.r part nf l-"raii. .'. , , 
a- SI. 111s prnlulili-, w.' may ilrniify tin 111 ■■ 

Iln- Aipiiiaiii. nf ilir tlin.' r,i.-.s whi. h 

I upii .1 liaul ill 111.' till!.- nf Ca-ar, t In y iiiu-' 1 : 

I Mn-,-il..| t.i tin- 11. iL'hli.iiirl .1 nf tin- I'v 1 

I li. tin- li. L'innin--' "f Iln- lii-tnrii- p. ri- ! 
! I, Tivlnr. 0,-.v'" .;'■ ''" ,l'.v-'/.-«. <■/.. -'. -•."■' - 

(J \1 1, l>KSfltIlU II LV 

■ {;■■■■■'- 

AQU/E SEXTI>E, Battle of. S.-.- Cimim;! In Cajsars time 

.VM. Ii I i.iM lit 1 !:; in,' C.l -vli 

AQUi?" SOLIb. Till Unman nam.' nf tin- Settlement of the Visigoths, 

Iniii: laimiii- wall iiii_' pl,ii 1' kmiwn in imnl. rii 1 Visii..rni-i : .\ I), Iln ll'.l 

laiL'laii.l as tin- . iiv ni llnh It was s]il.-nilii!ly A. D. 567. - Divided between the Merc v v.i- 

a.lnrni-.l in Unman liiii. - u iili t. inplr- ami niln r gian Kings. S.i-Ki;vnks: \ I) .all-T-V.' 

!-!!!!(-.-s,— T, Wri::!.!, <■■!>. IO'"ff! ■•'"< >s,.r,.,,, A. D. 681-768. -The independent na'.-,s 

rh. r). and their subjugation. — ' Thu nlil Iv. " 


AyriTAlNK. ;V I) tbi M« 
iinlii, In till' llr«t (llvi»iiiii i.i' tin' spuili nf 


rill' Kinplri'. 

Ill fiillin 111 the \i-iL'..ih 


I nil II uitliiiiit riiiK li lr<iiil>h' 


ll Ihr 

jtru.'u'li IkI'viiii iImiii iiinl llii' Mi rn inL'iiiH-, if 
1. 1 iiMirv |.ii>»iil ll' till- liiii-rioii, juriv Hill 
111.- ■|u:irri U. Ml llirirly i .mli »iii| l.ii«.iii ihi' 

.|;lTi II tit llirllllltT*. nf 111!' Frank TIImIi iti h\ . |'rr 

\< Mii'l llii'iii t'riiiii rrtaiiiiiii: a lii^ianr [iM^»^^ii>ii 
\M!liiil till ir LTM-p: anil al llil> |ii l i...| pWl 7I><, 
nil. II 111. Ma\i.ri of llir r,il M . , I'l |.iii mil Carl, 
u. r. I'liliiriiiL' Ilir n liK i.f u.'Vi iiiiiH Ml i.M r 
Ur i!iiir kiiii:i|iiiiis Aiislra-ia. Si ii>. ii anil 
l;,..Min.lx iiiii. Iliiii liaiiiKI. Kii.l.., Ilir iliiki 
..! \.[iui lini , ua^riallyan iiiilrpi n.ji nt iirlhrc. 
Til. |...piil iliiMi liail niAir jii.i '\t- II.. mall 
'..!.! ll v\ 1^ in fill, li\' far Ihr must Kiiniaiii/i'il 

V, till' \\Un\r I.f (lilll ' llnl il hail aUii ri'ivlvril 

1 .i. \\ I ll niirit in tin' \'asi<.ii.> i.t (iasiimH |s.i'r 
Im^.;! t- -|, I irit.r I.f P\ rcncan mi.uiiiaihi trs. \\ hn 
.j. M . ii.llii'i froni tlii-ir nii>unlain><. a.|\aiiri-il tu 
^v .r.NiJi. ii.irlh until tlif'ir prni/r.-s wa-. i lurki t| 
l.v 111.. I.n.a.l \iatir- i.f 111. (riri.niii- At this 
•.;n. !i..ui Mr. lliin.lii yiil lai.l.i ■■ TliiMliiki. 

I \.|iiii.iiMi Kiiil.-. a'llinl hiiiiM If «iili tlii. 
N ii-iti.ii.> aL'aiiist till- unit. III. .IIS Austrasiiin 
Mu.-i (ill Marti I. aii.l shall. I with Hum Hi. 
. I .-hill- .1. hat at Si.issi.iis, A 1> Tl"<, »lii.h 
.-' ihli-lii.l lhi. Ilaninii'ri r , pi.wi r i;i,.|., 
,1 kll..MliilL'iil allrL'iahii- ami «as alliiVM.I t.i 
r. ■ liii Ills ilnkiili. Ill lliil, h ilf a 1 1 iiiiiry .ili.r 
«, ('airss,.n, I'lpiii. \\\i,, jiail pushnl ihr 

iiiii.anr Ml riniiii.'iatis friiiii tlir Frank thn.iii' 
ii'i.i s. liims,.|f upon it, li.ii^'ht a iiiiii' Mars 
» ir uiih ilii- thill ilnki'nf Ai|iiilaini', tiirstiil,|i,|| 
I.;, si.M r. i^'iin ■Tlii-Har, «hiih lasti i| nin.. 
\. ir- |Tiin ;i'.s|. Has si...nali/ril hy friirlit fill 
r .\ 1^. ^ ,iii.| .|i -trill til. 11 i.f lif.. iip..ii' hi.tli si.h s, 

11' 'il, I l.-l, till' Flanks liiiallH' mistiis i.f 
li'iii, ,\iiur_'tii'. anil tlir l.ini.iisiii. Hilh tlnir 
[•liinipil liiiis Thr alilr aii.l uillant ( iiiail.r 
i .: Uaifi 1 1 Has assassinati li hv his i.un siih 
I'.l- in. I I'ipiii hail Ihi- s,itisfai li .11 I.f tillallv 
iiiiiiiii ' 111. ..'raiiil iliii hy iif A.iuil.iin.' P. Ili,. 
11 :.ii''n ..I till- Friinks,"—.!. (J, .■slnppanl 

/■'■'>!■ I ■■:„ 1,,-t N. 

Als.'l,- ■ 1", (iiiilwiii, Itisl ,,f; : .\ 
',.,,•, .7, ll 1.-., -\V. II. Pirrv. Th, AV.i,,/!,., ./,. 
■. t; 

A. D. 732.- Ravaged by the Moslems. 

>■ ^1 Mli.MI 1 x\ I '..M.! Isl A, l> Tl"l 7.1J 

A. D. 781. Erected into a se[^arate king- 
im\ by Charlemagne. In th.. T>1 ( h,irli 
n.i II. inrii.l li,ily ami Ai|iiitai'ii ■ inin s.piratr 
i i -il'iii-, plaritii: his t»ii i'lhini suns, I'l pin 
i.i'l l.ii'luiL' i.r l.uuis i.ti tliiir 11 spi iiivr ihr..iiis, 

ill.' Uiii^ of Ai|nitaiiii. .iiiImmi ..I \ ,is, ..iii,i 
i'ii^. "II. |, .Si.ptiniaiiia. Aipiilainr ph.prr iihat 
'■ 111.' i..iliilry lirtwiiii Ihi. (;,ir..nnr ami llu- 
I. '.r 1,111,1 tl,. ii.iinly. sulis, ,|ii, iitiy tin- ,|iii hv. 
' 1 r..iil..'.s.-, Niiiiiiiially li kiiiLri|..iii, Ai|iiitaiiii- 
» . la r .lily a prnviiiii.. ititirilv ilrpiinlini <.n 
■■' ..n'ril..r pirsi.iial irnviriuni'iit uf Cliarl. s 
I ill' ii'.iiiinal ili-sii;nati.itis uf kiiii aii'l 
'i'l nii-iit irralily thr hrliiiL's i.f th- 
': i'"!''i,.. I.ut il was' a Mhiliir (■..lU rivi .1 f..r 
''■■'■ ih.iii ilia slati- i.f ahsi. lull, ilrpi'iiih ill,. 
11 - ,'"rliiiati,iii. — .1. I. M.imhcrt, lli.l ..;' 
' • ,■'. i:i;,,l. I.I: :>. ,.,', n. 

A. D. 34J In the division of Charle- 
i^'a-^'ii's Empire. S, ,■ Fti.wi 1.: A I) ^l:; 

A p 884-1 151. -The end of the nominal 
Min,. li.m ^The disputed Diica! Title — ' ^ 

AQt ITAI.NK, A I) 11117 ll.VJ 
minr. wastln la-l ,if thr ('iirlovlni;iiin< who Ihih- 

Ihi' Hill' 


iistil frmii this titni- t. 

uf Ai|ililailir This 

-I stale 



'Uiu ilii'd »S4J. sou of Louis tho Sta 

II hail t..r 11 ll i,..ihi iii.l pi thkI Ik . n ilivi.|<.|| 
IkIhiih pii«irfiil liiiiillis ihi 111..SI illii-iriiiiu 
I.f »hi. ll an- t' .SI- 111 Ihi- r.iiinis ..| T. .nli.iisc. 
f.''.l 111 till- iiiiiih Miiiiiry In Fn.l. I..n tin' 
(iiiinls uf I'l.itii-rs. till (..11111-1.1 .\in.r;,ii. the 
.Manpilsi suf Sipiiiii,iiii,,,.r ii,.tlii,i, a 11. 1 111. liiiki-s 
ul' (iasi Kiiii: I. mil s Ii.hI l:hi n W illi un ihi- 
Tills, (..lint uf \ii\i r.'iii-. 111.' iini-iiiiii, ultlii' 

ilm In ..I A.|iiiiaiiii' (111 till- 1 sum 11 t that 

f.imily in '.i.'i, ih.- (..iinisi.t •r..ii|..ii-. in.l ihisi. 

III 1'.. ill. 11 ilispiiti.l ih.- pi-i r..j,iiu. , iml iiiiir 

ipiarn I -iiiiinl tin sunih wiili I.I | f.ra |..inr 

linn AiliiiL'th tin ( ..iinl- uf l'..ii..ii ai i|iiiri-i| 
till- till. ,.f liiikisuf .\.|iiiiaiiii- ..r (luM 11111- jur 
(iiiii 11111-, -iipp,.-,,l to 1.1 ,1 I ..iiiipii.,11 ,.| thr 
11:11111 ..f ,\.|iiit,iinr, whirh I ,11111 ii.l,, 11-1 iliiriiiif 
II. I- Mi.l-ll.- ,\-,;is|, Hhiih ri-miiiii.| in th. ir h..iis.. 
il|i 1.1 111. niaiii iL'i- ..I 1:1. iii.-r ..f .\,|iiii.iiii. uilh 

III lir> I'l.iiii 1; I I I II, i,M 11 1. Kim.. ,,f 

KiiL-l.iml .1|-.|. 1; |>, |!,.,iii, ih..-, II,,, „/■ 
'■■""-■•. '''- •-', ■' -1, / ' ;..-'. Th.' .InillV 

Ai|iiilaiiii', I.I- (iiiiinm, ,is I,. 1. 1 I,, |:h,iii,.r's 

pri'ili'i.-siirs, 1 -i-ii.l. ruiiuhU -p, akin.', ..I ilir 

lirril..r\ liilwnn ihr'aiiil liir i;ar..iiiii-. 
^|url■ 1 \ai lly. it was liuiinilnl un iln- ii..rlli hy 
.\nj..ii ami T..iirailii. .-n tin- 1.1-1 t,\ 11. m anil 
.\iu.r-m. ..11 th.- s,.iii|, ,a-l l,\ th, (hi, ni ur 
<|"iliil.» "I (ill..!--. ,11. i ,.|i 111'.' -..11th' Hi'sl hy 

( J.i-i ..iiy . whi, ll hail I1.111 iiliili .1 with il |.,r lli'|. 
1.1-1, .1 yiar- rin- u|,| Kar..|ili::i.,ii km;; 
1 1.. 111.. f .\i|iiit mil h-i.| 1.1, 11 ,-f far ,;r, at. n \l, iit; 

il ha, I. ill fa, I ill, liiii. .1 111,' u ||..|,. ,|rv 

hi-tui. 11 till- l.-ir. ih,- r>riii..-. III. i;i,..ii. anil 
till' 1.11 an ( Hi r all thi, v 1-1 h riiii.r\ tin ( ..iinis 

"' l'"i' S-, M..1 a till ..I. li, ll I laiiii ,.r ..M-r- 

luril-hip hy \irliii ..f llii ir ilii, al mil , till 1 hail, 
h.i"i-Mr. 11 |..riiii.|-il.i, iiiih. Ii,,ii-i-'..| tin', 
(■iiiinls uf r,.iii'.ii-i -K N..rL:ii, /-,.,- .'.i,,,/ 
1//,./. /- ^/„ .l„v, ,'/.. AV,.,.v, 1, I .-', Ill >. . al-i. 

Till l.i.l r*l, im It \M. 11 I 11 ( 1 M 1 nil - 

A. D. 1137-1152. Transferred by mar- 
riage from the crown of France to the crown 
of England. In 11;;;, ih, I i-t ..i iii. ..l,i lii;, ,,f 

111.- illlki- uf .\,|llil lili.- Willi 1111 |\ . -,,11 uf 

ih.- nay rrii- iil.-r I ir,.iili,i.l..;ii- u h-.m th. i;.-il 

Kill:: hail li..pi-.l i-i -m , , .1 .|i, .1 ..i, •, pil^riiii- 
a-.- at (■uiiip..-i. Ill lli-i.iiiy -,.ii »v ,1- ili. a.|y 
ilia.l, .iml hi fur. -I Hill- ..111 I'.r hi- piUiima/i. 
h.- iliil what a Liiii-r |>, r-..iiai.'.- Ii.,,| i|,,i„- u,\ 
yi-.'irs hi'f. -I'.' ..(iihili. . .1:-. Ill ,.1 ili- hai'..iis. hi- 

I. 11 th.' uh.'li' ..t his .|..i'iii.i..ii. t,. his .l.iu-li'ti r 
M. .1-1, .1,1' h h,,|iii.'ii|i, ,| Ih,' uirl III r-i If as u if,- 
1,'ihr .^.'llll- kill- I.,, Hi. |VII |,.f Frani,- This 
iiririi.i::.- 111. .r. thin .luiil.l, i| th.- sin iiL'lli ..f llii- 
Friti, h rr..«n. ll -m- 1,. l.,,iiis al.-ulin, p,.s 
M-ssiun ,.f ail «. -I. Ill .\,|iiiiaiii,-. ..r (iim im. as 
il «as 11. .w l..'.-iiiiiiii.. 1., 1,1- ,-all,-il: that i- ihi- 
i,.illili,s uf r.-il, 11 all.l (ias.-..tiv. uilii ll„ ill! 
iii.-,li.i. ..\. rl..i.|-iii|. ..r ilii. Hholi- ili-iii, I h iim 

II, iH.iti 111,- l.,.ir, 1,11.1 till- I'y ri iii-i--. till- |;ii.,ii7- 
anil llu- ..I .'111 1 1. iriL.ry tivi-.-r -i\ linn -as 
l.iriri- as hi-.-un r-.\ al i|..iii,iiii aii.l i.\ .r u liiih 
hi- pri-,l,,iss,,is li:,,'| „,-v,-r 1... 11.-1!, ll !-. a-iM 

iiM.ri- lliaii till- nil 1, st sha,l,i» uf a 1 inal -up.-ri 

,.ril>.' In ll-"r,' l.uuis uhtai I ailiv.n.. It.. in 

Fli-aiiiir, siirti ml, lin- all iiii. lti .11 ii rriiury 
Hhiili shi' h.iil ailili-il 1,1 his iluminiun-. lailii-r 

llian niaintai 1 niiliappv iiiii,.ii. Tin. s.un,. 

.\ rar lia- _m-. liu, ill ..- -.v.,.- \\\ .i.i, .: I., lii-in v ITm 

tiiL'i.'ni.-t, till 

Diiki' of Noriiiaiulv, afurwinlu 


; I 

•if! I 


\q\ ITMNK A I) ii;n iiv' 

ll.iirv II Km.' .'f I iijlin.l lU llil- ri, irriai.'.' 
\.|'iil nil. Ii.i .hi. |.iiii, .1 I.. III. . r.'Hii.'l I iiL'liilM 
ih.l r. in .11.' .1 ••• I'ir Hii..| \..r- K 

\.,r..n. /•;.. /,.,' ..;,./..■ ".. |...;..... A...V ■ I 

wth Cfntiiry. ~Thr ttatr of thr •outhrrn 
p«rl». N. I'i..'> I N' I A l) MT!! I 'ii; 

A D. 1360-145.) Full novrtciKiity poi- 
irisrd by the Enijinh Kiint' The final con- 
qunt and union with Kraiiie. I'.i'li. I', i'' 

..I\ i— Hi.'-" I A l> I.I.I; t I'H'l I .1 

« ir.l 111 r. -IJ11..I III. . I - .11 Ih. .|.»ii,.| 

Kr.iii. . I'lii h. " I- r. . .11:111/. .1 ill r. turn i« in. I. 
|.. II. I. Ill I'lin. . ..I A.|UM lim « III.. 'Ill iin li'i" 
.,_•. ,1 ,.i|.. ii.'riu h. nil.' r. -. rM.ji.. III. I'lii. 1. 

II ir. Ii \\ h. 11 A. inn nil.' ili. r. |..r.' «,i»..iii 

.|ii. r. .1 li\ Friili.'. i.iriU in 111. I llli InlU in 
il„- r.ili..iinir\ |h.. I'iuv. » \ l> 11:11 ll.VM 

it «,i- II. 1 111. ' r. 11 1 1 l.irl. it.. I ti. I. Inn 

tin|.ti"ii ..I 11 .li«iiin 1 'iii'l -..N.riicii i-tiil. 
Till' t. .IniL'^ "I A'liiiiuin.- 11-1 H Mini In lum 
l.i.'ll ...\i.:..l 'llif IM.I.I.'H I.. II kTrnt .Mini 
ilii.iii;lifMr Ir.iin iiihm th.'iIIj . pr. f. rn.lllif Knii. Ii 
i..iiii.\i..ii It 1. if in iMIli III. ir 

nl .llUlllrV. fl ll.llll .ll'p. 11 '■ III V. iltlil till- lik. 

111.' |.ri\il. L-is t.M.whiili Kr.'luli l.iw < ..lifi rr. .1 
..II ll.llll. I.irtli W..11I.I iiiiikr ilii'ir n-ul iiil.r.-i- 
III' «iiv Hut III.' irr.iit riili'H iiii.l. ».' Ii;n. t.. Ii. li.'v. . 111. iim^'< ..l lli'- iir.ipl. . iiK" 
I I iv.' f'litlilnlh 1.1 Ilii ir ,111. i. iit l>ill..- ;ili.l tin » 
hn.l L'."»l r. i~..ii I" .111 M' Til.- KiiL'li-li KiiiL'- 
ImiiIi I.v liiilnt mill In iiit.'ri'^t. nnliiriillv pr.. 
Iiili'.l ill.- iiiiiiil. ipiil lilurli.'- i.f ll..iir.l.ii'i\ 1111.1 
ltii\..iiii. . un.l \p..M'.| 11.. pirt ..f till ir -iilijri i- 
I.. 111.' Iii.rr. I Kr. 11. Ii l.iMili.'ii un.l t'. lurnl 

..ppr.-i.iii 1. A l-'n .1 /■'-■ Fi'n.L- .ih.i 

ll„ i:,i;/.JI,, ■■.,;■■.'' /■;.....■ 1-.' 'V..... \., Ti 

AQUITANI. The. >.. Iiii iihn^. Tiii-: 

Wl-~ll UN 

ARABIA. ARABS : The Name. lli. r. 

Clin Ii. II. I .I..I1I.I 111..! ill. II nil. "I ill. Anil- «:l-. 

L-iv. 11 Ir.iiii III. ir liviiiL' It ill.' " .'-i. riiiii..'.i 

purl ..I .\>iii . iiii.l tin ir ..«ii ".inl ' IJIi'irli. iln- 

Wi-i, i- ;iii..tlii'r inrni .'I Hi.' .iri;.'iiiiil .N.-iniiii 

iiaiiM' Anil "-<i lt:i«liii-..ii A •'. . !■■ II, i;jil„t-i». 

<■ ■: /. 71 

The ancient succession and fusion of Races. 

■ I'll. p.. pill. ill. Ill ..I Aril. 11. nll.r 1..iil' . . 11 
tiiri..., iii..r.' r-)i.-i i ill.i iili.r il"- pr..piiL'iiii.iii un.l 1-liiini-iii! I. .1:1111.' iiiiifiTiii llir..ii.;li 
..lit llii. p. iiiii~iil.i - lint it » i< 11"! iil«:i,»- 

llin-. It Ml.. \. ry ^l..v\!y 1111.1 L'n.luiill.v lliiil tlif 
inliiliil.iiil- ..f lli.Miri..ii> pun- .if Ar:ilii.i » . r. 
|ii,..l iiii.i .111.' r.ii. >.'\.r,il .li-iiii.l Ml. - 

Ml...— i\.lv iiiiiniL-ni. il ml. I iln- p. iiiii-nl.i lui'i 
riiii.iiiiiil s. |i:ir:iii' t'.r in nn 11.:.- I'll, ir .Ii- 
tin. ii\. . Iiiinnt. ri-lir-. ininin. r- iiii.l tli. ir 
riMli-:ili..n pr.iv.' Iliiit tll.-i- «. r. I1..I :ill 

iif ,.n. hi 1 I'p til til.' inn.- "f I . 

si'V. nl ililT.r.lll l:lll:.'il:i'-'.'S w.r.- -p.ik.ll in 
Anl.iii, iiii.l il «:i- llii- nf l-luini-in il.iii ■- iM' |ir.'.|..iiiini'ii(.' t.i iliii .wi.-,L'-t 111. Ill 11. 'W cull.. I AnI.i. 'I'll.' I', w 
Arul.inii i.i-i..n,.ii- .;.'-. niiiL' "I Mi. iiini.-, 
hiiv.- 11-1 il aiiv .li-.i niiiiiiit in . ..II. . liiii: tin- 
triiiliti"i|.i "f til. ir ..iiiiitr.v. Hm Kliiil.l.'iin, f.T 
rxumpl.-. .li-iini."ii-li tlini- -iini— Im' ji.ipiilM 
ti.iii- in th.. p. iiin-iilii Tlii'V .livi.l.' iln -.• primi 
tivi'. -('(..iiilarv. mi'l i.rii.nv Aral- ml'. Iln. .■ 
ilivisi.iii-. .all. ''.I Aiil.i M.itar. Iia. aii.l M.-tanlm 
. . . lii. .\i.;... ii.i. ;;.. r:r-: .iii.i r.:- : :ii;r ir::i 
inhtiljituiit- ul Arajia. Tliuy inuoibti-d prin 

A II A 111 A 

ilpall\ ..( i«..t'r.iil II lli. .II- III.' A.lii. « •|.r.i. 
fr.'.ii 11 1111 aii.l 111. Ani.iliU.i "I 111. rail-.. I \i , 
.1.... li.linl. ..f ^li. Ill n.lM.I mill 

-. , .'ii.l.ii\ mip.riin. I ili. I'liai lit.- .1 

n I II nil aii.l 111. ..I 111. l.i-ni 

.1«. .1 111. I iiiiiU 'I Ar.iiii Til. M.ii 'I' ' 

i \%. re inlH - -pnin ■ ll'.iii .l.'kl.lli, '»<'li "t I ■' 

il« i\ « in ,\nlii 111 tr I'liii"" I 1II..I hull' I! 

\l'.-i,ir. Ii.i "I I. in.»li rii nriL-iii "'t. i i" ' 

lii^h mill- 111. Cn-liit.-. 111.' Iii-i 

Il ilillalil- ..( Aral. II. II. r kli.nMl in Hi'' tiili. • 

II I. Ill In tin II iiiii' ..r A.lii. » fr.'iii 111. 11 I i 

,.iill..i v\li.i i-. 1II..I A.I. III. ■'..■raii.l-.illi.l II n 
Ml III. .1. . '.mil. I'Ui II nf 111. Ill I'V Aril' 1 
1. rini- iir.' I.ill lam iliil 1. ir. ml- In ' 

nil. 1-1 ..I all llii' mil- « itil « llii 11 li.. 
I. L'lll.l- 11I1..1111.I «!■ llil,» p. rrrivr llll' nil..' 

I. ran... ..| a |i..H.rliil 1 iiipiri. r..iiiiil.-.l In 
( ii-liiii- ill M r\ . .irl\ au. - iippiiri iitl\ llll I'.'i 
111. will. I. '..f .V'ral'i.i I', liv. ami 11. .1 ..iil,\ \ . ■• 
pr..p.r \V. .'il-.i liiiil trill. - .'I a wrallli.v ii.ii' 
. ..ii-trinti.r-.'l L'nal Iniililiii'--, « itli an aiU.m. . 
ri\ili-.iii..ii* 1" 'hat nl Cliahlaa | 1 
fis.iiii; a ri liL'i'iii 'iiiiilar In llir lliiln li.iiian 
nalimi, ill •.Imrl. wnli mIi.hii inatiriiil pr...i 
»:i- lllinl 1.1 l-'i' at .1. prinil) llllil .'I1-' • 
rill. Il "1- all.. Ill 1 i:.'lili'i II irtiliirl. . ' 

f..ri' iiiir 1 ra lliit Iln- .l.iklalill. -. iiti ml S..ii'l.. 
Anliiii A. i..r.liiii.' Ill nil iipiiiariim . - ' 

lina-l.n liki' all i-M'tit- ..f a -iinilar imI im • 
a.,' ..iil.v liy .' All.T III! 

\ i-i..ii 111.' I'lishiti' I'li'iiii 111 .if till' p.ipiili'i 
li.'iiiir '.till 111.' iiiii-l iiiiiiii r.iii-. ami p"~-' •-' 
irri at -up. ri.irilv in kimwliilv'r ami riuliii: 
..vir till' .l.ikiaiilln. Willi «iTi- >iill aim -1 m 1 
ii.iniiuli.' -tat.' -."Ill rtiiiMri'il Ilif tmira! 1 
! mill ri il -ilpri'lna. >, ami | •l.iliiiiii..ii 
II. n mipiri' "I- in u liii li Iln' p..". r -1 

I !., |.,li:|..l 111 111," >alil,lll- ..| till' ra.i- ..I I :■ 

i I.iiil. Ii\ litili' till' iii'W iialii.ii .if A'! ' 

! f..riiii'.l 111. i.ntri'iif its p.iwir »a- tin' 1 

i ..I Sill lia pr.ip.r. "Inr.'. an .inliiii.' t.. tin : 
1 , liapicr ..f lii 111 -i-. lliirn "1- 11.1 priiiiiiiM ' 
i t.iiiil.' Hill', alili.iii-'ii ill all ill.' iiiiiTli'" 
i pri.vim I's Iln y ". 11' air. i.|> -.tilr.l I' 

iliiriiiL' llir lir-l 1. iitiiri. - ..| tin' -. r.'iiil \ 
I inipiri' lliat N rim 11 was ii nipnririly -i|i 
I liv till' Ki:.\|iliai.-, wln.ialli'il il till- l.iii.l ..i 
! " . (■..nijui-ri .1 .iiiriiiLMlii' niiiii.iii.v I'f I'll"' ' 

III . mill llll r. L'. in.i nf tin' I'n'mi— H 
; Villi, 11 app.'ir- 1.' li.'iM' Ill-Ill lii-i ti.v til' I 
I li.m- ill till tr.iilln'iiis titili- at Iln- .l.— • 
i ,'iL'liti.iilli .Iviia-iy l(aiii-i'« II ri-ii.\-r : 

! al -1 illlllli'.'liali h lift, r In- a-n mli-il tin- '■ 

■mil it »a- ml lill Hn- liim nf Hn- 1 IT' 1 
kiii_'-iif llll l"i mil ili.l,'. iia-iy, lliat till-. -I 'I' : 
'.rii mil I'.l 111' K'j vpliaii' p.'Wir «a- liiial!'. : 

■rii.' . "ii,|ii. -I ..f till- I ami ..r I'lm 
llll i-ii i- n lal. .1 ill till . 1. IT ml 111- r- ll. 1 
I. iiipl.'.t I'.il .1 llaliari al 111. I11-, pillili- 
\| Du.-nii. Ii.ii 'Iln lia-riliil- 

li iiipl.-.! I'.-ir .1 liahiri iimlmilil. -! : 
^ . I 111.- . \i-I. licr ..f . .iiiiiii. r. .- II. l«. . 11 li 

■l, 111.11 al till' t'lm- ..I till K-\|itiaii •\\- 
. iiii.iir llata<ll 11 "i- ihi- nnilimr.. 
i 11. '.n- itiati ihi' frrtiliu i.f iM nwn -ml 
I natiinl pr.«liii-li.'li-. Iliat Illailn S'liilln rn ' 
! mil- nf till- riilii-t riiiiiitri.-i in Iln- ".all 
i Knr a liuiL' liini' i' wa- larricl nil li.v lai. . 
; li\ ini-an-.if laravati- rrns-ilii.' Araliia, ' 
iiavijrmi f llll Ki-il Sta. iniicli iimn .1 

I was not alU-iiipti'il lill !,.iiiu- i-i-uturii - lali 





rif iin rfli. III. 

mI tiiitii 


\rilM.l l'i»:i 

r.l> tlir I. .M.I ..I ( . 

^,'il mulls frniK Anilii.i liil" Ali\ ^^iiiiiiUniiM h ni.. 

Mil. I. ill l>. 

. I, u I..IHI- I.. 

|K ri.Hl 


hi ..f III. ( 

1 i;ll |..«ll» ir" 

.i-l..ll ..f .l..>. I>ll 

> III ir I.I III. til I 

I nihil* ^ ill >\ n.i A-. 

In I'liii hi. i.i. u I- 

fi;(.! 1^ III! |.ri.|.h«t K/i ki. i -ii.i ■ Ttii till r 
i!MMt< "f >Im liii .All. I l{iiiiiili Ih.v \v.r. Ili\ 
ini'liiiil- III. V ..I . ii|il' .1 III llu l.iir~. »illi rliii r 

,1 ,|i .|,ii.., ;llli| Willi .ill |.l. sl.ili.... nil. I 

.... I A l:ii ^it hiiiiilit-r .i| I'tm mi. i..ii in. r 

, I, , i' - iiiri.'i.'.l li> <lii.i lr;i.l.'. | il III. Ill 
„|.,. Ill V. 'III. II, llM.lntiii till, oiii.iii. an. I 

I' I'll'i III. i;lll fill loll. ' wvxv III-.. i'*t:il.. 

inl.i.l .ii -.i-v.-r.!} (iliir. .. ..n III*' I'rr^ (Jiilf. 

in !i^-i ..iliirs III 111.' i~l;iii.|» .'!' 'IvLk nil. I 

\M il l..rin.rly ...i ii|ili-.| l.v ih. ir nii...|..i- 

riil. . ..iiiinrn '■. .Mr.iii. K ll..nri«liiiu: 

■ ■■ : 111. Ilinrli rlltll iImiiI'.I \ . -.1 IIIH, ti...*. III. r W illl 

... I.. 'I |.li:in.|..niin(.ili In \ . im n. I.. I.;. v.- I ...iM i| 
...i.r III.- Mini lii:.ill\.. .ii...,...i^ ..I 
|;,nw* III Ni'itrly i\\.> ..niiiri... |i;i^^t.| 

., n Hh.M llir:iiii tin. I >• I. .III. .11 .I.^|.:ll. II. i| 
1. „l- .1..VMI III., .Sii . Til. M.,„.|-. ..I 

(1. M*.. iii..niir. 11-. H.ri' n..i ...nt. ni with i|..ini: 

II \-\\ li.iil iiiMT lMl..r. 1" . n .I'.ii.. iiii.l. r 
th 1 jv |.iiiiiiH.if tin' iiin.'l. . mil itwi;i*i> , iKiiii. i\ . 
|. . inn.' iMln til. |..irHi.f Vrlii. ti th.- tin li Iniii 

.1' lie. 1. .1 I . rv IlLln lliillii I'll. \ «. !•.■ 

M, II h lii.lili r. mill .in. rprl^.- wi^ r. unnli .1 
iiili -III I . .< rr.iliiiiii.' I.\ Ih.' r.'.'nlutiu ..I ili.- 

111. ri, ...iiv llli> f.t. 111. i.i.hIii. IH ..I tli.lhi i.t 

M-i h iiiil. Ih.' \. n |ili.. ..t th. ir «hi|.ni. lit 

III til. |ii.rli .if th.' l.iii.l ..I ti|.hir. .ir AMiir.i 
III.-, .li^tiiiit vcviTis win- rip.Mlril u ill. ^in 

..-- 1' li.iiL' ;i* r.JL'lir.l Thi-vi 1- 

L. ill.' I.I ii|.hir II' .r««:iril> I. .in In .1 :ii thr |...rt-. 
.! ^ I nil II ;.. tiikf in |.r..\ i-i.>ii.* jin.l ;iv\ lii 
I 1 . in'. I w iii.|-t. 'I'll lis I h.. f.iiiiw II ..r I In- t u .. 
ill;. I klli.v |.nrti. lll:llU ..f Ih.- |ii.n.r .1' 
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